Literature / Book of Judges
The Book of Judges is the seventh book of The Bible
The Jewish structure holds Judges (in Hebrew, Shoftim
) to be the second book of the Nevi'im
(Prophets), the second part of the Tanakh. With Joshua, Samuel and Kings, they form the Nevi'im Reshonim
(First Prophets), in opposition to the Nevi'im Acharonim
(Later Prophets, called the "Minor Prophets" in some circles because there are a lot of them, none really stands out, and it's easy to get confused).
Years after the Israelites settled into Canaan, they are still suffering from foreign attacks and inter-tribal conflicts. Whenever Israel is in trouble, God calls a "Judge" to save them. That judge defeats the invaders and then rules the land, establishing a time of peace. But soon they die, Israel turns wicked again, the invaders return
is followed by the Book of Ruth
in the Christian Old Testament and by Books of Samuel
in the Jewish Tanakh.
This book is also best known for the story of Samson and Delilah
This book contains the following tropes:
- Anarchy Is Chaos: Shown in the events of the book, as summed up by the Arc Words below. When "everyone did as he pleased," the result was rampant amoral behavior.
- Anti-Hero: Most of the Judges have their flaws, in particular Ehud, Jephthah and Samson. They all are used by God deliver Israel, but their grasp on morality is rather tenuous.
- Arc Words: "Israel had no king in those days. Everyone did as he pleased."
- Authority Equals Asskicking: The position of "Judge" was not just a judicial titlenote but also signified a badass military leader—think ancient versions of Judge Dredd.
- Badass Israeli: The whole book is about Jewish leaders who kicked the collective butts of their enemies.
- Bond One-Liner: Samson: "With a donkey's jawbone, I have made donkeys of them."note
- The Berserker: When "the Spirit of the Lord came upon Samson", massive body counts ensued.
- Chosen One: The Judges all receive the Call to Adventure directly from God Himself.
- Chronic Villainy: The Israelites lapse in their faith every time after God has saved them. The phrase "The children of Israel did evil in the sight of the LORD" occurs no less than seven times.
- Cold Iron: 1:19 reads in its entirety "And the LORD was with Judah; and he drave out the inhabitants of the mountain; but could not drive out the inhabitants of the valley, because they had chariots of iron." This is never elaborated upon or explained, and has become something of a Memetic Mutation / Running Gag in parts of the internet. It doesn't work for Sisera in chapter 4, though.
- Cowardly Lion: Barak. When he insists on Deborah accompanying him to the battle even though he has already been promised a victory, Deborah tells him that she'll come, but for demanding this he won't be the one to kill Sisera; a civilian woman named Jael will be.
- Gideon is introduced hiding from his enemies, and has to be reassured by no less than three miraculous signs before he's convinced that the Lord is actually choosing him.
- Crapsack World: Turns out, when everyone follows the idea that Anarchy Is Chaos, they'll become completely immoral and be very vulnerable to oppression by their enemies.
- Curb-Stomp Battle: Samson versus... well, anybody who was stupid enough to try fighting Samson.
- Dumb Muscle: Gee, Samson, after the first few times Delilah springs the Philistines on you, maybe you'd figure out that she's setting you up and not tell her the actual secret of your strength?
- The Empire: The Philistines make their first appearance here. They are known for their vast influence and mighty war machine.
- Even Evil Has Standards: Israel is in a period of moral decline, but the gang rape, murder, and dismemberment of a Levite woman outrages just about everyone.
- Explaining Your Power to the Enemy: After lying to Delilah several times about the source of his power—and getting ambushed by Philistines each time while trussed up exactly as he had described—Samson finally reveals that his power really comes from his long hair. Sure enough, next morning he wakes up with a shaved head and is captured by the Philistines, officially qualifying him as Too Dumb to Live.
- Failed a Spot Check: Ehud's first mentioned as being left-handed - which meant, of course, that he would commonly carry a sword sheath on his right hip (which the passage confirms). When Ehud went to Eglon's keep as an envoy to 'pay tribute' (the monetary kind), it's heavily implied that the guards didn't think to check his right hip. (Most people were right-handed and would therefore carry a weapon on their left.) This allowed Ehud to waltz right into Eglon's throne room and shank him right in the gut, complete with Pre Ass Kicking One Liner.
- Fat Bastard: Eglon, a corrupt king, is described as so fat that when he is stabbed to death, the cubit-long sword gets swallowed up by all the blubber. For those keeping track at home, that would make him at least four feet wide.
- Fatal Flaw:
- Samson's drunkenness and tendency to fall for "bad" women.
- Jephthah's rashness led to the death of his daughter and a breakout of civil war that had previously been defused by Gideon.
- Family-Unfriendly Violence: If you only know the stories from Sunday School lessons, you might be in for some surprises. A faithful movie adaptation of the book would easily earn a hard R rating.
- Here We Go Again: Israel falls into sin and worships false gods. Israel gets oppressed by their enemies. Israel repents and cries out to God for deliverance. God sends a Judge who mops up the enemies and establishes peace in the land. Eventually the Judge dies. Israel falls back into sin... and the cycle repeats no less than seven times throughout the book.
- Heroic Bastard: Jephthah was the son of Gilead and a prostitute, and was exiled by his half-brothers for being a bastard. Later in life, they have to beg him to lead them to victory over the Ammonites. Some would say he's the other kind of bastard due to the very... confusing situation with his daughter, which is still a HUGE subject of contention among scholars.
- Heroic Seductress: Some interpretations of the Hebrew word for "cover" portray Yael as one; the more innocent interpretation assumes she "covered" Siserah with a blanket and tucked him in before assassinating him, but many scholars interpret the word to mean she covered him with her body. Read: she had sex with him (no less than seven times!) until he was exhausted, then finished him off in his sleep.
- Honor Before Reason: Jephthah makes a vow to sacrifice the first thing that comes out of his door upon his victorious return from battle— and feels obligated to keep the vow when unfortunately that thing is his only daughter.
- Hope Spot: The battle of Gibeah showed the Israelite tribes can still band together to oppose evil.
- Human Sacrifice: The tale of Jephthah ends with a human sacrifice due to his Honor Before Reason rash vow. The text is somewhat ambiguous, though, whether his daughter was literally killed as a burnt offering or simply "sacrificed" herself by becoming a celibate temple servant note .
- Improbable Weapon User:
- Shamgar used an ox goad and Samson had his... donkey's jaw bone.
- Also, Yael, who killed the enemy general Siserah using a mallet and a tent peg.
- Jewish Mother: Deborah, Judge over Israel, is prevailed upon to lead her people to victory in war when she realises they are figuratively her children, and they are being sore oppressed by the enemies encroaching on all sides. She rides to war in her mighty chariot specifically as a mother defending her children. She also uses their sense of shame and guilt to manipulate them into fighting behind her.
- Karma Houdini: The unnamed Levite who sparks the civil war between the tribe of Benjamin and the rest of the Israelites. He goes to his father-in-law to take back his wife who is implied to have run away from him in the first place because he mistreats her. Later, while lodging in Gibea, when the male inhabitants of the town come to kill him for unknown reasons, he locks himself in and his wife out who consequently gets gang-raped and killed by the Gibeans. Then, after he comes home, he cuts her corpse into pieces to send them to the other tribes who unanimously agree that he is the one being wronged. Values Dissonance, obviously, but even so. Subverted as he still had to face God's judgment. No amount of Karma Houdini will protect you from Elohim.
- Loophole Abuse: The other tribes had vowed not to give their daughters to the Benjaminates as wives, then regretted that decision because it would have led to the extinction of the tribe. Fortunately (?), they realized the vow didn't say anything about not letting the Benjaminites abduct their daughters for marriage....
- Made a Slave: The Israelites enslaved the remainder of the Canaanites who had not been destroyed. They became "thorns in Israel's side".
- Massive Numbered Siblings: Gideon had seventy sons, thanks to polyamory.
- Million-to-One Chance: Invoked in the story of Gideon. God instructs him to reduce his army to only 300 men and arm them only with torches and pitchers, just so it would be even more obvious that the battle was won thanks to divine intervention.
- No Ending: The book's last lines are the yet another case of "Israel had no king in those days. Everyone did as he pleased."
- No Dead Body Poops: Averted when King Eglon is stabbed in the gut by the left-handed Ehud, causing "the dirt" to come out. The fact that "dirt" is excrement is made even clearer when Eglon's personal guard delay going in to check on him because they believe him to be relieving himself—they can smell it.
- One Drink Will Kill the Baby: Samson's mother is advised by an angel at the start of her pregnancy not to drink any alcohol, or even to eat (unfermented) grapes or raisins. This, however, didn't have anything to do with concern for the fetus' physical safety or well-being, but for his spiritual well-being. (Remember, too, that almost everyone drank alcohol back then, even during pregnancy, because drinking wine or beer tended to be safer than drinking untreated water.) He was destined to become a Nazirite. The Nazirites were a group of Jewish ascetics who, among other things, were forbidden from consuming alcohol or even unfermented grapes.
- One-Man Army: Samson kills one thousand Philistines with a donkey's jawbone. Give a medal to those 400 soldiers that thought they'd succeed where 600 of them had failed.
- Punished for Sympathy: In Judges 2:1-4, an angel of the LORD scolds the Israelites for incomplete genocide of the inhabitants of Canaan as well as being friendly with them. To punish them, God allows the Canaanites to be the Israelites' oppressors.
- Rape and Revenge: A Levite man gives his concubine to a bunch of horny townsmen to protect his own ass. They rape her to death, and he hacks up her body and distributes the pieces to his buddies to call them to war with the town of Gibeah.
- Riddle Me This: Samson challenges his wedding guests with a bet on the riddle, "Out of the eater came something to eat / Out of the strong came something sweet." The guests aren't able to guess it, so they resort to cheating by pressuring his wife to extract the answer from him. Samson doesn't take this well at all. (The answer is that Samson killed a lion and discovered that bees had made honey in its carcass.)
- Sequel Hook: "Israel had no king in those days." Guess what the next book is about.
- Shaming the Mob: When Gideon pulls down the altar of Baal, an angry mob of Baal-worshipers shows up to execute him. Gideon's father defuses the situation by pointing out that, if Baal is really a god, he would be quite capable of dealing with Gideon on his own.
- Shibboleth: The Trope Namer, from a password that gave away whether the speaker had an Ephraimite regional accent. The Ephraimites would pronounce it "Sibboleth," revealing that they were enemy agents, and get killed for their troubles.
- The Southpaw: The first and really only extraordinary attribute mentioned about Ehud. This, of course, becomes important later.
- Split Hair: Judges 20:16, the tribe of Benjamin had "seven hundred chosen men lefthanded", each one being able to "sling stones at an hair breadth, and not miss".
- Summon Everyman Hero: Several of the judges (most notably Gideon) are just ordinary guys who happen to be The Chosen One. Gideon is incredulous and takes a good deal of convincing that the angel is delivering the message to the right person. It turns out that that's exactly the point: God is setting up a Batman Gambit to prove that the victory came from divine intervention rather than superior fighting ability.
- Taking You with Me: How Samson decides to go out, pulling down an entire temple on top of several thousand Philistines and himself.
- The Theocracy: Israel is ostensibly governed as one of these, with the Judges and prophets ruling as God's representatives. Practically, this has rather mixed results.
- Too Dumb to Live: Samson tells Delilah his weakness, after she has already tried to betray him multiple times.
- Undignified Death:
- When King Eglon is stabbed by Ehud through his bowels, fecal matter spills out from the wound.
- King Sisera is lured to sleep by the wife of one of his allies then stabbed in the head with a tent peg.
- Abimelech was mortally wounded when a woman dropped a millstone on his head. He immediately told his armor bearer to finish the job, so that no one would know he had been killed by a woman. It didn't work.
- Unfortunate Names:
- In Judges 9:21, there's a mention of a city called Beer. Of course, it didn't mean that in Hebrew, but still...
- Puah, son of Dodo.
- Victim Blaming: The unnamed concubine of the Levite man is said to have run away from home and fooled around with other guys...and then she is given by her husband to be gang-raped to death. The narrative is not shy about drawing a connection between her running away from her husband and (allegedly) being unfaithful to him, and her unfortunate demise.