Bass from the Mega Man (Classic) series. He's jealous of Mega Man's position as a world champion and is obsessed with defeating him for that.
Dr. Wily began his plans for world domination because he was jealous over the acclaim and recognition Dr. Light always got. Like Father, Like Son.
In Tales of Symphonia, the Pope apparently hates half-elves simply for their long lifespans. Ironically, some half-elves hate their long lifespans, because it means that while their non half-elf friends/comrades/lovers die, they'll still be alive, leaving them alone. Genis is initially troubled by this realization, but Regal reminds him that his friends can live on in his memories, comforting him slightly.
In Haunting Ground, the maid, Daniella, was created to be the perfect woman. But then Fiona is brought to the castle. Daniella is jealous of her because of the "attention" Riccardo gives to her. Fiona is "complete" and has the azoth (which is probably the womb and the ability to give birth). So she grabs a piece of glass and hunts Fiona, thinking that killing the girl will make her the most beautiful again, or she actually rips Fiona's womb out, as heard in the game over screen.
One community adjustment to the Neverwinter Nights 2 official and Mask of the Betrayer campaigns has a line of dialogue in which a female PC asks Gann if he remembers all of the random farmgirls he seduced; and his response is "Is the green-eyed monster chewing on your toes?"
Depending on your PC's gender, this will exist between either Elanne and Neeshka or between Casavir and Bishop in the original campaign. To sum it up, Elanee stalks you and doesn't like you spending time with Neeshka, Neeshka gets upset whenever you agree with another girl instead of her, Casavir feels 'threatened' by Bishop, and Bishop despises you having a relationship with Casavir at all, even if it's not romantic.
Turns out this was an underlying problem for Sakura in Fate/stay night. Which was not helped at all by Zouken Matou, who was responsible for not only putting the worms into her (without which she wouldn't have had the connection to Angra Mainyu) but exacerbating her jealousy by putting ideas into her head about what Rin might do to Shirou.
Also Shinji to Shirou and Sakura for their ability to use magic, though this leans more toward Driven by Envy.
In Luminous Arc 2, Steiner's displeasure over Roland becoming the Rune Knight (with the Runic Engine he develops!) is the basis for his Heel–Face Turn and fuel to make the improved Runic Engine for him and his Stinger Squad. They do get get strong, at the risk of their body crystalising.
In Fatima's Route, Althea's jealousy over the closeness between Roland and Fatima, combined with the taint from the Conclusion Gate, creates and unleashed her Superpowered Evil Side.
In BlazBlue, This is the eventual fate of Tsubaki Yayoi after being Trolled with some horrible truth from Terumi. See, she likes Jin Kisaragi, and originally she was to be Jin's secretary. Terumi then reveals that due to the existence of her best friend Noel Vermillion, she never became Jin's secretary (Noel got that position instead) and was instead relegated to a squad no one likes. Since Terumi told her that during the worst timing possible (Tsubaki was slowly going blind due to usage of Izayoi) and convinced her that she wouldn't suffer like this if Noel didn't exist... Tsubaki gave in to evil and continued to serve NOL despite knowing that it's an evil organization... all for killing Noel. Best part is that the guy she loves so much isn't even siding with the NOL anymore. Not to mention the fact that in the other timeline, she would've died anyway...
It gets worse, alright. In said timeline, Tsubaki was kept to her desk job and not allowed to leave headquarters. When Jin Kisaragi headed out to Kagutsuchi in pursuit of Ragna the Bloodedge, she was desperate enough to move over to the Zero Squadron - the aforementioned squad nobody likes - all for the sake of bringing Jin back. So in that timeline, she still died in the Zero Squadron, suffering in that fashion for Jin's sake, just like in this timeline. Terumi is aware that spilling this truth to Tsubaki would compromise his plans for her and Hakumen, and refuses to do so. He is also aware that Makoto Nanaya, the third wheel in Tsubaki and Noel's relationship, also knows, and is willing to take extreme measures to keep her lips shut.
In Rachel's Normal Ending, she trolls Terumi by claiming that he envies Ragna; for all of Ragna's flaws he is still a better and more interesting man than Terumi.
Terumi responds by kicking her teeth in. Interpret that as you will.
Rachel herself is envious of girls who get to hang out with Ragna in casual settings. She isn't happy to see Ragna eating with Platinum (the Joke Ending that follows should she decide to confront him confirms her feelings of jealousy). In episode 5 of "Teach Me Miss Litchi Reloaded", she agrees to teach Taokaka just to keep Taokaka from having dinner with Ragna.
In flashback, we learn that this was what prompted Don Paolo's rivalry with Professor Layton: jealousy over Layton's relationship with Claire.
Also, in Professor Layton and the Diabolical Box, Anton duels with Layton over his granddaughter Katia, thinking that she's his deceased love, Sophia, and that Layton is trying to keep her from him for his own.
The reason why Yanagi stole Hiroki's painting in Canvas 2, which is apparently rather out of character for him.
In Monster Rancher 4, Phayne eventually discovers that his friend Wit is insanely jealous of him, and that this is what drove him to increasingly risky measures to prove he was the better trainer.
In Tekken, Heihachi favours his adopted son Lee over his biological son Kazuya which causes them to have a bitter rivalry. However, Lee eventually turns his back on Heihachi partly because of the way Heihachi has abused Kazuya (namely, throwing him into a volcano).
And let's not even get started on the three blood-thirstygreen-eyed monsters in Birth by Sleep...
In AdventureQuest Worlds, Artix becomes this at the end of the ending cutscene of the second birthday event because he can't believe he missed the battle with Undead Artix.
Artix:Greetings and saluUUWHAT!... Un. Dead. Artix? And you did not take me to fight him? I want to fight Undead Artix!!!!! (kneels down in a defeated manner) I am so jealous of you!!!!!!!
Liquid of Metal Gear Solid is an interesting case. His envy of Snake for his having the dominant genes (however that was supposed to work) is peripheral to his real envy of Snake: that he got to kill Big Boss and in doing so deprived Liquid of what he believed to be his one way of validating his worth.
In the Fallout: New Vegas DLC Dead Money, Dean Domino was envious of the happiness that Fredrick Sinclair, founder of the Sierra Madre, had. Because of this, he planned to rob his vault in an attempt to break his spirit. Even after the bombs fell and everyone else was either dead or turned into one of the Ghost People he still remained as a Ghoul, plotting his heist. In the end, he doesn't succeed, since he ends up either killed by the Courier or decides to help him/her into the vault instead, later going through a Heel Realization in the epilogue and decide to let go.
In the Captivate 2011 trailer for Dead Rising 2: Off the Record, Frank West sounds quite jealous of Chuck Greene as he explains that he was the one that received the credit and fame for breaking the Fortune City story instead of him.
Kenny Dermot in Dead Rising 3 becomes jealous of Nick's reputation as The Hero in Los Perdidos after his meeting with him, to the point where he kidnaps a survivor and ties her to a pole on a large yacht so he can become like Nick. It quickly falls apart when Nick shows up and saves the survivor from a zombie, inadvertently ruining Kenny's "stunt" and forcing Nick into a fight against him.
In Solatorobo, Elh gets a case of jealousy during the Prairie Kingdom Cup when Red gets too much attention from Princess Theria, Alicia, and Toffee.
Lt. Carter Blake in Heavy Rain towards Norman Jayden, his temporary partner from the FBI, particularly in regards to the ARI. Many of Blake's comments towards Jayden are equal parts disdain and envy; he has no respect for Jayden's strict adherence to procedure, but is shown to have some interest in the ARI. Particularly evident in one of Jayden's epilogues, in which Blake decides to try out the recently-deceased Jayden's ARI. It doesn't go well.
Knuckles The Echidna from the Sonic the Hedgehog series is said to be envious of Sonic's freedom and popularity while his duty is to stay in Angel Island guarding the Master Emerald for the rest of his life. This may be one of the reasons for his hostility towards the hedgehog and why both have a rocky relationship.
Tales of Graces: Cheria admits to Sophie that she was jealous of her for getting most of Asbel's attention.
In Jak II: Renegade, Erol harbors a crush on Keira, who's in a relationship with Jak. Near the end of the game, he finally loses himself to his jealousy for losing both the big race and Keira's respect and tries to run over Jak, only to crash into several barrels of Dark Eco. The aftermath of this accident results in him trying to destroy the planet in the very next game.
In the backstory of Dragon Age: Origins when you meet his spirit you find out that Maferath (whose name is used in the same context as "Judas" in the real world) ultimately betrayed his wife Andraste out of jealousy because she had become the spiritual bride of The Maker, the setting's equivalent of God, and she had become much more respected than he ever was. The answer to his riddle is actually "jealousy" (though he will also accept "I don't know" as an answer and declare that the Warden is "fortunate in your innocence" for not knowing it).
"Yes, jealousy drove me to betrayal. I was the greatest general of the Alamarri... but beside Her, I was nothing. Hundreds fell before Her on bended knee. They loved Her, as did the Maker... I loved Her too, but what man can compare with a god?"
Dragon Age II has a few minor examples. Hawke can snap at her sister to back off flirting with Sebastian if you're on his romance path, and all of the love interests will show jealousy if you flirt with Tallis. If you choose to romance Fenris, Anders will have shades of this trope, as it's implied he falls for Hawke regardless of your choices and he really does not like Fenris. If you romance Fenris and then move on to Anders, both of them will express jealousy to each other in party banter.
Dragon Age: Inquisition serves a twist on the trope with Warden Blackwall actually Thom Rainier's romance. Vivienne, who isn't particularly fond of Blackwall, comments that she thinks Blackwall is far beneath the Inquisitor. Blackwall immediately reverses this, and he knows the truth behind Vivienne's scorn. Rather then Vivienne being jealous that the Inquisitor loves Blackwall, she's jealous that the Inquisitor could freely choose to love whomever she wants, even an "undeserving nobody". This reversal leaves the normally composed and sarcastic Vivienne stunned to silence.
Blackwall: Envy her for her ability to love freely, but recognize that envy is what it is.
Geminis' duty in Third Super Robot Wars Z: Jigoku-Hen to make sure Earth is protected against Ba'al by initiating the Time Prison. However, Gadlight actually wants to spread chaos and destroy Earth because he's upset that his own planet got destroyed while Earth gets special treatment.
In A Witch's Tale, the Eld Witch and her daughters were jealous of the surface world, which led them to invade it.
In The Red Riding Hood Sisters, one installment of the Dark Parables series, it's revealed that Eldra became the Big Bad of the game because of intense jealousy over another character's appointment as leader of the Red Riding Hood Sisterhood.
Bloodborne: Adella The Nun, the Blood Saint was jealous for the lack of blessed Old Blood, while Arianna, the unclean prostitue has the Pthumerian Blood and granted pregnancy from the Great Ones. Adella would kill off Arianna for good, should you asked Arianna for blood in front of Adella for 3 times.
How would you feel if you lived in a world that manifested itself in a rainbow of colors while you yourself can only appear in black and white? Then you're Satura from Runbow.
Kazuya Makigami, the main villain of the Day Breakers OVA and a sidequest in the game, says that he's jealous of his brother for being the "smart one," and thus their parents' favorite child, which is why he abuses them.
The Takases are quite jealous of a couple of wealthy elites at a prominent company, and believe said couple had been looking down on them. When the couple died, the Takases took in their orphaned son Taiki, and lived beyond their means while forcing him to take on their debts, wanting to see him grovel. To make matters even worse, when Taiki died, they have the temerity to blame his teacher Sadayo Kawakami for pushing him too hard (when she'd actually been tutoring him) and blackmail her.
The Palace representing Envy belongs to Sae Niijima, who's jealous of her male colleagues for their success in a male-dominated field as well as her younger sister, Makoto, and as such, is solely determined to get ahead at any cost to herself. Her Palace takes on the form of a casino with rigged games, representing her belief that only the corrupt get ahead, and in the boss fight Sae's Shadow turns into Leviathan, the demon of Envy. Sae's actually more sympathetic than the other two characters above, and actually comes to her senses with Makoto and the protagonist's help.
The Traitor doesn't start green-eyed, but by the time of their boss fight, they've become obsessed with their inferiority to the protagonist. They angrily question why, after all of their hard work and careful image cultivation, they still have less than a wanted criminal who lives in an attic.
In Miitopia, the Dark Curse is immensely jealous of the faces of other Miis, as it was ignored by them all when it still was a regular Mii. So it decided to steal them.
The NB Rangers in the DJMAX series. A group of men presumably unable to get themselves significant others, they spend their days putting on Sentai transformations and beating the loving hell out of couples. In fact, when one of their own leaves the Rangers and finds himself a girlfriend, the rest of the Rangers respond by giving him a whooping until the traitor's girlfriend leaves him, prompting him to rejoin the Rangers due to the resulting blues. The NB Girls are similar in origin, but their methods involve trickery and causing couples to break up due to the resulting miscommunication.