Adventure Time: Finn (melancholic, phlegmatic earlier on), Jake (sanguine), Princess Bubblegum & The Lich (phlegmatic), Marceline & Ice King (choleric/melancholic) and BMO (leukine).
In Adventures of the Galaxy Rangers, The Series 5 Rangers are also a quaternity. The series actually has very few episodes where all four are heavily involved, mostly breaking the team up into groups of two or three.
Tenzin's Children (with the exception of Rohan): Jinora (melancholic), Ikki (sanguine), Meelo (choleric).
Suyin's Children: Baatar Jr (choleric), Huan (melancholic), Opal (phlegmatic), Wei and Wing (sanguine/leukine).
The Backyardigans: Pretty hard to qualify. Technically, all of them are sanguine, but Pablo is probably the most. As for the others: Tasha (choleric), Uniqua (melancholic, though not depressive, since we're talking about a little kids' show), and Tyrone (phlegmatic). Austin starts out as phlegmatic, then moving on to melancholic; these days, he's starting to become more leukine.
The New Batman Adventures: Though they rarely all worked together in the same episode, there was still a four-person "bat family." Robin (Tim Drake) is sanguine; Nightwing (Dick Grayson) is choleric; Batman is melancholic (as if it had to be said; he basically defines the temperament); and Batgirl is phlegmatic. Catwoman was the back-up choleric; in one episode, she and Nightwing even team up because of their similar personalities.
And from Batman Beyond, we've got the Royal Flush Gang who also form a Five-Man Band with the robotic Ace (luekine), Authoritarian King (melancholic), conflicted Ten (choleric), Queen — a proper lady who tries to keep the family united (phlegmatic), and fun-loving Jack (sanguine).
Beast Wars: The four main Maximals: Optimus Primal (choleric), Rattrap (melancholic), Rhinox (phlegmatic), and Cheetor (sanguine).
Codename: Kids Next Door: Numbuh One - Nigel Uno (melancholic), Numbuh Two - Hoagie P. Gilligan Jr. (phlegmatic), Numbuh Three - Kuki Sanban (sanguine), Numbuh Four - Wallabee Beetles (choleric), and Numbuh Five - Abigail Lincoln (leukine).
Dan Vs.: Dan (choleric), Elyse Jr. (melancholic), Chris (phlegmatic), Mr. Mumbles (sanguine)
Danny Phantom's four-member "Team Phantom" can exhibit these: Danny is Choleric for good leadership skills, but is highly emotional; Jazz (though not depressive) is Leukine/Melancholic for her kind-but-perfectionist persona; Sam is phlegmatic because she's a responsible Stoic Goth; and Tucker is Sanguine for he's fun loving.
Grojband: Corey (sanguine), Laney (phlegmatic), Kin (melancholic), and Kon (choleric).
Also, Trina (choleric), Mina (melancholic), Kate and Allie (sanguines), and Nick (phlegmatic).
A good chunk of the classic Hanna-Barbera cartoon characters that are connected to the Yogi Bear universe fit this mold if you put them together (think of all of the main characters in Yogi's Treasure Hunt minus Ranger Smith, Snooper and Blabbermouse, Auggie Doggie and Doggie Daddy with Baba Looey included). Yogi (sanguine), Quick Draw McGraw (choleric, albeit a more dim-witted and incompetent example), Snagglepuss (melancholic, although mostly in terms of mannerisms since he's much more upbeat and cheerful than most examples), Huckleberry Hound (phlegmatic), Boo Boo and Baba Looey (leukine), and Top Cat (sanguine/choleric).
The four main kids on Hey Arnold!: Arnold (melancholic), Helga (choleric), Gerald (sanguine), and Phoebe (phlegmatic).
Invader Zim: Zim (choleric), Dib (melancholic), Gaz (phlegmatic), and Gir (sanguine).
The Dark Hand Enforcers (after Tohru left): Hak Foo (choleric), Chow (melancholic), Ratso (phlegmatic), and Finn (sanguine).
The heroes once Tohru joined them: Uncle (choleric), Jackie (melancholic), Tohru (phlegmatic), and Jade (sanguine).
The Jetsons: George (sanguine), Jane (melancholic), Elroy (phlegmatic), and Judy (choleric) and Rosie (leukine).
The seven founding members of the Justice League seem to fit this pretty well for the most part: Superman (melancholic), Wonder Woman and Hawkgirl (choleric), Batman and Green Lantern (phlegmatic), Flash (sanguine), and Martian Manhunter (leukine).
Kaijudo: Rise of the Duel Masters has three groups:
The main trio: Ray (choleric/sanguine), Gabe (melancholic), and Allie (sanguine).
The Duel Masters: Nigel (choleric), Nadia (melancholic), Chavez (phlegmatic), Kimora (sanguine), and Jaha (leukine).
The Choten's side: Alakshmi (choleric), Suguru/ Ken Okamoto (melancholic), The Choten (phlegmatic), Fingers (sanguine), and Heller (leukine).
The four members of "Team Possible" in Kim Possible: Kim (melancholic), Ron (choleric), Rufus (sanguine), and Wade (phlegmatic).
King of the Hill: Hank Hill (melancholic), Dale Gribble (choleric), Boomhauer (phlegmatic), and Bill Dauterive (sanguine).
The Hill family also qualifies: Hank (melancholic), Peggy (choleric), Bobby (phlegmatic), and Luanne (sanguine).
The Land Before Time series: Littlefoot (melancholic), Cera (choleric), Petrie (sanguine), Ducky (phlegmatic), and Spike (leukine).
Littlest Pet Shop: Zoe and Pepper (choleric), Russell and Sunil (melancholic), Penny and Blythe (phlegmatic), Minka and Vinnie (sanguine).
The Looney Tunes Show: Bugs Bunny (melancholic/phlegmatic), Daffy Duck (choleric), Lola Bunny (sanguine/choleric), Porky Pig (phlegmatic/leukine) and Tina Russo Duck (leukine/phlegmatic).
The boys: Ralphie (sanguine), Carlos (choleric), Tim (melancholic), and Arnold (phlegmatic).
The girls: Wanda (sanguine), Keesha (choleric), Dorothy Ann (melancholic), and Phoebe (phlegmatic).
Men In Black: Jay (sanguine), Kay (melancholic), Elle (phlegmatic), and Zed (choleric).
Metalocalypse: Dethklok: Nathan (melancholic), Pickles (choleric), Skwisgaar (phlegmatic), Murderface (sanguine) and Toki (leukine).
Mr. Bogus: In one of the rare cases that Bogus and his cousin Brattus get paired up with their enemies, Ratty and Mole, it goes like this: Bogus (melancholic), Brattus (sanguine) Ratty (choleric), and Mole (phlegmatic).
The Perils of Penelope Pitstop: Penelope is melancholic; Clyde is choleric; Dum-Dum and Pockets are phlegmatic; and the Hooded Claw (Sylvester Sneekly) is sanguine. Of the other characters: Softy (melancholic), Yak-Yak (sanguine), Snoozy (phlegmatic), and Zippy (leukine).
Rocket Power: Otto (melancholic), Reggie (phlegmatic), Twister (choleric), and Sam/Squid (sanguine).
Rocko's Modern Life: Heffer (choleric), Filburt (phlegmatic/melancholic), Rocko (melancholic/phlegmatic), and Spunky (sanguine).
Rugrats: Tommy (melancholic), Chuckie (sanguine), Phil (choleric), Lil (phelgmatic), and Angelica (leukine).
The human characters of Scooby-Doo! Mystery Incorporated appropriately match their own color schemes. Daphne (Red Hair) is choleric/sanguine, the most enthusiastic, emotional and outspoken of the group. Velma (Yellow Sweater) is phlegmatic/melancholic, exhibiting brains when solving the mystery, however she gets rather pushy, and tends to brood when things don't go her way. Fred (Blue Trousers) is melancholic/phlegmatic as he is the leader of the team, obsessive (when it comes to traps) and emotionally high strung (when Daphne is in danger). Shaggy (Green Shirt) is sanguine/phlegmatic, the Non-Action Guy who runs from anything spooky, is only there to react to the situations and makes jokes. Scooby (Brown Fur) fits into leukine, as he is rather non-confrontational and the heart of the team.
The main villains, as well: Mayor Jones (Choleric), Professor Pericles (Phlegmatic), Mr. E (Melancholic), and Brad & Judy (sanguine).
The Simpsons have varied personalities over the years, but here is the most traditional lineup:
Homer (choleric/sanguine), Marge (phlegmatic/melancholic), Bart (sanguine), Lisa (melancholic), and Maggie (leukine).
Bart's "gang"/Party Posse: Bart is melancholic (although a rather outgoing one), Milhouse is phlegmatic, Nelson is choleric, and Martin/Ralph is sanguine.
The regulars at Moe's Tavern: Homer (choleric), Barney (sanguine), Carl (melancholic), Lenny (phlegmatic), and Moe (leukine).
The Bullies: Nelson (melancholic), Jimbo (choleric), Dolph (phlegmatic), and Kearney (sanguine).
To quote the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles theme song: Leonardo leads (melancholic); Donatello does machines (phlegmatic); Raphael is cool, but rude (choleric); Michaelangelo is a party dude (sanguine).
Or, for Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 2003 (The same combination as above), "Leonardo's always in control; The wiseguy is Michelangelo; Donatello, he's the brains of the bunch; Count on Raphael to throw the first punch!"
The Ninja Turtles must really love combining this trope with their Theme Tune Roll Call, because they did it again for the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (2012) theme song! (The same combination as the first one) "Leonardo is the leader in blue! He does anything it takes to get his ninjas through. Donatello is the fellow has a way with machines. Raphael's got the most attitude on the team! Michelangelo! He's one of a kind and you know just where to find him when it's party time! Master Splinter taught them every single skill they need to be one lean, mean, green, incredible team!"
Teen Titans and Teen Titans Go!: Robin (melancholic), Beast Boy (sanguine), Cyborg (choleric), Raven (phlegmatic), and Starfire (leukine).
And as in the comics, the Doom Patrol with Mento replacing Niles Caulder as the choleric leader.
The tender engines in Thomas the Tank Engine: Gordon (choleric), Henry (melancholic), Edward (phlegmatic), and James (sanguine).
Transformers has the Dinobots. Grimlock would be choleric when compared to almost any other Autobot, but amongst his own team he's relegated to leukine, with violent, sociopathic Slag as the resident choleric. The other three are fairly cut-and-dried, with pessimist Snarl as the melancholic, quiet and somewhat dim Sludge as the phlegmatic, and affable Swoop as the sanguine.
The five main Autobots of Transformers Animated: Optimus Prime (choleric), Ratchet (melancholic), Prowl (phlegmatic), Bumblebee (sanguine), and Bulkhead (leukine).