A Family Business is any organization run by people who happen to be related. It could be anything, in any time period, across any setting. There is probably an expectation that the children (particularly the eldest son) will carry on the legacy.Truth in Television: many small "Ma and Pop" stores are family owned and operated (kind of goes with the name). But they seem to be dwindling as a result of competition from larger chains.
Sometimes used in Sit Coms to allow for a genre crossover between Dom Com and Work Com.
Not to be confused with The Family's "Business".
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Anime & Manga
In Hunter × Hunter, the Zoldyck family is literally a family of assassins. From the great grandfather to the youngest of the bunch.
Present in the Puella Magi Madoka Magica fic To the Stars in form of the Matriarchies. Due to events that raised the Magical Girl's life expectancy from less than a decade to centuries, it was noted that girls who want to contract have higher chances to do so if they are related to Magical Girls (in this fic being a Magical Girl does not prevent pregnancies). It didn't take long before it became a family business. The main protagonist is in an unenviable position of being related to two mutually antagonistic Matriarchies.
The Godfather, for the ultimate "family business". Mafia business aside, they also ran an import business for olive oil.
The noodle shop run by Po's adoptive family in Kung Fu Panda. Played for laughs because Po is very obviously adopted.
In Terry Gilliam's The Adventures of Baron Munchausen, Sally asks where's her brother since his father's theatrical troupe was "Salt & Son" He told him there was no son but it was the tradition to put that.
Used a few times in Atlantis: The Lost Empire. His grandfather's influence led to Milo having a love for Archeology, and Audrey joined her father as a mechanic. It's played for laughs with Vinnie, an Explosives Nut, whose florist parents wanted him to join the family business. He relates that the first time he tried to become a florist he got bored, played around with some explosives, and blew up the Chinese laundromat next door. He does say that he (now that he's ridiculously wealthy) is thinking about opening up the shop again.
In Cassandra's Dream, dramatic events probably wouldn't have unfolded if one of the two brothers had been satisfied to keep on running his father's restaurant... and hadn't agreed to help the uncle with the trouble in his business. They're not actually The Mafia, but the subtext exists.
In Hop, the Easter Bunny is apparently a family business. The central conflict of the film is that the latest heir would rather be a drummer than take up the title.
Over the Wine-Dark Sea : Sostratos and Menedemos are cousins working for a shipping business owned by their respective parents
Thomas Mann's novel Buddenbrooks, describing the slow and painful decline of a merchant dynasty in Lübeck, Germany.
In the Aunt Dimity series, the international law firm of Willis and Willis is run in Boston by William Willis Sr. and his son Bill. They contact Lori Shepherd to inform her of Dimity's bequest. Eventually, Lori marries Bill, and he runs the English branch of the firm from an office in Finch.
Live Action TV
Ojai Foods from Brothers and Sisters was founded by William Walker and later run by his son Tommy and daughter Sarah. His brother-in-law, Saul, managed the accounting.
The funeral home in Six Feet Under. The Fishers have been funeral directors for three generations, but both sons of the youngest generation are at best ambivalent about it. Claire is on the other hand dissatisfied that she inherited only a sum of money, relatively small compared to a share in the firm. Mrs Fisher, their mother, is nvolvd in the work as well, though she stops working for the company and is merely helping from time to time.
On Barney Miller a 50ish painting contracter came from "[Lastname] and Son." Barney asked him what time his son was going to get there, he responded "I'm the son." It had been his father's business but he retired; the son's son wasn't interested in a career in painting, he wanted to be a musician. The son just didn't have the heart to take his old man's name off the company title.
Are You Being Served? was set in Grace Brothers' department store. The ancient Young Mister Grace put in several appearances; his brother Old Mister Grace didn't get about much.
The business in the Showtime documentary series with the same name as this trope is of course this. Being it's on Showtime, you can probably guess what the Family Business is.
Hint: The patriarch is better known as Seymour Butts.
Pawn Stars: The Gold & Silver Pawn Shop is run by Rick and his father, "Old Man" and employs his son, "Big Hoss".
The Protector episode "Blood" centered on a family run restaurant operated by a mother, her oldest son and her daughter. The younger son wants to open up a second restaurant under the same name to expand the Family Business but financial and personal issues threaten to derail everything.
Duck Dynasty: Phil Robertson founded "Duck Commander", a duck-call manufacturing company. His son Willie is CEO, and the majority of its employees are also Robertson family members.
Traveller: Several really. But an interesting example is the Oberlindes family which brought itself from being a group of Free Traders to near Mega Corp. status. They still have something of a style to the way they do business.
In The Autobiography of Jane Eyre (modernized vlog series based on Jane Eyre), Thornfield Exports has been owned by the Rochester family for decades and they provide high-quality aluminium products for homes. The male lead Mr Rochester "inherited" the position of its CEO, and he's probably not too keen. He's thirty-ish and his older relatives are not at sight, and he has only an eight-year-old daughter. His live-in personal assistant Grace Poole organizes things and stuff in the company as well as in Mr Rochester's household.
The WWE. Vince McMahon is the chairman, his wife Linda is the CEO, their son Shane is president of new media and global media (i.e. their internet presence and international business), and their daughter Stephanie is the head writer. And it's fully expected that Stephanie will inherit the reins once Vince and Linda retire.
Just to clarify: That's in real life. Their kayfabe roles are a little different.
Don't forget son-in-law Paul Levesque, performer. You may know him as Triple H.
Shane has since resigned and left the family business.
And Vince picked up the company that would become the WWE from his father, Vince McMahon Senior.
The English school Dulwich College used to have headmasters with the family name "Alleyn" (after its founder Edward Alleyn). The tradition hasn't been continued for a long time though.
M&M/Mars, a candy company famous for M&M's, Mars bars, Skittles and Snickers, among other products, is still private, still family-owned, and based in the one place you'd probably least expect: McLean, VA, just outside Washington, DC.
Candy companies used to be this almost exclusively; now there are only a tiny handful left. Tootsie Roll is another family-owned one.
Another real-life example: S.C. Johnson & Son, the company that makes Windex, Glade and Ziploc.
Often confused for the above company, Johnson & Johnson is no longer a family business.
And another: Playboy magazine. Hugh Hefner founded it; his daughter currently runs it.
The Adamses, the Roosevelts, the Kennedys, and the Bushes.
Most Kingdoms and Empires in history, often forming a Deadly Decadent Court.
In-N-Out: best damn burgers in the world. Located here in California and owned by family members for generations. Founder set precedent for Bible verses to be printed on the bottom of bags, cups, and cartons. Currently owned by non-family: to be inherited back in years to come.
Members of the Ford family still own the majority of the Ford Motor Company.
Culver's: A fast growing Wisconsin-based fast casual food chain operating all over the interior US is owned and run by the Culver family.
Universal Pictures was this when it was established in 1912 by Carl Laemmle. He named his namesake son president of the studio as a 21st birthday present and he helped the studio transition to sound and color. The Laemmles sold the studio in 1936.
The Keslensky webcomics are this with a twist — Rachel began Last Res0rt a few years before her father J.P. started Bug Pudding, rather than the other way around.
As explained in Live-Action TV above, the Robertsons and "Duck Commander" from Duck Dynasty.
Though he's now remembered for something different, a great deal of Marcus Brutus's reputation among the Senate came from the fact that his ancestor, Lucius, had founded The Roman Republic, and that his family had been in politics for hundreds of years.