Literature: Uncle Tom's Cabin
On top, the actual book. On the bottom, the (infamous) minstrel shows.Uncle Tom's Cabin
is a classic anti-slavery work written by abolitionist Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853, a few years before The American Civil War
. It was ferociously controversial in its day.
In the beginning, Uncle Tom, Eliza, her husband George (belonging to another owner, but allowed to have a family), and her son Harry are all living relatively happily in a cabin behind a house in Kentucky. They have a good and kind master, Mr. Arthur Shelby. George is even earning money at another establishment.
Then Mr. Shelby gets into debt gambling, and he has to split up the establishment to pay the bills. Uncle Tom is sold to a slave trader who will then sell him "down the rivernote
," and goes along with it because if he were to run, he'd just leave many of the other slaves to be sold instead. Harry is also considered for sale as a young and beautiful boy; rather than let literally unspeakable things happen to her child, Eliza scoops him up and makes a run for freedom, going so far as to cross the Ohio river from ice floe to ice floe. This dissuades her pursuers, since they think No One Could Survive That
. George eventually follows her, escaping from his own owner who treats him real
bad, and years ago separated him from his older sister Emily. Unfortunately, this is after the Fugitive Slave Act, so they have to run for the northern border and
find each other...
Tom is bought by Augustine St. Claire after Tom befriends and rescues his Ill Girl
daughter Evangeline. Tom
combined eventually straighten Augustine out — he was good for a New Orleans native, but he was also a fatalistic atheist. All of them combined help his sister Ophelia, a New Englander who hates slavery but didn't think of slaves as people until Augustine gave her one.
Augustine resolves to set Tom free in the aftermath of Eva's death. Unfortunately, his evil wife refuses to be made aware of this
after Augustine is suddenly and meaninglessly killed in a tavern; she sells all the slaves that aren't her own property. (Yes, there were debts.) Tom ends up in the hands of the vicious sadist Simon Legree, who soon becomes determined to break Tom's Christian spirit or kill him in the attempt.
Stowe wrote this novel as an indictment of slavery. She uses Sarcasm Mode
heavily, reminding readers that Tom, George, and Eliza are property, that attempts to help George and Eliza are illegal, etc. It is well-written and incisive, but the relative idyllism of the first couple of chapters, and her using self-sacrificing Tom as an example (he will do what his masters ask unless it is against his faith), have led to sharp Values Dissonance
since. (There was some at the time, too, but of a different variety.)Trope Namer
for the trope Uncle Tom Foolery
, although that trope was much more exhibited in the minstrel show version created out of nostalgia for the slave trade.
Stowe's novel was adapted for the stage not long after it was released and has been adapted for film many times. The 1914 film has been placed in the National Film Registry
This work contains examples of:
- Action Survivor: Eliza and her husband George.
- All-Loving Hero: Uncle Tom and Evangeline.
- Author Tract: The novel is an antislavery polemic aimed at female readers, who were considered the guardians of Christian morality at the time. The narrator will frequently talk directly to the reader about how she should feel about what is going on, and ultimately ends up begging the reader to influence her husband into supporting abolition. The book is also very much in favor of supporting Liberia, which didn't turn out so well.
- Badass Preachers: The Quakers that help Eliza, George and little Harry to run away. They also help Tom Locker to have his Heel-Face Turn after he's injured and they help him out.
- Brainless Beauty: Marie St. Clare.
- Bratty Half-Pint: Topsy
- Breakout Character: Mr. Haley.
- Break the Cutie: Eliza, Uncle Tom, Emmeline.
- Broken Bird: Cassie.
- Dastardly Whiplash: Simon Legree is considered the Trope Maker, although he's a much more shaded, three dimensional character in the book than any of the whiplashes inspired by him, which often turned his persona into a mild caricature of its former self.
- Deadpan Snarker: Augustine and Miss Ophelia.
- Defrosting Ice Queen: Miss Ophelia, Cassie.
- Happiness in Slavery, Averted in the novel itself, but the publication of this book produced a slew pro-slavery novels (Anti-Tom Literature) depicting the slaves as either mentally unfit for freedom or happy with their lot in life.
- Heel-Face Turn:Tom Loker, the slave hunter; Sambo and Kimbo at Legree's plantation.
- Heroic BSOD: Tom, during his first days in Legree's plantation. Luckily for him, when Legree tries to twist the knife even more, Tom reacts and deal a Shut Up, Hannibal! to him.
- Heroic Sacrifice: Tom is whipped to death after helping Cassie and Emmeline to run away. He still manages to live enough to see George Shelby before he dies and to redeem two of his tormentors, Sambo and Kimbo.
- Good Scars, Evil Scars: George Harris's slavery mark on his hand.
- Ignored Epiphany: Legree has a brief moment of surprise that Tom is still claiming to forgive him even as he's being whipped to death. There's a hint that he might change his mind, but the moment passes and Legree resumes his vicious cruelty.
- Ill Girl: Evangeline, who has tuberculosis.
- Knight in Sour Armor: Tom, especially when on Legree's plantation.
- Magical Negro: Tom, especially at the St. Clare home.
- Manly Tears: "George Shelby wept tears that honored his manly heart..."
- Messianic Archetype: Tom models his life on Jesus, and does it well enough to shake the lifelong beliefs and habitual cruelties of almost every character he meets. Even Simon Legree, although that one only leads to an Ignored Epiphany.
- Na´ve Everygirl: Poor, poor Emmeline.
- Non Royal Princess: Evangeline, Miss Ophelia, Mrs. Alice Shelby, Mrs. Bird.
- Offing the Offspring: Cassie smothered her baby to save it from a life of slavery.
- Punch Clock Villain: Most of the slave traders, auctioneers, and owners. Owning and selling slaves is simply part of their jobs; their aim is to earn money, and they'll be kind or cruel depending on what gives them the most profit. They're villains not primarily because of how they treat the slaves, but because they simply don't think the slaves are fully human beings. Their cruelty is just a matter of efficiency and profit.
- Redemption Equals Death: Augustine St. Clare.
- Royal Brat: St. Clare's nephew Henrique, though he gets better after Eva gives him a What the Hell, Hero?.
- Rich Bitch: Mary St. Clare.
- Sheltered Aristocrat: George and Alfred. St. Clair is a more cynical version.
- Slavery Is a Special Kind of Evil: A major theme.
- Southern Gentleman: Augustine St. Clair who represents the slave-owning class at its best. Tom nevertheless makes it clear to him that slavery is wrong even under the most benign circumstances.
- Stylistic Suck: "Mas'r Seed me Cotch a Coon".
- Sweet Polly Oliver: To escape to Canada with her family without being noticed, Eliza must cut her long hair and crossdress at some point. Reversely, little Harry becomes a pint-sized Wholesome Crossdresser and dress up like a little girl.
- Talk to the Fist: After Simon Legree presses George Shelby's Berserk Button by mocking Shelby for "all this fuss, about" Tom's murder.
- Team Dad: Tom takes up this role pretty much towards everyone in the places he works at. Yes, even at Legree's horrible manse, where he helps the other slaves and they call him "Father Tom".
- Team Mom: Tom's wife Chloe.
- Arguably, also Miss Ophelia. Eva tries to be this, though she's obviously too young and sickly for it.
- Tender Tears: Tom cries often, and so does George Shelby.
- Token Good Teammate: Though the story is about the evils of the slave trade, and it's heavily implied the more evil masters are more typical, Messrs. Shelby and St. Clare aren't so bad, as far as slave owners go.
- However, the author uses this to show that even "good" masters aren't good — they may die or become impoverished, leaving the slaves to a cruel master; and even the slaves of a good master would rather be free employees.
- Tomboy and Girly Girl: Topsy and Eva.
- Too Good for This Sinful Earth Tom and little Evangeline.
- Uncle Tom Foolery: The Trope Namer
- Which is a problem, because in the original novel Uncle Tom subverts the foolery: while he remains subservient because of his faith, Tom is still a strong, respected figure. It was the plays and movies that came out during the Jim Crow / segregation years that Uncle Tom was altered to be less "threatening" to white audiences.
- Very Loosely Based on a True Story: Stowe got the inspiration for Eliza's flight across the icy Ohio River from an incident her abolition friend John Rankin told her on one of her visits to his home (and Underground Railroad hot-spot) along the river.
Tropes unique to the 1914 film:
- Ascend to a Higher Plane of Existence: Eva's soul is shown leaving her body and floating up to angels in Heaven. It's actually more like Winged Soul Flies Off at Death except she doesn't have wings. At the end Jim's soul ascends to meet Eva.
- Blackface: Played straight with Boots Wall and the character of Topsy, maybe because she is the most unpleasant stereotype. Averted with all the other slaves. Sam Lucas, who played Uncle Tom, is believed to be the first black actor to star in a film aimed at white audiences.
- Ceiling Cling: In a tree rather than a ceiling. Escaped slave Jim Vance hides in the branches of a tree while a slave-catcher posse nails a notice offering a reward for him to the trunk of said tree.
- The Film of the Book: Follows the novel pretty closely, minus all the parts that had to be left out when making a 45-minute film.
- Free-Range Children: Eva is skipping along on the edge of a boat when, not surprisingly, she falls off into the river. In the novel she was rushing to the pier to meet her father.
- Time Skip: Several, since the movie covers a couple of decades, but one is announced by a title card as two years later.