- Ass in Ambassador: Lou Sears, US Ambassador to Sarkhan. He makes no effort to learn the Sarkhanese language, shuts off himself and his office from local society, insists on entertaining only the expatriate crowd, and prefers to live comfortably like an officer in a colonial regime.
- Banana Republic: Sarkhan, and to varying degrees, the rest of the Southeast Asian countries surrounding it. The extremely pro-American Philippines deserves special mention as even it features in one chapter, with vaguely Latin-like dignitaries flaunting Hispanic honorifics and surnames to boot.
- Bilingual Backfire: American diplomats hire natives of the fictional war-torn Southeast Asian country to work as servants in their embassy. A visiting Chinese diplomat discovers and explains that at least some of the servants are spies pretending not to understand English.
- Dirty Commies: The whole reason for the American presence in Sarkhan in the first place. This is the Cold War after all.
- Eagleland: Perhaps the entire point of the book is to explore both flavors and how they each affect American perceptions in Southeast Asia. Unsurprisingly, most of the protagonists are flavor 1's, while the bumbling, ineffective diplomats are flavor 2's.
- Expy: These exist of several real people since the novel satirises American foreign policy in Cold War Southeast Asia. Colonel Hillandale, for one, is purportedly based on real-life CIA officer Gen. Edward Lansdale.
- On a country-wide scale, Sarkhan itself; culturally it most closely resembles Burma or Thailand, but geopolitically it was intended to be a stand-in for Vietnam.
- Evil Colonialist: Sarkhan has a sovereign government, but in lieu of formal colonialists the Americans often come closest, acting like high-and-mighty colonial officials and refusing to understand local customs or mingle with local communities.
- Going Native: Generally, the Soviets are seen as better at adjusting to local cultures than the aloof, brash, and fairly xenophobic Americans; this goes some way to explaining why the Communists are having better success at attracting the populace of Sarkhan and neighbouring states.
- On the American side, the eponymous "Ugly American"—the humble engineer Homer Atkins, who actually spends his days in Sarkhan interacting with the locals and assisting them through small livelihood programs.
- Another American case in Col. Hillandale in the Philippines, who goes to Filipino parties and was dubbed "The Ragtime Kid" by the locals. (This isn't as much of an effort as it might seem, though, as the Filipinos have already been considerably Americanised prior to the setting of the novel—thanks to a half-century of American occupation.)
- Holiday in Sarkhan: And in the actual Cambodia, Vietnam, and elsewhere in Southeast Asia.
- One Steve Limit: Averted; two major ambassadors on opposite sides of the Cold War are both named Louis (Sears on the American side, Krupitzyn on the Soviet side). Whether or not this was intentional on the authors' part, this might serve to highlight them as Foils by showing just how different their approaches are to diplomacy.
- Water Source Tampering: Accused of American John Colvin, but with milk. He tries setting up a facility to process and distribute powdered milk for the benefit of Sarkhanese locals, but is later betrayed by his former friend Deong—who accuses him of adulterating the milk with aphrodisiacs to take advantage of local women.
Literature / The Ugly American
The Ugly American is a political novel written by Eugene Burdick and William Lederer in 1958. The book narrates the life of various fictitious political figures and their lives within the fictional Asian country of Sarkhan. Adapted into a film starring Marlon Brando.