"Your women characters are awful. None of them have anything to say for themselves, and most of them either get shot or stabbed to death within five minutes... and the ones that don't probably will later on."The Bechdel Test, Bechdel-Wallace Test, or the Mo Movie Measurenote , is a litmus test for female presence in fictional media. The test is named for Alison Bechdel, creator of the comic strip Dykes to Watch Out For, who made it known to the world with this strip. In order to pass, the film or show must meet the following criteria:
— Hans Kieslowski, Seven Psychopaths
- It includes at least two women,note
- who have at least one conversation,note
- about something other than a man or men.note
Works that reference the Bechdel Test (named or not):
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Anime & Manga
- In the manga of All You Need Is Kill, Shasta makes a reference to running some "Bechdel tests" on Rita's Jacket while making an excuse.
- Lampshaded by She Hulk in JLA/Avengers: "Yo, Star-shorts! I figured that you'd be getting bored so I thought I'd hang with you. We can talk girl-talk. Y'know, butt-kicking, name-taking, like that."
- Superior Foes of Spider-Man references the test openly with Beetle complaining about how her life is failing the test since she hangs out with a bunch of guys.
"My life is failing the Bechdel test."
- Druid City: One character, who is a strident feminist, was added to the story so that the first volume of the series would pass the test. The same character, Carla Cortez, has gone on to be an Author Avatar in sociopolitical discussions that take place in the series.
- Doing It Right This Time: After reading a conversation between Asuka, Rei and Hikari where they are talking about helping Rei (who thanks to Parental Neglect has barely any clothing but her school uniform) pick out some new clothes for herself, some fan in the SpaceBattles.com thread wondered: "Does a scene count as passing the Bechdel Test if the women are talking about clothes?" That this scene led directly to a She Cleans Up Nicely moment only muddies the waters further. Especially because Rei cleans up so nicely that Asuka starts questioning her sexuality.
- The novel-length Chronicles Of Narnia fanfic King Edmunds Crusade lampshades it, though not by name.
A wholly feminine conversation was a novelty to Elizabeth, and perhaps to Susan as well. Both of them lived in a world where masculinity either ruled or was present. Here, in their private conversations, they found they not only could but wanted to move away from that. The conversation over the next four weeks was not of lipsticks and nylons and invitations; for such things are only feminine, they realized, in so far as defined by men.
- Mentioned in the Justice League and Young Justice Fix Fic Fixations: There is a discussion between Diana (Wonder Woman) and Shayera (Hawk Girl) in chapter ten that started out as a discussion about Wally (The Flash) - then the author realized this and decided to try and have the story pass the test.
But yeah, this fic finally passed the Bechdal Test! That was harder than I thought.
Films — Animated
- Inside Out passes this test with flying colours, since not only are three of the five lead Emotions female, but the person they inhabit is Riley, a young girl. Joy and Sadness have to journey together, their main topic of discussion being how to get back to Riley's Headquarters even before Bing-Bong shows up. Additionally in Riley's mom's head, her five female emotions discuss how to connect with Riley, but don't instantly signal Riley's dad. Riley talks with her mother about the journey from Minnesota and about pizza, she talks with her best friend about hockey, she addresses the class to introduce herself when prompted by a female teacher, talking about herself and her former life in Minnesota before breaking down (although this might be considered more shaky as a 'conversation'). The list just goes on.
- Alluded to in Seven Psychopaths when Hans reads Marty's script; not only does he note that they have nothing interesting to say for themselves, but the only notable thing they do is die horribly five minutes later.
Hans: Your women characters are awful. None of them have anything to say for themselves, and most of them either get shot or stabbed to death within five minutes... and the ones that don't probably will later on.
Marty: Well... it's a hard world for women. You know? I guess that's what I'm trying to say.
Hans: Yeah, it's a hard world for women, but most of the ones I know can string a sentence together.
- Michelle Rodriguez threatened to leave the The Fast and the Furious movie franchise after the eighth movie unless the writers “decide to show some love to the women of the franchise on the next one. Or I just might have to say goodbye to a loved franchise.”
- The Descendants references the test in one conversation that has been 100% about dating and boys. The conversation ends by a character mentioning that she's probably going to fail the test she's studying for, administered by a Professor Bechdel.
- The Doctor Who fandom book Chicks Dig Time Lords includes an essay about companion Nyssa of Traken. The author points out that many of Nyssa's episodes pass the Bechdel test, and includes a brief explanation of what the test is.
- The Laundry Files: The Apocalypse Codex has protagonist Mo O'Brien (demonslayer) meet up with Ramona Random (mermaid, of a sort, who spent a week destiny-entangled with Mo's then-boyfriend, now-husband Bob Howard back in The Jennifer Morgue) at a diplomatic summit between Her Majesty's British Government and the Deep Ones. Ramona is saddened to learn Mo's marriage is having problems, to which she responds:
"We are so not going to fail the Bechdel test at a diplomatic reception, dear. That would be embarrassing."
- The test is mentioned on A to Z in the episode "H is for Hostile Takeover". The Stinger takes it to a meta level with Zelda and Stephie discussing the test and wondering if two women discussing the Bechdel Test passes the Bechdel Test. They decide it does, and a "Bechdel Approved" graphic appears on-screen. Then Stephie starts talking about her boyfriend and the graphic is crossed out.
- Crazy Ex-Girlfriend:
- In the episode "Josh Has No Idea Where I Am!" Rebecca goes through a Yet Another Christmas Carol story with her therapist acting as her "Dream Ghost". She becomes exasperated when the subject keeps getting back to the men in Rebecca's life, finally saying, "God, do you know how hard it is to pass a Bechdel Test when you're a Dream Ghost?"
- Mentioned again in "Trent?!", where Rebecca (after not resuming her relationship with Nathaniel) declares that her life will now pass the Bechdel test. Heather points out that by talking about Bechdel test, they're actually failing it since the Bechdel test inherently discusses men.
- Doctor Who: "Mummy on the Orient Express" lampshades it when Clara tries to comfort a woman about her boyfriend for much of the episode, before complaining that she's on her own with another woman, so why can't they talk about something other than men? The fact that their resulting conversation is about the Doctor (who Clara is trying to work out her own relationship with) is a further lampshading.
- Class (2016): Episode 1:
April: I think I'm going to ask Charlie to the prom.
Tanya: And you just made us fail the Bechdel test.
April: The what? You're funny.
- Class (2016): Episode 1:
- Mystery Science Theater 3000:
- The episode Hobgoblins had a host segment lampshading how the show sort of fails this due to The Smurfette Principle. Crow begins a discussion of how women to treat women, which promptly derails into a conspiracy rant about how women don't actually exist.
- The Time Travelers: In that week's experiment, the female leads don't get a scene to themselves until halfway into the movie. So when their conversation turns, almost immediately, towards their male love interests, Tom Servo laments "Bechdel Test: zero."
- In the Parks and Recreation episode, “Article Two”, a local citizen Garth (Patton Oswalt) gives a completely ad-libbed filibuster, in which he proposes an Intercontinuity Crossover between the Star Wars universe and the Marvel Universe. It takes a long time for him to mention a single female character, and when he finally does Leslie Knope is not impressed.
Garth: Then Luke looks down and Han’s wedding ring is gone. “Hey, what happened with you and Leia?” And Han’s like, “Don’t even get me started.” So now, you know, where did Leia go? She’s not gone, but we will find out in a sec, now the whole …
Leslie: The female part is a little underwritten so far, sir. I’d like to note that.
- In The Red Green Show in the episode "Women's Circle", it references how all the women from the Possoum Lodge area have come together, and that all they talk about is something other than the men in their lives. The show itself does not pass at all, primarily due to a dearth of female characters.
- In the Smallville episode "Magnetic" Lana Lang and Chloe Sullivan are enjoying a day at the Lowell County fair, their "girls' day out" when Lana mentions Clark by name. Chloe responds with, "And we almost went through an entire day without mentioning our favorite farm boy."
- You're the Worst leans on it hard in an episode.
Gretchen: Seriously! I spend all day dealing with my dumb rapper babies and when I get home there's Jimmy and Edgar and the one chance I get to sneak away for a quick hang with the Louise to my Thelma—
Lindsay: Who are they?
Gretchen:—and all we talk about is men.
Lindsay: I know!
Gretchen: We are complex women with rich inner lives! For God's sake, let's act like it and let's discuss something other than dicks and the dildos they hang off of.
Lindsay: I'm in!
(Cue awkward pause. Chirping Crickets previously only faintly in the background are suddenly extremely audible.)
- In Jane the Virgin Jane and her grad school professor have a conversation about how works in Jane's chosen genre (romance novels) often fail the Bechdel test. The show lists the criteria for passing the test on screen, and the narrator decides to see how much Jane's life passes it. She and her mother and grandmother just end up talking about the men in their lives, much to his exasperation.
- The Big Bang Theory originated with four genius-level men interacting with the Girl Next Door Penny. The fourth season added similarly genius women Amy and Bernadette to the cast (introduced in the third season), who ended up forming a girl group with Penny. Their conversations tended to skew towards guys, given that each had a Love Interest among the guys, but in one episode Amy and Bernadette mention that they sometimes enjoy breaking away from Penny because she only talks about the guys and they would like to talk about their careers in high-level science. That conversation, amusingly, got sidetracked when some guys at a bar sent them drinks.
- Questionable Content references the reverse Bechdel test in the title of this strip.
- Discussed starting in this Dumbing of Age strip. Also played with — as pointed out in the last panel, most lesbian porn will automatically pass the Bechdel Test. It further elaborates on the flaws of the test not necessarily indicating feminism, and later one male character implies that his own life would not pass the reverse Bechdel Test.
- In this Shortpacked!, Leslie Bean (who's a homosexual woman, if you couldn't tell) expresses disinterest in a movie because it doesn't have two women talking enough that she can imagine them having a "tragically self-destructive yet amazingly hot lesbian affair." The Alt Text quips that this is called "the Beandel test."
- Skin Horse:
- Leftover Soup: "Bechdel Test passed, bitches."
- In Magick Chicks, when Cerise and Callista go to a date, Callista complains that the movie they've seen didn't pass the test.
- Unwinder's Tall Comics
Unwinder: You may know a bit about [Warren Rastov] actually. Ever heard of the Rastov test?
- This strip features a documentary comic, with two girls talking about a lizard. The title of the page is "Failing the Bechdel test because the lizard is a dude".
- "Space Home" references it with the Rastov Test (which, instead of dealing with feminism, is a dig at overly-elaborate Space Operas and Techno Babble).
Barbecue Sauce: Is that like where a book or movie is only good if it has less than four warring factions, and they have to say at least one sentence that isn't full of made-up space jargon?
Unwinder: That's the one. It was actually a pretty direct response to his father's work. They had some issues.
- In Skull Panda Loves Everything, Rikk Estoban creates a series of "Skull Panda Passes the Bechdel Test" strips.
- Roommates strip, "Roommates #304 - Bechdel" has girls talking about something else than men (revenge). In general it's not a female-centric work, but a fangirl-oriented meta fanservice comic with Cast Full of Pretty Boys.
- In Bad Machinery, Lottie has heard of the Test, though she seems to be a bit unclear on the details. Later, she invokes it to show that there's a problem with the timeline she's in. Or at least with one of her friends.
- Bravoman: In the Webcomic titled "Test Failed Bravowoman and Waya Hime get into a fight when Waya Hime mistakes Bravowoman for Bravoman's wife. Bravowoman lampshades it, and Alpha man says her meta jokes are better than Bravoman's. They later realize that the strip would be getting angry letters if the only two females killed each other off so Bravoman stops the fight.
"This is Stupid! You realize that we're the first two female characters in this series and we're fighting over a dude? You're ruining our Bechdel Test score!"
- Level 30 Psychiatry: the author comments for this strip mention that it is the first with an all male cast, thus passing the Reverse Bechdel Test.
- Sandra and Woo features "A Talk Between Women", which would imply that the two characters were going to talk about boys or something "feminine", but the punch line is that they're discussing international politics instead.
- Toki No Tanaka: the author comments on this page point out that it's the first with only male characters, therefore passing the reverse test.
- During the Davina-Tara "Ask Me Anything" session of The Scumthorpe Files, one user asked Tara what her ideal boyfriend would be like. This conversation ensued:
Davina: <OH, WONDERFUL. LET'S ALL GO FORTH AND FAIL THE BECHDEL TEST.>
Tara: ...I totally don't know what that is. Does talking about cute boys mean you fail it?
Davina: <OF COURSE IT DOES, YOU CRETIN.>
Tara: Then watch me fail it, Davina. Watch me fail it hard.
- Mulberry has its title character discuss the Bechdel Test with Melissa McCarthy, in a comic exclusive to BANG! Magazine. Unfortunately, McCarthy changes the subject to speculating which male actors love her.note
- xkcd passes the test in strip 896 with zombie Marie Curie talking to the other character about scientific achievements by women other than herself.
- A Feminist Frequency video shows a large number of popular movies that fail the test. In a running joke, Anita yawns, wanders away, comes back with an apple, and eats it, while the movie posters are still blinking steadily along in the background. Anita discusses the test again here. She proposes that the test be modified so that the scene in question must last at least sixty seconds to pass. She also describes a variant of the test for people of color, where at least two named non-white characters discuss something other than a white person. She rejects the concept of the Reverse Bechdel Test as she believes it contributes to the idea that women aren't oppressed.
- Name Dropped in AH Dot Com The Creepy Teen Years episode 2x19. It's noted as being the first time the series actually passed the test. The two women are discussing vacation plans.
- Atop the Fourth Wall:
- Linkara brings up the importance of the third point during his review of Sultry Teenage Super Foxes. Yes, the cast is almost uniformly female, but they never talk about anything but men. Unless you count the villains, that is. Even the protagonists obtaining superpowers was nothing more than a means to the end of them attracting men.
- In "The Culling: Legion Lost #9" review he notes that Rose Wilson and Caitlin Fairchild technically pass during their Designated Girl Fight, where they talk about betrayal and the latter's Heel–Face Turn. "So I guess there's another positive we can give to this idiotic story."
- Talked about in Extra Credits in the episode "Diversity".
- The Nostalgia Chick:
- In her review of X-Men: First Class, she pointed out that it was one of the only superhero movies to pass the test. She then told her audience to go look up what the Bechdel Test was.
- When she reviewed Matilda, guest reviewer Mara Wilson mentions that everyone's gender in the movie seems entirely incidental and that it passes the test.
- In Vampire Reviews (a spin-off of The Nostalgia Chick), Maven, desperately trying to find ten positive things to say about Twilight, notes that it technically passes the test when Bella talks to other women about shoes and having babies.
- Stuff You Like references this when reviewing Underworld here. The scene is Selene and Erika (briefly) discussing dresses (before going on to talk about... umm... men).
Subtitles: Did they just pass the Bechdel Test?
- The website of Bitch magazine ("Feminist responses to pop culture") has posted an entire article on this subject.
- Bernie Su, a writer of The Lizzie Bennet Diaries, comments as Word of God on passing the test with episode 16, in which Lizzie and depressed Charlotte discuss their career plans and prospects. Bernie Su says it was fairly late episode, but not that surprising when you consider that Pride and Prejudice is the source material for their adaptation.
- In Cracked's The 4 Best Moments in the Worst Movies Ever Made, Luke McKinney points out that the movie based on the video game Dead or Alive "physically beats the shit out of the Bechdel test" "within the first 10 minutes".
- A Platypus Comix article dedicated to the obscure Archie Comics series Marvelous Maureen comments on a scene of Maureeen and Clarissa DuBois arguing over Wonder Blunder like so:
...if they're trapped in the vacuum of space with a presumably finite air supply, and they want to spend their time flunking the Bechdel Test, then I guess so be it.
- Referenced by Doug Walker in the Sibling Rivalry of Despicable Me 2, as he complains that the movie would have been better if Lucy and the daughters had actually talked to each other. His brother and co-reviewer (Rob) however, thinks that's a stupid thing to complain about in a kid's movie and makes him drop it.
- While agreeing with every point about female representation, and declaring that the test, when taken on the whole, is useful for provoking thought, Bob Chipman delivered a scathing criticism of making too much of a particular movie passing or failing. He points out that Terminator 2: Judgment Day with Linda Hamilton's kick-ass Sarah Connor, and the very progressive Pacific Rim with its strong leading lady Mako Mori, would both fail. Meanwhile, Debbie Does Dallas and The Bikini Carwash Company two movies which, to state the obvious, are about as far removed from the feminist movement as could be, would both pass with flying colors, as would many Nicholas Sparks movies note He proposes an alternative "Mako Mori Test", which judges films by whether they have:
- at least one major female character,
- who has a fully-developed story arc,
- that doesn't revolve around a male character.
- It has been suggested that Mako Mori actually fails her own test, because she doesn't truly have a fully-developed story arc that doesn't revolve around men: she exists primarily in relation to her father-figure and the main hero; her story arc is about becoming a partner to a man and whether or not she and this man are "compatible"; and it is debatable if her story arc is even fully developed, as her importance to the story in the climax is just to support the hero. This analysis was not intended a criticism of the test itself, instead questioning the wisdom of using Mako Mori as an example of it.
- The test was discussed by Cheshire Cat Studios in this video here, where the test is criticized for being taken too seriously in some circles that suggest that the only good movies in existence are films that "pass" the test, and criticizing the Swedish ratings board for even considering to use the test in their consideration of a movie's age rating.
- Mad Max: Fury Road was so flooded with diverse female characters that infamous sexist website Return of the Kings called for a boycott of it. Hilariously, women went to see it PRECISELY because they were making such a fuss, and the Internet soon spawned the Furiosa Test in honor of the biggest female protagonist. According to Fanlore.com:
[T]he Furiosa Test is a simple standard for to judge a piece of media's feminist qualities. It passes if:It causes misogynists to boycott it.
- The Bechdel test is referenced in Epic Rap Battles of History's "Stevie Wonder vs Wonder Woman"; Stevie mentions how Wonder Woman failed the test despite being one of the first superheroines and a prominent female icon.
"You're a misguided C-minus-on-the-Bechdel-Test joke!"
- Although on that note, there is no letter grading scale for the test. Just a regular pass or fail system.
- In an episode of How Did This Get Made?, Jason Mantzoukas an observation he says up front sounds insane: Ninja Terminator, one of the Godfrey Ho Ninja Movies, passes the Bechdel Test by virtue of a scene of two female characters discussing a clothing design company they run together. Later in the episode, the hosts realize that between this scene and two sex scenes that seemed more focused on the woman's pleasure than the man's, Ninja Terminator may well be one of the most pro-feminist films they've ever reviewed.
- The Onion: "Sci-Fi Film Presents Vision Of Future In Which Women Never Speak To Each Other"
“Even beyond its taut pacing and gorgeous cinematography, the film offers a glimpse at an alternate reality in which women still exist, but engage in no meaningful exchanges whatsoever,” said New York Times film critic A.O. Scott, noting that when the women of this advanced society do speak to each other, their dialogue centers around one or more prominent male characters.
- Several of the CollegeHumor women devoted a video to passing the test, only to find it more difficult than they'd first thought.
- In Red vs. Blue, as Dylan and Sister are discussing what the latter has done while alone in Blood Gulch, but the former decides to ask about the Reds and Blues, her cameraman (who's a film student) goes "Ah, there goes the Bechdel Test."
- Brought up by Alison Bechdel herself in The Simpsons in the episode "Springfield Splendor", where she's guest starring as herself in a convention panel for female creators of comics. Marge's reaction to hearing about the Bechdel test:
Marge: That's so interesting. I'll have to tell my husband about that.
- While she didn't call it by name, My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic creator Lauren Faust referenced this trope, claiming that a focus on romantic plots and subplots is what ruins a lot of girl's shows.
- This blog references the Bechdel Test as it relates to Disney animated movies and that one that passes the test is not as rare as you might think. Pixar is much worse in this regard. Many Disney films have two female characters interacting about something other than a man, but fail to pass the test due to one of the parties being an animal.
- This article explains why so few movies pass the test lately, identifying it as a systemic problem that has its roots in what Hollywood producers believe about women and their difficulty with the characterization of women in general.
- This article discusses the test and concludes that it's difficult to pass because of prejudices that favor women.
- The same website has an article suggesting the need for a male equivalent.
- Several Swedish arthouse cinemas use the Bechdel test to give an indication of the level of gender bias in films, similar to warnings about films containing violence, sex, language etc.
- This blog applies the Bechdel test to every movie featured on Mystery Science Theater 3000.
- This article applies the Bechdel Test to Star Trek. Unsurprisingly, Star Trek: The Original Series has the lowest passrate (7.5%); somewhat surprisingly, Star Trek: Enterprise, a prequel made 50 years later, has the second-lowest (39%). This is probably because these two series only went from The Smurfette Principle, with only one female on the main cast for TOS (Nichelle Nichols as Uhura) to Two Girls to a Team for Enterprise (Linda Park as Hoshi Sato and Jolene Blalock as T'Pol). Star Trek: Voyager has the highest (86.9%), and also the only season to have a 100% passrate (season 5); whether by coincidence or not, it's also the only Trek with a female captain (Kate Mulgrew as Captain Kathryn Janeway).
- This article applies the test to modern-era Doctor Who. 80% of episodes pass: 85% under Russel T. Davies and 75% under Steven Moffat. Series 3 and 4 each had only one episode that failed the test (for S3, "The Shakespeare Code" was put to a vote, and 53% of people said it didn't pass).
- FiveThirtyEight.com did an article on finding The Next Bechdel Test on the idea that there are other important metrics to examine when trying to encourage better representation of women in film.