The first science fiction series written by E. E. “Doc” Smith, better known for his Lensman series. Smith started work on The Skylark of Space in 1916, though he was unable to find a publisher until 1928, making the work arguably the first Space Opera, and certainly the first major one.Richard Seaton, a chemist, discovers that an unknown extraterrestrial metal ("X") reacts with copper to provide total matter-energy conversion. Seeing the possibilities of this, he and his rich friend Martin Crane (who provides the initial capital) use it to build power stations — and a spacecraft, the "Skylark". The evil Marc DuQuesne, co-worker and collaborator with the highly pragmatic World Steel Corporation, wishes to steal it for himself, and descends to theft, threatening Seaton's new wife Dorothy. Everyone goes into space, looking for more metal "X" and other resources, and the story takes off from there.There are four books: The Skylark of Space, Skylark Three, Skylark of Valeron, Skylark DuQuesne. (The last was written decades after the first three, and it shows.)
The first book has the Skylark accelerate away from the Earth at about 12gs. It reaches three times the speed of light inside about 20 minutes. Even if we assume that Einstein's Theory of Relativity is wrong and that one can keep accelerating without bound, it would take three months to accelerate to three times the speed of light at 12g. (To do it in 20 minutes would require an acceleration of 75,000g.)
Note: the acceleration felt by the protagonists is 12g. It's made very clear in the dialogue describing the ship that the actual accelerations are vastly higher, and special designs were made for the ship to allow people to survive the actual forces. Smith's description of the acceleration ("acceleration of several lights", in which he means "light-speeds") is mangled, but one can figure out what he meant by it, if one goes through the few numbers provided — and it is in fact something monstrously high (over a hundred thousand gs). Basically, Smith was describing Inertial Dampening before he came up with a much superior version, which he used in the Lensman series. See also note under Science Marches On.
Even if we assume that the Skylark really was accelerating at 75,000g, and that relativistic mass/time dilation doesn't happen, there's still the problem that the ship has far more kinetic energy than could possibly be supplied by the mass-to-energy conversion of a few pounds of copper. In a purely Newtonian universe where a space ship's kinetic energy is always 1/2 mv<sup>2</sup> no matter its speed, at three times the speed of light the ship's kinetic energy would be equal to 4.5 times its own mass multiplied by c squared. You'd have to convert 4.5 Skylark masses' worth of copper into energy, to accelerate to that speed. (To say nothing of the mass you'd have to convert to energy to slow back down — unless a "free" or "energy-recovering" form of space braking existed in the Skylark universe, which I wouldn't put past Doc Smith.)
The only way to "make sense" of the acceleration figures is simply to invoke this trope and/or Rule of Cool and avoid analysing them; they are too inconsistent to withstand analysis — not Smith's usual style, but then this was his first book. The measures taken to enable the crew to withstand the acceleration are purely mechanical shock-absorber type devices, which in reality would no more solve the problem than they would in the case of Verne's cannon. There is no mention of anything truly effective until the second book when they copy the Fenachrone drive system which applies its force to all parts of the ship equally (similar to gravity) instead of transmitting the force through the ship's structure. A further problem is that the ship simply does not carry enough energy to accelerate itself to such speeds. The Einsteinian rest mass energy equivalent of a given mass is equal to the Newtonian kinetic energy of that same mass travelling at c root 2; given that the ship has a much greater mass than the power bars it carries, it clearly doesn't have the wellie to attain more than a fraction of the speed of light, even in a purely Newtonian universe.
As You Know: Dunark gives an Info Dump (which uses this very phrase) about his planet to Seaton, who has just received all knowledge of said planet via Applied Phlebotinum and thus knows all of this anyway.
Subverted in that the Info Dump is still necessary; Seaton's memory is still struggling to index the huge mass of material that just got shoved into it all at once, and having someone verbally walk him through an executive summary of it helps the process.
Bad Ass Bookworm: Richard "Dick" Seaton. This guy is a master marksman, tennis champion, hunter, trapper, intergalactic explorer, smiter of evil aliens, and a he's got a PHD in chemistry. He's not a bad engineer either. (And he's pretty good at sleight-of-hand...)
DuQuesne. Everything that Seaton is (except the tennis and legerdemain), but also Wicked Cultured and a decent military tactician. In the first book alone, he was steering a starship at 20''g'' acceleration and did it well, though he blacked out afterwards.
Chekhov's Gun: The education machine. At first it's just used so that Seaton knows enough about Osnome to befriend Dunark and side with Kondal in the war, but starting from Skylark Three he really starts to put it to good use, gathering knowledge from various species in order to create a defense against the much further advanced Fenachrone.
Easy Evangelism: Seaton is able to get the Osnomians and the Urvanians to stop their war just by threatening to wipe them out, but it's really the speed at which the ambassadors start to befriend one another that makes it this trope.
Mild case with DuQuesne's starships: the Capital D and the DQ, although it could be argued that since DuQuesne's ultimate aim is to destroy Seaton, it's natural for him to want a ship which is at least as powerful and preferably more so.
Also, Urvania is apparently named after its leader, Urvan.
Expansion Pack World: In Skylark Three we learn that Osnome is just one inhabited planet in a solar systemnote or more accurately, small stellar cluster containing literally hundreds of worlds, which have the same culture and Proud Warrior Race attitudes. Since the planets have some level of contact before the heroes arrive, this introduces some Fridge Logic into the Kondal-Mardonale feud.
Enemy Mine: DuQuesne and Seaton, despite being bitter foes, work together at times against really nasty alien threats.
Energy Beings: The "pure intellectuals" — immortal creatures made of thought.
Arguably the Q continuum by any other name, except Smith did it first.
"Smith did it first" is a fairly safe bet in an awful lot of SF tropes, if Wells and Verne didn't get there before him. Arthur C. Clarke stated outright that "Smith holds all the original Star Wars patents", and he was sufficiently well informed about SF in general (as well as being personally acquainted with or a direct contemporary of many of its greats) that there seems little reason to doubt him.
Crane: Three hundred and fifty million miles [in twenty minutes]. Half-way out of the solar system. That means a constant acceleration of about one light.
Seaton: Nothing can go that fast, Mart. E equals M C square.
Crane: Einstein's Theory is still a theory. This distance is an observed fact.
Seaton: And theories are modified to fit facts. Hokay.
Lampshaded even more in the original edition; when discussing the ship's performance potential Seaton explicitly states that Einstein's theory will limit their speed to no more than c, and the original version of the above quote has him sounding rather more surprised to find this violated than in the revised version.
Gonk: Shiro is illustrated as having vastly disproportionate limbs.
Guilt-Free Extermination War: Kondal and Mardonale are in the middle of one at the time of First Contact. Also, the heroes get involved in these against the "evil" races and the same fate is planned for the Urvanians before the existence of the Fenachrone changes the dynamic. Given that the Fenachrone and Chlorans have no problem doing it to others, the heroes' willingness to go to this extreme is at least understandable.
In sorting out the feud between the Osnomians and the Urvanians, Dick Seaton gives both sides the exact same knowledge of Fenachrone technology. Then he tells them to set aside their differences, promising to exterminate whichever race survives the war if they don't.
Have a Gay Old Time: The series was published in the 1920s, so it should be expected that the hero is called "Dick" and the word "gay" is used to mean "carefree", but it is kind of jarring to read the word "boner" being used to mean "mistake".
Human Aliens: Many. In this series, humanlike intelligent species naturally develop on Earthlike planets.
Japanese Ranguage: Shiro, Seaton's Japanese cook, speaks this way in the first book and part of the second, but then learns proper English thanks to alien phlebotinum.
Lensman Arms Race: So much. From steel hulls to impenetrable armor made of the alien material "inoson"; from simple explosive projectiles to insanely powerful beam weapons (and various types of 'projectors', which are very versatile). From a ship 40 feet across to one a thousand miles in diameter. Whole galaxies are embroiled in battle eventually.
Magic Compass: It's possible to create an "object compass" which, once attuned to something, would always point towards it.
Mid-Season Upgrade: The heroes start with the first Skylark, which first gets upgraded in the middle of the first book when they land on Osnome, and then gets upgraded again in the eponymous Skylark Three when they first encounter the Fenachrone.
Mind over Matter: the ultimate expression both of sentient life within the universe (the Immortals) and Dick Seaton's research.
Mind Reading Machine: Used by Seaton and the Kondalians to learn each other's language. It can even be used on a dead brain!
Though not indefinitely on the last one. Dead brains decay eventually.
The educator can also be used to take thoughts against the wearer's will, and worse. Seaton describes its potential darker side as "making the Inquisition look like a petting party."
No Biochemical Barriers: Played with in a bizarre way. The heroes land on a planet, Osnome, which contains a high concentration of heavy elements. Thus, Seaton and DuQuesne refuse to eat any food they are offered before they test it. However, Seaton then gives the Emperor of Mardonale salt and pepper, at a point when he doesn't know anything about his biochemistry. Apparently the barriers only work one way.
Planet Spaceship: Drs. Seaton and Crane build a 1000km diameter spaceship called the Skylark of Valeron. Its size was needed to house the sensors required to travel at its full velocity. Later, their rival Dr. DuQuesne builds an even bigger ship.
The Urvanians and the Fenachrone also qualify, even though the latter are the enemy (as are the former, temporarily).
Psychic Powers: The highest level technology (sixth-order) depends on the manipulation of thought, essentially creating psychic powers via technology.
Puny Parachute: DuQuesne's bail-out over Panama using an Osnomian (low gravity, high air density) parachute.
Reactionless Drive: When metal X is used to convert matter into energy, that energy can be released as explosive force (as in the case of the X-plosive bullets), or it can be used to drive a starship. When used for the latter, no exhaust is produced — the released energy is "just added onto" the kinetic energy of the ship. (Actually, Smith wasn't even that specific. The ship just "goes.")
Science Marches On: The series' technology is heavily dependent on ether. The "orders" of energy, in general, don't fit with anything known to modern science. Ironically, when it was first published, the blurb praised how "realistic" the science behind the story was.
The implication is that first order effects correspond to electromagnetic forces, while second and third order effects encompass the then-developing vision of the strong and weak nuclear forces but with a mechanism encompassing what we currently would call preon theory; there is nothing in Smith's canon to suggest that the forces are long-range. Gravity as we understand it is the prototypical — but explicitly not the only — fourth order force. Gravity is also explicitly a faster-than-light effect in the Skylark novels, which can be assumed to retcon inertial dampening and the non-relativistic flight of the Skylark.
Considering what we now know about the formation of planets and chemical elements, it is extremely unlikely that Osnome would have such an abundance of heavy elements, and that light elements would be so rare.
Unobtainium: Arenak, Dagal, and Inoson. Super tough, super hard, super temperature resistant materials, at least two of which are transparent.
Inoson (or "isonon," the spelling seems to vary) is described as a gleaming purple in its raw form, though doubtless Seaton can paint his ship any color he likes.
It is also described as the "theoretical ultimate" in material durability. Then one might consider that this setting uses degenerate matter for the focal lenses of their lasers heat rays...
The metal X is also a kind of Unobtainium, having the power to convert copper completely into energy — without destroying any of the metal X in the process — if it's subjected to X-rays.
Then there is the faidon, a substance described as "crystallised ether" (in modern terms, basically crystallised space). It passes no ordinary vibrations, and is used as an outer shell for the focusing lens at the heart of Seaton's fifth-order projector. Inside that lens is material from the CORE of a white dwarf star, which is also the only environment in which the faidon is at all malleable.
What the Hell, Hero?: At the beginning of Skylark Three, Dorothy and Margaret are horrified when they find out that Dunark has come to get supplies in order to commit genocide against an invading species. However, Seaton and Crane say that it's either the Osnomians or their enemies. But when Seaton actually arrives at the planet, he tells the natives that they and Osnome must put aside their differences in order to have a chance against the Fenachrone.