Literature: The Wind in the Willows
"The world has held great Heroes,A beloved 1908 children's novel by British author Kenneth Grahame, set in an idealized England of the late Victorian to early Edwardian Era. It details the adventures and misadventures of four variably anthropomorphic animals living around the banks of "The River".
As history books have showed;
But never a name to go down to fame
Compared with that of Toad!"
As history books have showed;
But never a name to go down to fame
Compared with that of Toad!"
- Mole: A quiet, ordinary fellow who gets caught up in huge adventures who arguably shares the role of spotlight character with Mr. Toad. Softspoken and a dedicated homebody, he nonetheless sometimes gets wild urges to go out into the wild and "Hang spring cleaning!" Eventually, he adapts to a busier life. He's good with children.
- Ratty: The water-rat. Somewhat of an odd friend for Mole, but fiercely loyal to his friends. Says that "There is nothing — absolutely nothing — half so much worth doing as simply messing about in boats," and owns a Cool Boat to punt down The River. Acts as the voice of reason when Badger isn't present, and is somewhat annoyed by the fast pace of modern living.
- Mr. Toad: Probably the most famous character, and to an extent the Plucky Comic Relief. He's a great example of an Upper-Class Twit, living in Toad Hall and throwing himself enthusiastically at every passing fad. First it's boats, then wagons, then "Motorcars! Poop-poop!" A Kleptomaniac Hero, he can't seem to resist hijacking every car he comes across, driving it like crazy and eventually crashing it. All the while he fancies himself a Gentleman Adventurer and sings hilariously conceited songs.
- Mr. Badger: Something of a British Hermit Guru, he lives alone in the middle of the Wild Woods. One would expect him to be huge and terrifying, which he is. But he subverts it by actually being rather nice, sheltering guests and being fond of children. Despite his status as a Gentle Giant, he can — if necessary — be deadly in defense of his friends.
This novel and its various adaptations contain examples of:
- Adaptation Expansion: Pretty much every adaptation, even the most faithful ones, add a scene at the end where Toad shows signs of slipping back into his old ways by buying an aeroplane.
- Ambiguous Disorder: Toad's behavior matches up perfectly with bipolar disorder, though the novel certainly doesn't call it that.
- Anthropomorphic Shift: The animals seem to alter their status several times over the novel.
- Arcadian Interlude: "The Piper at the Gates of Dawn."
- Arson, Murder, and Jaywalking: Toad is convicted for stealing a motor-car, dangerous driving and cheeking the police. Ironically, the Clerk is more lenient with the first two crimes. Although never revealed (though some adaptations do), Toad's cheek is clearly indicated as "imaginative" and "gross impertinence". Given his flamboyant, conceited attitude, it's not hard to believe.
- Ascended Extra: Otter is promoted from "most major of the minor characters" to a full fledged major character in the sequels.
- Bedsheet Ladder: How Toad escapes after being locked in his bedroom.
- The Big Bad: Although the weasels, stoats and ferrets are usually grouped together as a whole, The Chief Weasel is usually given this status.
- Bilingual Bonus: The Latin title of the chapter "Dulce Domum", where Mole rediscovers his old abandoned house, means "Sweet Home", obviously meant to evoke "Home Sweet Home".
- Bowdlerize: Some "Young Reader" adaptations of the book change Toad's imitation of a car horn from "poop-poop!" to "beep-beep!"
- Break the Haughty: Toad's humiliating arrest and imprisonment, during which he attempts to starve himself to death, but decides to live after all thanks to a kind jailer's daughter and a bit of bubble-and-squeak. Not to mention being chased by the police after escaping, and all the indignity he receives for his washerwoman disguise.
- Carnivore Confusion: The narrative says it's against animal etiquette to actually discuss it, but the subject is touched upon by Rat, when he describes the inhabitants in the Wild Wood:"Weasels — and stoats — and foxes — and so on. They're all right in a way — I'm very good friends with them —pass the time of day when we meet, and all that — but they break out sometimes, there's no denying it, and then —well, you can't really trust them, and that's the fact."
- Character Development: Over the novel, Mole comes out of his shell, and Toad settles down to become serious and respectable by the end. Badger also becomes a little bit less reclusive, shown in the epilogue. Grahame pointed out in a later interview that Toad would eventually turn back to his old ways. Mole is the only character whose development would stick.
- Characterization Marches On: For the sequels by William Horwood, the main characters have slightly changed personalities. Toad's been hit with some Character Exaggeration and become even more egotistical and ridiculous (though with frequent bursts of extravagant generosity), while Ratty's become a spiritualist of some sort who talks to the river. Only Mole remains more or less the same.
- Chekhov's Gun: Toad's tongue in the Terry Jones version. At first it's just an amusing Furry Reminder (he uses it to eat a dragonfly), later he uses it to help him escape over a high prison wall.
- Cloudcuckoolander: Mr. Toad, at times. "A motorcar! Poop-poop! Poop-poop!" (Or, in some editions, "Beep-beep!")
- Community-Threatening Construction: In the Live-Action film directed by Terry Jones, the weasels tear up the field where Mole lives in order to build a dog-food factory, and their grand plan is to dynamite the ancestral stately home Toad Hall and replace it with an abattoir. Their plan is foiled by Rat switching the dynamite with a shipment of bones destined for the factory, resulting in the weasels accidently blowing up the factory.
- Cool Boat: It's just a punt, but Ratty's boat is described as beautifully painted and gaily decorated, and there's always a picnic basket on board. Unfortunately, it gets sunk near the end of the novel thanks to the stoats.
- Crystal Dragon Jesus: Pan, who is in fact the Savior, but for animals instead of humans. Interestingly enough, the chapter "Dulce Domum" has young field mice singing a Christmas carol that invokes and pays homage to Mary, Joseph and the Christ child. note
- A Dog Named Dog: All the principal characters are either this or Species Surname. (Since they only appear to have one name apiece, it's hard to tell which.)
- Drives Like Crazy: Mr. Toad's second defining characteristic; he wrecks five cars a week, on average, and has to be locked into his room to try and dissuade him.
- Felony Misdemeanor: Mr. Toad prison sentence. Stealing the motor car is twelve months, while his reckless driving warrants 'three years and cheeking the police warrants fifteen years which adds up all together to nineteen years, which the judge then makes an even twenty.
- Fiction500: Averted with Mr. Toad, he may be rich but as Rat points out "he's not a millionaire". note
- Fleeting Passionate Hobbies: A defining aspect of Mr Toad, to the point that Ratty discussing it with Otter forms part of Toad's Establishing Character Moment in Chapter 1:Ratty: Once, it was nothing but sailing. Then he tired of that and took to punting. Nothing would please him but to punt all day and every day, and a nice mess he made of it. Last year it was house-boating, and we all had to go and stay with him in his house-boat, and pretend we liked it. He was going to spend the rest of his life in a house-boat. It's all the same, whatever he takes up; he gets tired of it, and starts on something fresh.
- Food Porn: The stew Toad dines on, which contains no less than seven animals, is lovingly described. Toad's expression of rapture in the accompanying illustration doesn't help.
"What’s inside it?" asked the Mole, wriggling with curiosity."There’s cold chicken inside it," replied the Rat briefly; coldtonguecoldhamcoldbeefpickledgherkinssaladfrenchrollscresssandwidgespottedmeatgingerbeerlemonadesodawater––"
- Also the contents of Ratty's picnic basket.
- Four-Temperament Ensemble: Mole is Phlegmatic, Badger is Choleric, Toad is Sanguine and Rat is Melancholic. That said, Badger is a pretty Melancholic character as well.
- Funny Animal: The whole cast, except for the humans that Toad interacts with.
- Furry Confusion:
- Not particularly strong, but in a lot of the artwork, the main cast are much, much bigger than the stoats and weasels. Also, while the main cast wears clothing, Otter wears none.
- Also: Toad has a horse called Alfred. While he is an actual quadrupedal horse who carries the caravan, he does seem to be sentient. Strangely, this is one of the few animal characters not named after his species.
- Heterosexual Life-Partners: Mole and Water Rat.
- Idle Rich: Toad. He's a deconstruction of this trope has he has way too much time to devote to whatever hobby takes his interest.
- Impoverished Patrician: Toad tends to be a borderline example in some adaptations, since the book mentions he's rich but not a millionaire. The Terry Jones version has him fiancing his motor car habit by getting loans from the Weasels. The 2006 BBC Adaptation had Toad selling his chairs to pay for a car. The Cosgrove Hall TV Show often had Toad fall for some con the Weasels cooked up so he would have to give them Toad Hall as payment. In The Willows in Winter he actually does lose his fortune and Toad Hall in a fire until he finds out that his American cousin left him a fortune.
- Large Ham: Mr. Toad is usually played as this in any adaptation.
- Leitmotif: In the TV series, each character, e.g. Mole, Toad, has a certain musical theme.
- Lions and Tigers and Humans... Oh, My!: Zig-zagged. Most of the animals live in burrows (albeit in very human-like comfort) and have little or no interaction with humans. Mr. Toad, on the other hand, lives in an actual house, drives cars, is put on trial in a human court, held in a human prison, and escapes by disguising himself as a human washerwoman. During his escape no one suspects that he's Mr. Toad until he actually announces it when he rides off with a barge woman's horse. And he also interacts on a more-or-less equal basis with all the other animals.
- Loveable Rogue: Toad is considered an epitome of this. Although concieted, reckless and even kleptomaniacal at one point, he genuinely cares for his friends and shows great humility and distress upon learning of the hardships they suffer on his account.
- Macguffin Melee: The climax of The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad, in which the characters fight over possession of the deed to Toad Hall.
- Master of Illusion: The Weasels in the Terry Jones version, at least in their villain song.Weasels: Are we real? Perhaps we aren't!
- Mr. Exposition: St John (one of the weasels) in the Terry Jones version.
- Mundane Fantastic: While Toad is the only animal to have extensive interaction with humans no one seems surprised at the sight of a bipedal talking toad who wears clothes.
- Not Helping Your Case: Mr. Toad is fairly unconvincing when he stands trial for auto-theft, destruction of property and cheeking the police.
- Pride: Mr. Toad's defining characteristic.The Queen and her ladies-in-waiting
Sat at the window and sewed.
She cried, "Look! Who's that handsome man?
They answered, "Mr. Toad."
The clever men at Oxford
Know all that there is to be knowed,
But they none of them know one half as much
As intelligent Mr. Toad!
- Pride Before a Fall: Toad's pride is eventually his undoing; see above under Break the Haughty.
- Paper-Thin Disguise: Toad's washerwoman outfit.
- Science Is Bad: Not science, exactly, but the rush of new fads for the rich, such as automobiles and aeroplanes.
- Self-Disposing Villain: In the Terry Jones version, the Weasels begin double crossing each other just as the heroes arrive and enter the fray. The villains do such a good job beating each other up, the heroes decide to spend the fight singing instead.
- The Chief Weasel also blows himself up, but only because Rat switched the labels on their explosives earlier in the film.
- Snap Back: Averted, in that Ratty mentions that if Toad keeps buying all these new cars, he's eventually going to use up his whole fortune.
- Storming the Castle: "When the Toad came home..."
- Taking the Veil: Mole recounts how the young mice had put on a play about a sailor lost at sea and how when he returned, his beloved had done this.
- Took a Level in Badass: The Terry Jones version is cheesy for the most part, until the weasels start singing.
- Upper-Class Twit: Toad is quite rich and also rather fat-headed.
- Villain Song: The Weasels get an awesome one in the Terry Jones version.
- What Measure Is a Non-Cute?: The weasels, and the related ferrets and stoats, are all nasty little buggers, sneaking into Toad Hall to take it over while Toad is out. They're eventually let go with a warning, though, as they promise to be good after being thrashed by Badger.
- Wholesome Crossdresser: In a humorous incident, Toad escapes prison disguised as a washerwoman with clothes from the jailer's daughter, and manages to wind up disguised on a train outrunning the police.
- Wolverine Publicity: Several adaptations aren't named "The Wind in the Willows" but rather "Toad of Toad Hall", "The Adventures of Mr. Toad", etc. etc.