Before there was Dumbledore... before there was Elminster... before there was Gandalf... there was Merlin. The original bearded old wizard (unless you're counting Odin), this Public-Domain Character was added to the Arthurian mythos around 1100 AD. Merlin was the trusted advisor and surrogate parental figure to King Arthur.In one legend, Merlin was intended to be an Antichrist figure, begotten on a virgin by the Devil. His mother, however, had the boy baptized at birth, freeing him from the Devil's influence. His demonic heritage gave him the ability to see into the past and future, a gift that is often carried over to myths that do not include this origin story. In other myths, his father is an angel, a fae, or even no one.In most legends, Merlin's magic helped Uther Pendragon seduce and bed another man's wife (Igraine), leading to the conception of Arthur Pendragon, whom he prophesized would be a great king. Merlin was given care of the boy, whom he raised as his son and prepared for kingship. In some myths, Merlin created the magical sword Excalibur and the Round Table of Knights.Merlin's final fate varies from telling to telling. In some recountings, he loses his wits when Arthur is slain. In others, he is tricked and imprisoned by the witch Niviane (or Nimue), whom he deeply loved and taught magic.For the 2008 British TV series, see Merlin. For the 1998 miniseries, see Merlin.
- Anti Anti Christ: Merlin's mother was raped/seduced by either the Devil or some random demon, but she had Merlin baptized as soon as he was born. This relieved him of his Antichrist status but still let him keep his nifty magical powers. Since Medieval Christianity generally thought any sort of power must come from either God or Satan, this story explained how Merlin performed his magical acts without being a saint.
- The Antichrist: In some stories, Merlin was the Antichrist but instead of destroying the world, became good and decided to help Arthur become the King of Britain.
- The Archmage: Depending on the version of the tale.
- Badass Beard: He's famous for his Wizard Beard.
- Badass Long Robe: Standard apparel for wizards.
- Barefoot Sage: He's depicted barefoot in many illustrations, including those by Gustave Dore.
- Because Destiny Says So: In this case, "destiny" goes by "Merlin."
- Born of Magic: Some pre-Christian versions of Merlin's birth never explain how he came to be, his mother was suddenly pregnant despite having turned down every advance made to her. When the angry menfolk demanded to know who the father was, Merlin shut them up by demonstrating his magic power. Christian versions make him the son of a demon and a virgin... perhaps because to Christians, having a godless wizard born to a virgin birth (and having multiple stories about supernatural figures born to virgins circulating in general) had Unfortunate Implications.
- Bowdlerise: As Christianity gained more influence, Merlin became less of a trickster and mage and more of a wise old mentor. His demonic parentage, however, became a part of the story because of Christian influence. The point was to explain why a heroic character was able to use godless magic. His moral ambiguity was likewise explained as the goodness of his mother and evil of his father struggling in him.
- Canon Immigrant: Merlin did not appear in the earliest stratum of Arthurian myths, although he's been around longer than Lancelot and the Holy Grail. Merlin's legend comes from Welsh roots.
- The Chessmaster: Oh so much. He's behind so much of what happens in Arthurian legend.
- The Chooser of The One: Merlin is basically behind the creation of King Arthur and why Arthur becomes king. Not to mention he's basically behind many of the factors and events in Arthurian legend, such as the creation of the Knights at the Round Table, Excalibur, the Sword in the Stone, etc.
- Composite Character: In his original appearance in Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain, Merlin is based on the Waif Prophet Ambrosius from the earlier History of the Britons attributed to Nennius. But Geoffrey renamed him "Merlin" based on the figure of Myrddin from Welsh tales, and later wrote a Life of Merlin equating the two further. (Ambrosius in turn appears to be based on a real person, Ambrosius Aurelianus, who Geoffrey also used under the name "Aurelius Ambrosius" as Uther's brother and Arthur's uncle.)
- Cool Old Guy: In some incarnations.
- Court Mage: To King Arthur.
- Depending on the Writer: There are so many different depictions of Merlin that it's hard to reconcile them as the same person.
- Distaff Counterpart: According to the earliest Welsh legends 'Myrddin' had a twin sister Ganeida or Ganicenda.
- Divine Parentage: According to some myths, Merlin is said to be the son of a deity or the son of The Devil.
- Eccentric Mentor: In some depictions.
- Functional Magic: Well, yeah. He's a wizard.
- Half-Human Hybrid: Merlin is traditionally depicted as a cambion — the son of a woman (sometimes a witch, occasionally a nun) and an incubus. Or, sometimes, a man and a succubus. A Christianization of the legend given as an explanation for his magical and prophetic abilities. The woman incidentally is nearly always a raped nun who dunks her newborn into holy water to wash evil away from him as soon as he is born, but he still grows up a horny bastard with a taste for young virgins — the modern versions tend to forget that aspect of his character (with an exception or two). Modern interpretations of the legends vary significantly on Merlin's parentage.
- Hermit Guru: Before his Bowdleriseation.
- Human Mom Non Human Dad: Merlin was born to a mortal human woman and a non-human father. The species of Merlin's father varies from legend to legend.
- I Have Many Names: Too many to count.
- Last of His Kind: Merlin is revealed as the last of the shape-changers in his childhood, before Arthur's birth.
- Magic Staff: Merlin's Weapon of Choice in many depictions, though the medieval stories don't really mention it.
- The Man Behind the Man: In regards to Arthur. According to legend, many thought that Arthur was Merlin's puppet and that Merlin was the one who was actually in control of Arthur and his reign as king. Which might be true, considering how much of a strong influence Merlin is in Arthurian legend and all the events that happened.
- May–December Romance: With Niviane.
- The Mentor: To King Arthur.
- Merlin and Nimue: The Trope Maker, Codifier, and Namer
- Merlin Sickness: Trope Namer, Codifier, and Maker thanks to T.H. White, who introduced it in The Once and Future King.
- Parental Substitute: To Arthur, especially in modern retellings, codified by The Sword in the Stone. Most medieval versions have him showing himself to Arthur around the time he becomes king, drawing the sword from the stone.
- Power Creep, Power Seep: Though centuries of stories, Merlin has grown in popular perception, especially in Super Hero story worlds like the The DCU and the Marvel Universe, from a mere mage to becoming the Sorceror Supreme of his time with almost godlike power.
- Public Domain Artifact: He is credited as the creator of Excalibur in later myths.
- Public-Domain Character: A very old one at that. He has been done and redone dozens of times in various media, from legendary badass, to newbie mage, to a female version of himself.
- Rasputinian Death: In his earliest incarnation, it was said this was the only way to kill him.
- Sealed Good in a Can: When betrayed by Niviane. Can be King in the Mountain when the myth says she sealed him in a cave.
- Semi-Divine: Merlin is often portrayed as the child of a demon and mortal.
- ShapeShifting: One of his many magical powers.
- The Smart Guy: Merlin is a wizard after all.
- Stealth Hi/Bye: One of his many magical powers. He seems to really enjoy appearing out of nowhere, and disappearing in front of everyone.
- Trickster Mentor: He is frequently depicted teaching Arthur and others, while having a trickster's personality.
- Waif Prophet: His first appearance in the medieval stories is as one.
- Wizard Beard: As part of his Wizard Classic attributes, whenever he's old. If he is depicted in his youth, he will usually be clean-shaven.
- Wizard Classic: The Trope Maker and one of the most iconic examples.
Merlin has appeared as a character in the following works:
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Anime & Manga
- The Seven Deadly Sins has a Gender Flipped version of Merlin, whose name stays the name. One of the titular Magic Knights called the "Seven Deadly Sins", she became a mentor for the young Arthur of Camelot after they were scattered. She bears the Boar's Sin of Gluttony, as she herself notes she has an insatiable appetite for magical knowledge, so much when she realizes she couldn't learn all there is in one lifetime, she stopped her own aging with her magic by stopping her own flow through time. She did this about 3,000 years in the past.
- Merlin has appeared from time to time in Fate/stay night was only seen in flashbacks of resident Gender Flipped Arthur, Saber. and his role was expanded as he was the narrator of Garden of Avalon and is a major player in the events of Fate/Grand Order.
- Several characters in the Marvel Universe have claimed, with varying levels of conviction, to be the Arthurian Merlin. The first was an illusion-using Silver Age villain subsequently retconned as an imposter, but the usual one is a powerful, manipulative, guardian of reality itself who sometimes uses the name "Merlyn" with a y, and probably was the Arthurian character.
- The 1980s Doctor Who Magazine comics featured Merlin as one of a group of "high evolutionaries", guardians of the universe who also included the Time Lords' founder Rassilon. The concept and characterisation were very similar to the Marvel example in this section (not to mention the use of the term "High Evolutionary", which is a Marvel character), suggesting that this was one of several subtle attempts in this era of the strip to link it to the Marvel Universe.
- Merlin has appeared from time to time in The DCU, usually in connection with heroes linked to the Arthurian myths. In particular, he plays a key role in the origin story of Etrigan the Demon and several of the lead characters in Demon Knights. He also, surprisingly, plays a role in the origin of the Turkish heroine Janissary, having apparently been court wizard to Suleiman the Magnificent following the fall of Camelot, and left behind his spell book and an enchanted scimitar.
- There was a notable Golden Age character, Merlin the Magician, who was descended from Merlin and inherited a magic cloak that gave him all the old wizard's powers.
- Merlin is one of the most widely used recurring extra characters in the Belgian comic book series De Rode Ridder.
- He's a character in Camelot 3000, where he's explicitly described as the son of the Devil.
Films — Animation
- Disney's The Sword in the Stone presents a slightly scatterbrained Merlin who is capable of personal time travel.
- Appears in Shrek the Third as part of Shrek's efforts to get young Arthur on the throne of Far Far Away.
- Has a tiny role (two lines, and he sends a magic falcon to help the heroes) in Quest for Camelot.
Films — Live-Action
- In The Sorcerer's Apprentice, Merlin was a great sorcerer who had three apprentices.
- Merlin's Shop of Mystical Wonders, and, by proxy, its Mystery Science Theater 3000 presentation.
- A Kid in King Arthur's Court
- The film Excalibur.
- For most of The Last Legion, Merlin is known as Ambrosinus and is tutor to the last Roman emperor, Romulus Augustus. He adopts the name Merlin after he brings Romulus to Britain.
- In A Long Journey Home, Myrddin Emrys starts as a young muggleborn wizard cast out of his family because of his magic. He lives a few years in the street, then becomes Muirgen (Jasmine Potter), apprentice. After the end of his apprenticeship, he travels around the world. He thinks the divisions between muggles and wizards could be overcome, and the realm of Uther Pendragon and Arthur is his attempt to create a bridge between them. It's a failure.
- In Child of the Storm, he's mentioned as a background figure in the distant past, a wizard of immense power - which is unsurprising, considering the influence he has on two of the constituent canons, Harry Potter and The Dresden Files.
- The sequel, Ghosts of the Past mentions him in passing as a natural born Omega Class being (in other words, in the same weight class as Jean Grey, Magneto and Thor, if not above), with the additional note that he probably wasn't just human. It also reveals that originally, broadly speaking, he was based on Merlin. According to Doctor Strange, he was the greatest Wizard of all time. However, he also had a tin ear. Strange also reveals that Merlin was his main mentor and that Strange's own real name is Taliesin. Yeah, that one.
- In GrailQuest, Merlin is the one who enables the reader to inhabit the body of protagonist Pip and go on adventures in Arthurian lands. He's depicted as a rather eccentric wizard who keeps breaking the fourth wall, explaining the rules of the gamebook along the way. One Running Gag is him changing house every book.
- The 1998 mini-series Merlin is a retelling of the story of King Arthur with Merlin as the main character.
- A young Merlin is the star of the BBC series Merlin, which shows his development from a Wide-Eyed Idealist and powerful but semi-competent warlock and manservant to the arrogant but well-meaning Prince Arthur, to a ruthless and immensely powerful warlock de facto adviser to the wise and noble King Arthur. Arthurian legend being what it is, it ends badly.
- In Stargate SG-1, Merlin was one of the Ancients, as was Morgan La Fey.
- The Doctor of Doctor Who is Merlin. Possibly. In the future of an Alternate Universe. It's... complicated. Whether there's any connection between the Merlin incarnation and the Doctor Who Magazine Merlin has not been mentioned.
- A less-than-competent Merlin appears in the French comedy series Kaamelott. He is in fact a Celtic druid rather than the usual sorcerer.
- The short-lived 1980s sitcom Mr. Merlin had him still alive in the present day, keeping a low profile under the name Max Merlin. His costar is a young guy who learns Max's secret and then gets taken on as his apprentice.
- Old Welsh tales and triads tell of a wild man of the woods living with pigs beneath apple trees, who had been a prophet and maybe a shaman, Myrrdin, or Lailoken (northern reaches, a Scottish variant), who lived in Coed Celiddon, the Caledonian Woods. After he had published his grand history, Geoffrey of Monmouth apparently found some older poetry or sources and published the Vita Merlini, Life of Merlin, and a very different Trickster from the king-maker of Uthyr and Arthur was he. Taliesin was a rough contemporary, a famous poet later given some magical or prophetic prowess as well.
- Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (ca 1135) introduces Merlin as the child of woman but with no father, whom Vortigern wanted to sacrifice to keep a castle from crumbling above its foundations. Instead of being killed and having his blood slake the foundations, Merlin spoke prophecy and showed two dragons fighting beneath the castle, a white one (English invaders) and a red one (native Britons or Welsh). Merlin lived, Vortigern did not, and Merlin went on to aid Uthyr PenDragon in seducing Igraine the wife of Gorlois and so father Arthur in Cornwall at Castle Tintagel.
- Geoffrey of Monmouth also wrote a Life of Merlin, reflecting the old Welsh tales of Myrrdin as wild man of the woods. Having seen his sister's husband slain in battle, Myrrdin flees to the woods to live in or beneath an apple tree as a vegetarian hermit with a pig for a companion.
- Robert de Boron's book on Merlin introduced the antichrist element.
- Thomas Mallory (or Malleore) and his Le Morte d'Arthur is the primary source for T.H. White's Arthurian works.
- Mary Stewart's The Merlin Trilogy, based on Geoffrey of Monmouth, has Merlin telling his own story, as she fills in some gaps left by Geoffrey and by Mallory. A fourth book, "The Wicked Day", follows with Mordred's story.
- Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
- In Marion Zimmer Bradley's The Mists of Avalon, "Merlin" is a title given the chief druid.
- Mercedes Lackey's Gwenhwyfar borrows this element. It also explains the myth of him sealed in a tree with him having a stroke, which leaves him paralyzed and catatonic (wooden and tree-like, in the words of one character).
- T. H. White's The Once and Future King and The Book of Merlyn.
- Knight Life by Peter David follows T. H. White's Merlin in aging backwards to the 1980s or 1990s, finally reaching childhood.
- Merlin was apparently a real historical figure in the Harry Potter universe. He gave his name to an order of powerful wizards, the Order of Merlin. His name also gets used in an Oh My Gods! fashion a number of times, usually as "Merlin's beard!" Pottermore, interestingly, reveals that he was placed in Slytherin during his time at Hogwarts (which, when you consider all the political scheming that went on with him in the legends, makes more than a little sense).
- T.A. Barron's The Lost Years of Merlin series explores Merlin's growth from a clever and talented brat, to a humbler and wise Wizard, on the mystic Isle of Fincayra. Notably, this Merlin learns much of the legend of Arthur in a magic mirror, and it's said things may go differently with this foreknowledge.
- In one of the Bailey School Kids Adventure books, the librarian is implied to be Merlin.
- In the Roger Zelazny story "The Last Defender of Camelot", Merlin is a Knight Templar Principles Zealot, and the last knight of the round table winds up having to save the world from him.
- The Warlord Chronicles by Bernard Cornwell, which has Merlin as a hilariously irreverent and very powerful druid, whose performances owe a lot to charisma, reputation, and the fact that a lot of his tricks are Maybe Magic, Maybe Mundane.
- Similar to the Harry Potter example, Merlin is a historical personality in The Dresden Files (as is Arthur), a founder of the White Council of wizards, and one time guardian of the holy sword Amoracchius (aka Excalibur). The head of the White Council is traditionally given the title of "The Merlin". The current bearer of the title is Arthur Langtry, whom Harry notes that he "resembles what you'd think Merlin would look like". And to make clear, Merlin was the Archmage's Archmage. He constructed a prison for Physical Gods and Eldritch Abominations of which Skinwalkers are the least secured of the lot. It was constructed at once during at least five different moments in time to make sure it was protected over time and space. It was said his mentor was Odin, Norse God, Winter King of the wyldfae. And his direct line of students who grow to teach new wizards reaches to Harry Dresden personally.
- Sir James Knowles' The Tales of King Arthur and His Knights gives an incredibly abridged version of Merlin's involvement from the beginning, but it all comes out with Merlin seeming much younger than other versions (the BBC series excluded) portray him to be (he's a child - so maybe 7 - when Vortigern uses him. Assuming roughly 10 years before Arthur is born...means he wouldn't be 60 when Arthur was 15 [yes, 15, not 11, Disney]).
- In the fairy tale "Childe Rowland", the "Warlock Merlin" gives invaluable advice to the eponymous hero.
- In The Dark Is Rising series, the mentor character Merriman Lyon is revealed to be Merlin.
- In The Weathermonger by Peter Dickinson, the mysterious Changes that drive the plot turn out to be a consequence of Merlin being rescued from his imprisonment.
- Merlin is a supporting character in the children's fantasy novels Merlin's Mistake and The Testing of Tertius by Robert Newman. His eponymous mistake was an attempt to magically endow his student Tertius with all wizardly knowledge in one go; it went wrong, and Tertius ended up with a head stuffed full of anachronistic twentieth-century science know-how instead.
- The young adult novel, Winter of Magic's Return by Pamela F. Service, and its sequel, concerns three young children in post-nuclear war England. One of them turns out to be a youthened/reborn Merlin who had lost his memory and, even after he gets it back, has some issues with remembering spells and making them work right. Ends up becoming a Magic Comes Back scenario.
- Another young adult novel, The Magic Cave/The Hidden Cave by Ruth Chew, concerns two young children who find Merlin trapped inside an oak tree (although he's there by his own error, thanks to wanting to know what was inside an acorn, rather than due to Nyneve). The titular cave is actually a transformed drainage pipe which uses portal magic to take Merlin and the kids to various places, such as the library, the botanical gardens (for herbs to do magic), and eventually the museum to obtain an artifact (the Eye of Horus) to take Merlin back to his own time.
- The Nightside series. Unlike most examples, the author included the bit about him being the devil's son, though he renounced his father. His not-completely-dead body is buried beneath the world's oldest bar, tended by his bastard descendants. We also get a look at his Bizarro World self, who became the Antichrist, corrupted Arthur, and rules over an apocalyptic Britain.
- In C. S. Lewis's That Hideous Strength, a revived Merlin plays a vital role in defeating Satanically-corrupted science.
- For fairly obvious reasons, Merlin is a popular focus for a lot of Folk Music and Filk, which often show him in a distinctly atypical light.
- "Merlin" by Doug McArthur (no relation to the American WWII general), which was later popularized among filkers by Kathy Mar. In the song, Merlin is portrayed as an animalistic and saturnine Nature Spiritnote , feared by the populace and betrayed by a scheming Queen Guinevere and a weak-willed Arthur. The song shows him patiently awaiting the arrival of a construction crew whom he has sensed are working near the cave which Arthur sealed him into at Guinevere's behest, and whom he hopes will unwittingly break into the cave, allowing him to escape into the modern world.
- "Merlin" by Escape Key gives a somewhat more conventional depiction, though it does bend the usual narrative a bit by showing him as the illegitimate son of the Dragon King, and hence the half-brother of Uther Pendragon and Arthur's uncle.
- He made his appearance as Arthur's mentor in the 1960s musical Camelot, which was made into a film in 1967. In this version his name is spelt "Merlyn".
- Merlin is a 1983 Broadway musical starring legendary Stage Magician Doug Henning. The story was an original one, depicting his battles with an evil sorceress queen in the days before he met Arthur.
- Similarly, he is a character in one segment of the Las Vegas musical/special effects showcase EFX (1995). As he shows Arthur the world's natural magic, they get ambushed by Morgana. She transforms herself into a dragon to defeat them, but Merlin does the same and wins the day.
- Dungeons & Dragons has some Merlin Expies in the forms of Elminster, Chosen of Mystra, from Forgotten Realms, and Fizban the Fabulous from Dragonlance.
- The Merlin of Mage: The Awakening is an Acanthus archmage, a master of Fate and Time, who engineered the creation of Arthurian Britain in order to Ascend. It promptly got erased from the timeline by the Exarchs, but they couldn't stamp out the mystical resonance of Arthurian symbology.
- In Quest for Glory II. Merlin is mentioned as a member of the Wizard's Institute of Technosorcery (WIT). A magic user can ask him to be a sponsor for your admission to the organization, though he mentions that he is way too busy for that.
- One of the pre-made Wizards in Master of Magic, where he is a Sage Master (has bonus to spell research) specializing in Life and Nature magic. The intro cutscene featured him in one of rgw winning conditions.
- Age of Wonders II has young Merlin as the campaign protagonist, Age of Wonders: Shadow Magic begins with Merlin trapped in the Shadow World contacting new Wizards as a Spirit Advisor.
- He appears in StarTropics II: Zoda's Revenge as Mike's guide and as a friend to the King of Argonians, Hirocon
- The Tenth Quest is an old handheld game, where the player becomes Merlin's apprentice and must complete nine minigames, or quests, to unlock the Tenth, a race against the sun. These include 'Sword and Shield' (Tic-Tac-Toe) 'Seek the Grail' (Shell Game) a High-Low guessing game, a memory matching game, etc.
- Though not seen in the visual novel proper for Fate/stay night, background material for the Nasuverse posits that their Merlin was an Incubus. Most prominently, in the background o he made it possible for Saber to sire Mordred.
- Arthur, King of Time and Space has Merlin as different things depending on what era it's set in. In the medieval period, he's the traditional wizard, complete with foiled-Antichrist backstory and prophetic powers (his frustration that nobody ever pays attention to his foretellings until it's too late is a Running Gag). In the space opera period, he's a Higher-Tech Species Time Traveler. In the contemporary period, he's a Cool Old Guy who runs a comic-book shop.
- Stupid Mario Brothers has Merlin as a mentor to Mario, but also introduces his evil brother Nox Decious. Along with his brother, this version of Merlin originally appeared in an older project by RMA Studios.
- The Fairly OddParents! portrays Merlin as King Arthur's uncle and as a bit of a scammer. Also, he has a fairy's powers when it is comedically convenient.
- Dungeons & Dragons has an episode where Venger, posing as Merlin, tricks Presto into releasing monsters imprisoned by the real one, who had long passed away.
- Filmation's Ghostbusters portrays Merlin as a friend of the Ghost Busters and portrays Jake Kong as able to ask for help from Merlin's clumsy assistant every full moon.
- Ultimate Book of Spells character Verne is a descendant of Merlin.
- In Justice League, Merlin curses Jason Blood for betraying Camelot to Morgaine le Fay, binding him to Etrigan the Demon.
- In Batman: The Brave and the Bold, Merlin once asks Batman and Green Arrow to follow him into his time to stop Morgana. In another episode, Merlin is said to have imprisoned a demon the then-alive Gentleman Ghost tried to release in exchange for immortality.
- In an episode of Thunder Cats, Mumm-Ra disguised himself as King Arthur in order to steal Excalibur and use it to defeat Lion-O. The only reason he was defeated was because he dropped the disguise and started gloating, which prompted Merlin to show up out of nowhere and kick his ass.
- Star Swirl the Bearded in My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic, a famed figure in pony folklore, appears to be the Equestrian equivalent of Merlin. Twilight Sparkle once dressed up as him on Nightmare Night, and at the end of Season 3 Celestia gave her the task of completing an unfinished, destiny-determining magic spell found in his journal. Twilight's success in this task, creating new magic in the process, is the catalyst for her transformation into an alicorn princess.
- Visionaries is set on an alien planet, but has multiple allusions to the Arthurian mythos (such as a bad guy named Mortdred). Most notably, the series's central wizard is named Merklynn — although he is decidedly less benevolent than the Merlin of legend.
- In Gargoyles, the newly awakened King Arthur and his new knight Sir Griff's first goal after reclaiming Excalibur is to find Arthur's old friend Merlin. They are reunited in the comics. Merlin in this setting is revealed to be the half-human son of Oberon himself. The relationship between father and son is strained, but not entirely hostile.