"No artificer or wizard can replicate the powerful artifacts found in Xen'drik. These objects wait to be found, and with international tensions already heightened by the Last War, possession of deadly magic weapons could easily shift the balance of power."In fiction there's often a lot of reasons why opposing factions want to develop better technology (although they only need one). While some research and create it, others just find (or supplement their own creations with) Lost Technology. When both sides scramble to secure such caches you end up with this trope. Where the technology's being salvaged from can vary greatly depending on the setting and story;
— Eberron, "Eberron Campaign Setting, Chapter 7: Life in the World"
- Cold War (and sometimes present day) settings often have abandoned Nazi technology (and scientists). Present day settings might also treat Soviet Superscience and scientists in the same fashion. More fantastic settings might provide a similar dynamic with a Fictional Counterpart: a recently defeated faction who've left lots of technology and research lying around.
- Salvaging technology which was left behind by Precursors.
- A variation might involve salvaging your own technology after a disaster of some sort destroyed your ability to manufacture more of it; either by digging it from the wreckage or finding caches. Or acquiring it from neutral factions who'll only hand it over to the first bidder.
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Anime and Manga
- ∀ Gundam has all the major Earth-bound factions trying to dig up and salvage old mobile suits from previous Gundam Eras in a bid to defeat either each other or the invading Moonrace. Gym Ghingham's faction of the Moonrace then discovers some buried old mobile suits on the Moon, and do the same.
- Soul Eater Eibon's Demon Tools and the process of "keep away from Kishin" involving them. Specifically B.R.E.W and the Book of Eibon, and with good reason, as B.R.E.W is whatever you desire it to be, and the Book of Eibon is a collection of magical and dangerous creatures that can be summoned at any time by the user and actually IS Eibon himself at one point in the anime.
- Orguss 02 is driven by this trope, with two rival nations excavating the Humongous Mecha from the original series and repairing them with Industrial-age weaponry. The plot thickens when the country our protagonist isn't from excavates an extremely Humongous Mecha powerful enough to win the war singlehandedly.
- In The Big O, the residents of the domed megalopolis Paradigm City experienced mass amnesia forty years prior to the series and had to reverse-engineer all technology and civilization from their surroundings. Occasionally, someone will spontaneously remember some bit of technological knowledge or stumble upon some new piece of machinery such as the titular Giant Robot; these fragments of the past are collectively referred to as "memories" and can make the finder a rich entrepreneur, a dangerous terrorist, or a madman, depending on their inclination.
- The Ancient Belka wars of the Lyrical Nanoha franchise was fueled by this and the Lensman Arms Race, with nations also scrambling to find various Lost Logia to give themselves an advantage over their enemies. The Cradle of the Saint Kings, for example, was not made by the Ancient Belkans, and was instead an especially powerful Lost Logia they discovered whose origins could be traced back to Al-Hazard.
- Spriggan centers on the pursuit of OOPArts (Out-Of-Place Artifacts), ancient Lost Technology with the potential to disrupt the balance of power or even destroy the world if misused. Many governments and organizations are willing to resort to extreme measures to secure or destroy these artifacts.
- This is alluded to in Raiders of the Lost Ark, since both the US government and the Nazis might want to use it as a weapon (although it's more of a powerful spiritual artifact than lost technology).
Colonel Musgrove: What's that supposed to be coming out of there?Indiana Jones: Lightning. Fire. The power of God or something.Major Eaton: I'm beginning to understand Hitler's interest in this.Marcus Brody: The Bible speaks of the Ark laying waste to entire regions. An army which carries the Ark before it...is invincible.
- Andre Norton's The Time Traders revolved around a Cold War competition to recover lost alien tech.
- A recurrent theme in some of Philip K. Dick's short stories, with post war survivors whose lives are dependent on ancient or alien technology and in some cases the will and resourcefulness needed to acquire them.
- Rivalry over long-dead races' Lost Technology creates conflict in Larry Niven's "The Soft Weapon".
- The galactic war described in Vladimir Vasilyev's The Legacy of Giants and No One but Us involves an attempt to recover a cache of Precursor portals that can be used to transport entire armadas instantaneously (normal FTL travel is fast but far from instantaneous and can be detected far in advance of arrival - arriving ships leave an "imprint" in space). The duology is even called "The War for Mobility", as both sides realize that the more mobile side wins. In the end, the good side (the one with humans) ends up obtaining the portals and quickly figuring out how to use them to capture the "evil" side's Emperor, forcing their surrender.
- In The Stand, the good guys' main concern (once they've begun to rebuild, at least) is taking care of Randall Flagg before he starts utilizing all the old military weapons and equipment that are free for the taking now that The Plague has wiped out most of humanity. Flagg's minion Trashcan Man is particularly adept at finding these new toys and getting them in working order.
- In Mortal Engines, as it is set in the future a long time after After the End, when civilization has rebuilt, most of the weapons technology comes from archeologists find "Old Tech" knowlege or superweapons.
- In David Barnett's Gideon Smith novels, young fisherman Gideon Smith and his band of misfits from a steampunk England are racing against the villains to go to Egypt and recover Apep, an ancient clockwork dragon made from brass and the ultimate Magitek weapon.
- Deconstructed in the Schooled in Magic books by Christopher Nuttall. A mage attempts this and fails. As it turns out the ancient spells were clumsy and inefficient compared to the contemporary ones. In several of his Author's notes the author comments on the unlikelihood that ancient magical spells and/or objects would somehow be more powerful than those created by contemporary mages who have a longer history of experimentation to draw upon.
- Undefeated Bahamut Chronicle has the Ruins, seven enormous abandoned structures containing advanced technology such as Drag-Rides. All of the countries devote effort to exploring the Ruins, to the point of holding competitions to win the rights to explore them.
- Defied in The Fifth Season by the Sanze Empire: although the continent is dotted with incomprehensible relics of long-dead civilizations, the Empire's official policy is that if they didn't save those civilizations, they're of no use in the present day. This turns out to be a deliberate misdirection, since the most visible of those relics are part of a planet-spanning Amplifier Artifact of potentially apocalyptic power.
Live Action Television
- Babylon 5 - the humans are one of the least-advanced major galactic powers, dependent at first upon the Centauri for access to hyperspace jumpgates and later the Narn for weapons to use against the Minbari, who outclass by them. Even during the setting of the series proper humans are the only major power not to have developed artificial gravity (except for the Narn, who may just not care). In response, the humans formed InterPlanetary Expeditions (IPX), a corporation that funds archaeological expeditions to locate and exploit the technology of any dead alien races. Earth's major innovative weapons system, the Interceptor (designed to shoot down incoming energy weapons fire) is stated in expanded materials to be one such piece of reverse-engineered alien tech. The main plot kicks off when an IPX survey reaches Z'ha'dum and awakens the Shadows.
- Revolution: More or less. One who can make pre-blackout tech work will have a gigantic advantage.
- Stargate SG-1: There's a lot of this going on. Several Earth factions are desperate to get their hands on any alien technology in order to gain a political edge and also ensure survival against the Goa'uld threat. Meanwhile, all of the galactic factions (including Stargate Command) are scrambling to find any Ancient technology that might be left behind.
- Played with by the fact that the dominant galactic power at the time the series begins, the Goa'uld, are scavengers by nature; virtually all of their technology, such as optical computers and even the Stargate, has been either found, stolen from someone else, or reverse engineered. This puts them at a disadvantage against more innovative species. But it also means that the handful of times the Goa'uld actually develop something new on their own, it tends to be extremely dangerous.
- Star Trek: The Next Generation:
- "Contagion" has Picard and co travel to a planet in the Romulan Neutral Zone to find the homeworld of the legendary Iconians, a highly advanced (and defunct) civilization with the technology to teleport matter at interstellar ranges, allowing them to drop an army (or just a whole lot of explosives, biochemical agents, etc.) on any planet they chose any time they chose. Naturally the Romulans are none to pleased about this and set out to stop Star Fleet and gain any technology for themselves first.
- "The Chase" features several factions - Federation, Klingons, Cardassians and Romulans - who are all after a DNA code left by Precursors. Said code has been broken into several pieces, with various pieces in the possession of each of the aforementioned factions. The Klingons, in particular, think it's a weapon, while the Cardassians think it will yield an unsurpassed power source. It turns out to be a message to the Precursors' descendant species, talking about the commonality between them. Picard and the Romulan representative are receptive, the Klingons and Cardassians are not.
- In the Warhammer 40,000 universe, this is often the case when different factions in the Imperium of Man (especially the Adeptus Mechanicus) end up fighting each other, as they've become technologically backwards and most of their best technology is either relics they've dug up (or stolen from each other) or created by the few xenos they haven't killed on sight. The Mechanicus also bans innovation as heresy against the ancients, forcing them to obtain all tech from archaeological relics built during the Dark Age of Technology.
- Also occurs between species from time to time, particularly with ancient Necron/C'tan relics (often not known to be so by those trying to claim it). Particularly frequent with Orks, who will happily try to salvage and use anything regardless of who made it, what it's supposed to do or how dangerous it might be.
- In BattleTech, the First and Second Succession Wars clubbed the Inner Sphere as a whole back a century or so technologically. ComStar exists in part to maintain what technology they can, while hiding it from the Successor States who'd just throw it into more warfare to be destroyed. During the Third Succession War, the discovery of Lostech caches can cause small-scale wars over their possession. Then the Gray Death Legion mercenaries discovered the Memory Core with almost complete lostech schematics and spread it contents through the Inner Sphere despite the efforts of ComStar. Meanwhile, the Clans who left the Inner Sphere at the start of the Succession Wars not only maintained their level of technology, but actually improved on it, making a Clan 'Mech of a given weight worth, in general, one and half Inner Sphere 'Mechs of the same weight.
- Implied in Eberron. Several countries are gearing up for war and there are a great deal of powerful magical artifacts to uncover. Whether the trope is played straight is up the DM, of course.
- The Forge of War, a sourcebook dealing with the Last War, explicitly suggests this as a basis for adventurer involvement in said war.
- Magic: The Gathering: This is a major part of the storyline of the Antiquities expansion, as told in The Brothers' War.
- In the final days of the Alternity Star Drive setting, the Galactic Concord and allies faced off against the Exeat. Each side tried to dig up artifacts left by various Precursors to use against each other. In the Battle of Aegis, the Exeat displayed such a weapon. It hit hard.
- Exalted: All types of Exalts are in a race to unearth ancient Solar superweapons (and there are TONS of them), with the ones coming ahead being the Houses of the Dragon-Blooded, ready to use them in the inevitable civil war. The only ones who aren't in the race are Sidereals, whose interest is in keeping the artifacts buried.
- The world of 7th Sea is littered with Syrneth artifacts, remnants of previous non-human civilizations on Theah. Major nations and secret societies come into conflict over the most powerful ones.
- In Rocket Age Ancient Martian artefacts are constantly being fought over for their technological value.
- The entire basis of Numenera. The game is set in the Ninth World, a billion or so years into the future of Earth after eight previous civilisations have risen to technology levels ranging from near future to Sufficiently Advanced, before falling again for unknown reasons. The titular numenera are the leftovers of these previous worlds, ranging from obviously technological devices to swarms of nanobots to things that appear outright magical - the setting makes heavy use of Clarke's Third Law and can be treated as anything from hard sci-fi to high fantasy.
- Mutant UA, being set in a post-apocalyptic setting, has several stories and campaign books about technology from the "old times". Seeing as the main civilisation is somewhere in the age of steam, it's not surprising that something as simple as a bolt-action rifle, a battery-powered flashlight, or anything made out of plastic are seen as valuable artifacts worth mounting an expedition to find. And then there's the really valuable stuff, like laser rifles and power armor...
- In Traveller, this is the reason the Imperium (and presumably other governments) keep track of Ancient sites and artifacts. One piece of technology, the Black Globe Generator, is specifically stated to have been uncovered at an Ancient site.
- In Sid Meier’s Alpha Centauri mysterious monoliths, artifacts and other leftovers from the creators of Planet are scattered around the terrain and can boost scientific research of the colonist group who finds them first. Meanwhile, the alien factions have to slowly rediscover technology lost when their ships crashed on the surface after a firefight.
- Additionally, the Expansion Pack adds the Unity crash site, exploring which can get you a free unit or two.
- The Spiritual Successor Civilization: Beyond Earth features this as well. You can explore both alien and human ruins (yours is the first successful expedition to the planet), Siege Worm remains, crashed satellites, as well as supply pods sent ahead of the expedition. Rising Tide is set to built on this feature with the addition of relics, pieces of old Earth or alien technology which can provide nice boosts to your civ on their own, but often some in sets, and when collected together, grant your faction even more powerful bonuses as well as entirely new perks and buildings - provided you manage to find the other pieces before some other civ does.
- In Dark Colony the race begins when the humans and Taar realize there are riches to be had by excavating Martian ruins. The ultimate prize is an engine of war that can single handedly wipe the enemy off the face of the planet.
- In the Halo universe, the theocratic Covenant is constantly searching for technology and structures left behind by the Forerunners. However, their religious fervour means that the Covies consider all Forerunner tech to be holy relics, to the point where any attempt to even just better understand said techology, much less actually improve on it, runs the risk of being considered heresy. The result is that Covenant technology is inferior to the Forerunner originals, though still somewhat better than what humanity has. When humanity gets forced to fight a Hopeless War against the Covenant, the UNSC (secretly) throws more and more of its researchers at the few Forerunner archaeological sites it has. In fact, Halo: Combat Evolved starts with the Pillar of Autumn warp-jumping to one of the titular Forerunner installations in order to lure the Covenant away from Earth, with Cortana having secretly used Forerunner navigational coordinates in the hopes that they would point humanity to a potential game-changer against the Covenant.
- Humanity is more willing to properly reverse-engineer what they can find, but most of the war-era technology they can put into the field is based on stolen Covenant knock-offs, partly because the Covenant own more archaeological sites, but also because genuine Forerunner tech is even more difficult to figure out. Still, the UNSC is more willing to improve on Covenant technology if they can, with Spartan MJOLNIR armor being superior to standard-issue Elite power armor (though the Covenant were far better able to mass-produce their own stuff during the war).
- In Halo: First Strike, Cortana hijacks a Covenant carrier and discovers that its plasma cannon firmware is an absolute mess. She re-writes it in the middle of a space battle to convert its inefficient plasma torpedoes into even more powerful and precise ion beams, then proceeds to tear apart several Covenant capital ships. While doing so, a Covenant AI jumps out and calls her a heretic for altering "holy relics". Yes, they deliberately stunt their AIs with the same religious restrictions.
- By the time of Halo 4, humans has closed much of the gap with what's left of the Covenant in the Forerunner arms race, in part due to them acquiring both their own Forerunner shield world in Onyx/Trevelyan plus a number of Engineer/Huragok defectors, and also because the vast majority of the Covenant's species had their own scientific skills deliberately limited by their now all-but-extinct Prophets (though supplemental materials indicate that at least a few post-Covenant factions have managed to recover a lot of their previously suppressed technical skills). Subsequently, the struggle between the UNSC and the more hostile Covenant remnants over Forerunner sites has become a major source of conflict, as seen Halo 4's Spartan Ops, 'Halo: Spartan Assault'', and various other media.
- Case in point: the most advanced UNSC ship, the Infinity, was augmented with reverse-engineered Covenant and Forerunner tech (with the help of Huragok recovered from Trevelyan); and can outgun almost anything produced by post-Covenant shipyards.
- The post-war period also gives us a nice subversion; the UNSC and the more friendly post-Covenant factions, namely the Swords of Sanghelios, have actually been cooperating on a number of technological projects, including those pertaining to the Forerunners.
- The entire conflict in Metal Fatigue is based around this; three brothers working for their Combot building family business discover alien technology, setting off a war between it and two other companies (one of which each of the brothers ends up working for). Naturally the best way to get the best parts is to find said alien technology (as well as stealing parts you've blased off enemy combots).
- In Xenogears, most of the best Gears used in the war between Aveh and Kislev are dug up relics from previous wars, not newly manufactured. This naturally leads to conflicts over the best salvage sites.
- Part of the setting of Panzer Dragoon. Several factions are after technology left behind by the Ancients, generally for this purpose:
- The Empire is the largest and most notable of these factions. They were originally formed to try and help better society with the technology, but by the time the games take place, they have become corrupt.
- In Panzer Dragoon Saga, the Black Fleet (some of the Empire's most elite forces) defect, and claim a specific artifact (the woman Azel) to keep the Emperor's ambitions in check.
- Another notable faction is the secretive group known as the Seekers. Commonly thought to be nothing more than outlandish tomb raiders, their goal is to use Ancient technology to help humanity reclaim the world from the various monsters and hazards. They are at odds with the Empire at the point the games take place, despite some initial common ground.
- In EVE Online, this is how strategic cruisers were developed by the four empires. Thanks to the black boxing used in their construction, for a while it was necessary for player alliances to control wormhole systems and the archaeological sites within them in order to build strategic cruisers. Now it is possible to find relic sites in high-sec, but the wormhole sites are still much more productive.
- The Fallout games evoked this trope, as the Brotherhood of Steel is sometimes depicted as going to any length to secure pre-war weapon technology. Most such technology is found in Vaults, since everywhere else is a Scavenger World.
- The first game featured a nuke which you could use to skip the endgame boss fight.
- In the second game, the Enclave has access to enough fossil fuel to manage a small army, complete with helicopters due to having total control of the last oil rig in the entire world. This made them more powerful than the Brotherhood of Steel, and they could curb stomp any faction in the Wasteland. They also have a strain of the Forced Evolutionary Virus that would allow them to kill off anyone and everyone via massive hemorrhaging and inflammations before finally dying after an hour of torture.
- In Fallout 3 the Brotherhood one-upped the Enclave by not only stealing their resources after beating them in the Brotherhood-Enclave War, but also salvaging a Humongous Mecha built by the U.S. government during the Battle of Anchorage.
- Fallout: New Vegas was particularly blatant about this, featuring a power plant called "HELIOS One" which fanatical former Brotherhood Elder Elijah (hoping to dig up an ancient weapon system) defended to the bitter end, refusing to abandon the site despite his forces being massively outnumbered by the NCR even with their technological superiority. The worst part is he was absolutely right. However, he wasn't completely right as HELIOS One was damaged after the Great War, various programs left behind in the terminals further reduce the energy production of the plant, and a small boy uses the trigger as a toy ray gun.
- Armageddon Empires, the post-apocalyptic strategy/card game. While all the factions are capable of researching new technology, most games also feature at least a few special tiles where you can dig up unique (and powerful) units, weapon systems, enhancements, and other goodies to unleash against your enemies.
- The RTS flash game Relic Of War (previously "Reich of Darkness", but renamed and re-released due to some intolerants and paranoids censors) goes basically around this, with the nazis discovering an ancient artifact and using it for taking an advantage in an alternative timeline WWII developing new technologies (the allies do the same later on)
- The Galactic Armory mod for Star Ruler adds a slew of ancient superweapons, megastructures, and perfectly terraformed planets from the Remnant's long-gone empire. Warp gates, shield sapping generators, starkilling cannons, et cetera. Players will need to scramble in order to claim them or capture them from other players. Of course, the players will also need to battle their way past the AI ships that still guard said superweapons, and it's no easy task when the Remnants have antimatter engines and phased railguns when the players are still putting along on solid-fuel rockets. Remnant superweapons are not critical to winning a game, but can provide a decisive advantage, especially if the other players begin to edge ahead of you in research.
- In Star Ruler 2, Remnant artifacts dot the galaxy and come in many flavors. They range in use from totally peaceful like the stellar-scale telescope, to unstoppable juggernauts of war like the Revenant - the flagship of the Remnant fleet - which is so powerful that it must be assembled by collecting its scattered parts. Artifacts require Energy to power up, and can be activated by anyone controlling the artifact's solar system. A diplomatic action can be initiated to claim artifacts and move them to your own systems. Unknown, neutral Seed starships fly through the galaxy, slowly replenishing the supply of artifacts.
- A good number of planets in Ascendancy feature ruin tiles that can be excavated, resulting in a random tech from the research tree. This can be anything from a tech you would've discovered the next turn from normal research to endgame tech that could give you a massive advantage. It normally takes 50 turns (25 if colony base is built on a red square) to build a dig site on a newly-colonized world.
- A non-military version in the Brave New World Expansion Pack to V. After the discovery of Archaeology, you can start training Archaeologist units who can excavate antiquity sites for cultural artifacts that boost your Tourism rating. There are also hidden antiquity sites that are only visible to players who have maxed out the Exploration policy tree. These aren't any better than the regular sites, but, being the only one who can see and excavate them can give a huge advantage to somone going for a cultural victory. Also, other civs get annoyed when you start excavating within their borders, especially since excavating a site on an improved tile destroys the improvement.
- Then there's the so-called Goody Huts. In most versions of Civilization, these are small tribal villages that you can visit and which might attack you or give a small gift such as money, weapons, technology, or knowledge of local terrain. Finding them can be a major contributor to an early-game advantage, especially if you get a few free techs or level up your scouts. In V, there are only ruins, which become the aforementioned antiquity sites. The first civ to explore one of these always gets a bonus of some kind.
- In Aurora (4X), xenological excavations are a steady and relatively safe source of applied technology... Just remember to bring a competent military unit with you.
- Part of the overarching plot of Assassin's Creed is the race to find artifacts left behind by the First Civilization, such as the Apples of Eden. By the present-day, the Templars are winning with the Assassins playing catch-up.
- World of Warcraft has this pop up from time to time, usually centered on Titan technology. The most prominent example was Garrosh Hellscream excavating in Pandaria to find the heart of an Old God and the ensuing battle to stop him before he could completely master its power.
- This turned up again in Warlords of Draenor, where the ogre Gorian Empire was scouring Draenor for titan artifacts and relics of past civilizations to give them more of an advantage, while the Alliance and Horde competed for their own artifact on an old ogre island. As it turns out, the ogre empire was already so diminished that none of it mattered, and the most powerful artifact they found was hijacked by one of their own who they led to betraying them. Meanwhile, the Alliance and Horde competition ended up largely irrelevant as its existence to begin with was mostly an Excuse Plot for a PvP zone.
- In the Borderlands setting, this is part of the reason why so many people are on Pandora. Everyone is racing for control over the legendary Vaults, which hold various Eridian secrets, and in all of the games, the players are "Vault Hunters" who are trying to seize the priceless alien ruins. The Atlas corporation, in particular, owes much of its superiority to capturing and repurposing Eridian technology. Later on, the Hyperion corporation rises to prominence by exploiting the opening of a Vault to harvest the extremely valuable element Eridium, which began growing on Pandora after the events of the first game. The second game even has an outright arms race, as Handsome Jack is racing to unlock one particular Vault which houses an ancient Eridian superweapon known as The Warrior.
- This is all over the place in Serious Sam. It's made clear in the intro videos alone that Earth is only holding out against Mental thanks to caches of Sirian technology scattered across the world. No fewer than four ancient cultures (Pre-Helenistic Egypt, proto-Babylon, pre-Columbian Aztec, and (oddly) Harold of Saxony-era England) had access to working Sirian ships, teleporters, and radios, though only the Egyptians and English managed to maintain them. The Egyptians even had a working time machine, which still functioned in the year 2260. Sirian tech wound up being the only way the UN could successfully send explorer ships out amongst other star systems, too, though that may have been what attracted Mental's attention in the first place.
- Lord Moonbark of Girl Genius is a British agent whose work for years has been recovering the notes and research of dead Sparks for Her Undying Majesty while other powers in Europa try to keep such things hidden or steal them for themselves.
- In Real Life, during the Cold War both the West and the Soviet Union were quite keen to recruit former Nazi scientists (some of the same minds responsible for putting man on the moon also developed the V1 and V2 weapons which bombed London in WWII).
- Among much other nonsense, the Ahnenerbe, the closest Real Life Nazi institution to the Ghostapo and the inspiration of the Indiana Jones movies, sometimes launched expeditions to search for mythical items that the Nazis considered Lost Technology from a time when advanced Nordic peoples were ruling the world. One sought item was Thor's Hammer, that the Nazis believed to be a real weapon capable of releasing electrical charges. Another was Atlantis.
- In the wake of the Cold War former Soviet technology and scientists were highly sought after by both the United States (in order to keep them out of the hands of other countries) and emerging world powers such as China and India (in order to bolster their own positions). The US and China were the #1 and #2 purchasers of ex-Soviet weapons systems in the world.
- Most past societies considered relics to be extremely potent sources of power, either as a demonstration of a god's favor, or as literal spiritual weapons. As such, the discovery of relic caches could easily lead to local conflicts, as rival tribes feared the power such relics might bring to their enemies. Paradoxically though, this is actually more common the further back one goes through history, since tribal territories would occasionally become rich enough to produce or obtain works of a quality normally impossible for a given territory, only to later have that society collapse, encouraging neighboring tribes to fight for the now irreplaceable works.
- Sunken ships have been used on occasion as sources of non-radioactive steel. During the 1960s when global radiation was at an all-time high, thanks to nuclear testing, it was difficult at the time to make non-radioactive steel in a blast furnace (which takes in a lot of air). A scuttled German fleet at Scapa Flow, off the Shetland Islands, was one source of inert steel salvaged at the time. Nowadays the background radiation level is lower and there's now numerous types of air filters that didn't exist in the 1960s, so this usually isn't an issue.