"Doom introduced the grizzled space marine to the gaming world 15 years ago, dreamed into existence by someone at id Software, probably just minutes after watching Aliens. The grizzled space marine character so captivated the imagination of first-person shooter fans that they decided to have him star in every single FPS game since."
As a corollary to the above, either your character will be a generic low-level grunt (frequently the New Meat) or a generic ultra-elite soldier. Either way, The Player Character is almost never an officer. (If he is an officer, he likely won't issue orders or otherwise act like an officer.)
Advent Rising starts with the generic military elite Gideon's entire homeplanet destroyed by Scary Dogmatic Aliens, after which he proceeds to gain lots of Stock Superpowers, kick much ass, and save the day. The twist in this case is that for the finale, you get to fight the person whom you chose not to save at the beginning of the game. To his defense, Gideon often speaks and he is not bald.
The Colony is an Ur Example. You are a Silent Protagonist Space Marshal responding to a distress call from a remote outpost. On approaching the planet your ship is damaged and you crash land. You don your Powered Armor and make your way to the entrance of the underground base, which you find has been overrun by aliens who appeared out of nowhere; you must penetrate to the depths of the base and out again to escape the planet alive.
Metroid Prime 2 features a squad of Space Marines landing on the planet Aether who are quickly slaughtered by the local indigenous extradimensional bug monsters. Reading the dead troopers' logs reveal that they conformed as closely to the stereotype as they possibly could. Did we mention that Aliens was a huge influence on the Metroid series?
The Doom series, the Trope Maker. You play as a silent Space Marine who was deployed with his squad to a space base over Mars which was attacked in orbit. Everyone else in said squad dies before the game even starts, which (according to the manual) you hear over your radio. And your enemies are demons who appeared out of nowhere in a space base. That's seven of the tropes right there. It also established the chainsaw, high-energy weapon, shotgun, and rocket launcher as standard Space Marine armaments. The similarities to Aliens are to be expected, because the game was originally supposed to be based onAliens until id Software gave up on the idea because of 20th Century Fox's strict licensing demands, and the game was re-imagined as a mix between Aliens and Evil Dead.
That didn't stop experienced modders from doing Aliens-themed mods - Aliens T.C.* "Total Conversion" was the most famous one (and rather impressive in its own right).
Most sci-fi shooters from the late 2000s are space marine themed. At E3 2010, many reviewers lamented how almost the entire lineup for Xbox 360, PS3, and PC consisted of space marine FPS's.
The Halo series. While the Chief speaks (occasionally) during cutscenes, is technically a Naval NCO (Master Chief Petty Officer, to be precise), and has short hair (according to the novels), the games hit most of other aspects of this trope, with the most notable exceptions being the general lack of a Final Boss and the fact that most players prefer to discard their assault rifle and use the pistols and semiautomatic rifles as their primary weapons instead (despite what the cutscenes and advertising would have you believe).
You play as 5 different characters in Halo 3: ODST, but they're relatively well-characterized (Bungie certainly wasn't going to waste the voice talents of Nathan Fillion, Alan Tudyk, Adam Baldwin, and Nolan North, after all), with only the Rookie remaining a blank slate, mostly due to the fact that he never takes off his helmet and has zero lines of dialogue. Also, unlike most examples of the genre, the entire squad survives.
Halo: Reach plays it mostly straight, but protagonist Noble Six is a Naval Lieutenant.
The Arbiter from Halo 2 is a disgraced EliteSupreme Commander, who in the first game and Reach was the guy commanding the very same aliens attempting to kill you.
The 2005 version of Area 51 (with David Duchovny). Although the player is a 'mission specialist' rather than a new grunt the difference is almost purely semantic and the rest of the trope fits like a glove.
Quake II and 4. Both games hit every single bullet point above with a straight face. (bar a loaded boss for Quake 4)
Crysis, sort of. Nomad is an ordinary Earth Marine, but still fills a good number of the cliches. Surprisingly, he has both a voice and an officer rank.
Crysis 2 plays it even straighter, for thematic purposes.
Crysis 3 on the other hand doesn't fit a large chunk of these characteristics. Prophet is no longer in the U.S. military, he has a lot of dialogue, undergoes Character Development throughout the game, spends only about half the game listening to a Voice with an Internet Connection before deciding he can get more things done if he acts on his own, and his primary weapon is a compound bow despite being the only person in the world who can use Ceph weaponry. Oh, and he's not wearing Powered Armor, he is the Powered Armor!
Half Life 1's Opposing Force expansion averts it. You're a normal Marine, forced into a unit normally meant for combat in hazardous/anomalous area], but doesn't have any other Modus Operandi - they're just that, normal marines.
Half-Life itself was a break from the trope. Half-Life 2 re-embraced this trope even tighter by making Gordon into a dimensional mercenary/freedom fighter, albeit not exactly by choice.
The Half-Life mod "Natural Selection" embraces this trope; one team plays space marines, the other, an invading alien species.
TimeSplitters falls into this category quite neatly also. The protagonist is bald, an elite trooper, lands on a hot zone with a lot more people that either die or for whatever reason don't go on for the rest of the game... yeah, one by one, it fills all the conditions. To be fair, the TimeSplitters series is largely a parody of other first person shooters and video games in general, so this makes sense.
Time Shift substitutes a military organization with a research organization owned by and infiltrated by the military, and IN SPACE! with In Steampunk Past, but obeys the remainder of the recipe. Rather oddly for the trope, you end up preventing all of the cutscene and first act deaths. Oh, and the main character might be the female researcher who gets blown up in the opening cutscene.
Marathon fits the bill fairly well (technically, the player takes the role of a security officer rather then a marine, but he's often called "The Marine" by fans anyway.)
Gunman Chronicles flirts with this trope, but ultimately manages to have its own style by having all the characters dress like 19th century Civil War soldiers.
Unreal II: The Awakening was like this, which resulted in numerous complaints by fans of the original game who felt the developers had traded in the unique atmosphere of the first Unreal for a generic Space Marine storyline. Granted, Dalton and crew were given great characterisation that was a total aversion of the usual cliches, but the rest of the storyline and game design were pretty much 100% A Space Marine Is You.
The 2008 reboot of Turok, to such a degree that Zero Punctuation spent the entire review ripping the game for it.
Also, Armorines another comic-licensed Acclaim FPS using the engine.
Star Wars: Republic Commando is such a straight example that it might even be a purposeful lampshading, given that the player characters are literally clones.
Deus Ex partially averts this trope, if one interprets UNATCO (the UN agency the protagonist works for) as a military organization: JC Denton is not a space marine, but does fit many of the other clichés.
Warhammer 40,000: Fire Warrior. The best way to sum it up is: "Fire Warrior" is just how the Tau say "Space Marine". Make that tiny adjustment, and the trope fits like a glove from A to Z.
Substitute "megacorporation" for "space station" and you pretty much have the first F.E.A.R. game, down to The Reveal: You're Alma's son. Well, one of them.
Samus Aran of Metroid fame is the idol of Space Marines in her universe. She is the lone survivor of a planet overrun by Space Pirates, taken in and given her ultra-modular battlesuit by the Chozo, and is a Heroic Mime, leading her to have very little personality of her own. However, Samus isn't really in the military (and is a woman).
Metroid Prime 3: Corruption contains most of the clichés in the description. The Federation military to come out into their own, troopers alternating between seriously kicking ass and dying horribly.
The manga reveals that Samus actually served in a Galactic Marines special forces unit at one time.
StarCraft (despite being a strategy game) has Raynor (siding with the good aliens) and Kerrigan (forcibly changed into an evil alien) fit the bill close enough. Pretty much all the Terran units follow this trope, right down to the dropship pilots quoting Aliens when you click on them.
Mass Effect is a Double Subversion: First, it shares many of these elements, despite actually being a lot more of a Role-Playing Game. And Commander Shepard has a customizable face (though the standard male one is the Action Genre Hero Guy face) and can talk, and most of the squad survives. Also, they're technically a naval officer rather than a marine noncom, but that doesn't mean as much in this setting given that there's so much overlap between the Systems Alliance Navy and Marine Corps. The subversion shows up when they're reassigned from the formal military to be James BondIN SPACE! and the game changes directions - and then by the sequels bring it right back to A Space Marine Is You.
The Silencer from the Crusader series of games is a textbook example, right down to the zero personality. However, in the intro for the original Crusader: No Remorse, we see the two other members of The Silencer's original squad - right before they're gunned down by their Bad Boss - and they've definitely got personality, arguing loudly about the morality of their recent refusal to gun down unarmed civilians on orders. The Silencer, however, didn't participate in the argument, remaining voiceless even then, so his bland personality might well be a character trait.
Dead Space plays all elements of the trope but the key one - your character is not military personnel himself, just a simple civilian engineer who was assigned to a squad of proper space marines.
Ironically, a group of Space Marinesdo show up late in the game, but are almost immediately all utterly pwnt by the Necromorphs, possibly due to their "Rambo-ing out" mentality. Or because the plot says so.