Adam's weapon and combat style are based off Kagura Tsuchimiya from Ga-Rei Zero-. Adam also draws direct movements from a few other sources - Vergil and Johnny to name a few.
Blake and Adam's names reference Beauty and the Beast, with Belle being the root of Blake's last name (Belladonna), and Adam being Beast's real name. Blake is also introduced reading a book, and in another episode reads by the light of a candelabra.
Yang picks a fight with a slightly Yakuza-esque gangwielding axes. In addition, the way they go flying when she engages them resembles another Axe Gang. There are numerous shout outs to the House of Blue Leaves battle from Kill Bill. (Which was also a reference to The Axe Gang.)
Yang is inspired by Goldilocks. In her trailer, the DJ is wearing a bear headpiece that obscures his entire head.
The combo Yang uses just before the final punch in her trailer is a Dempsey Roll, except instead of punches she's weaving around rockets and baseball swings on her approach.
Melanie uses Ling Xiaoyu's kicks which also used by Tifa in Dead Fantasy, this because of Monty said he reused some moves he did previously in Dead Fantasy, but with different angle of camera to make them look new or different.
The monsters in a fairytale-themed world are called "The Grimm". The creators confirmed they've been heavily inspired by this work, and fairy tales more generally, in producing this show and its characters.
Professor Ozpin and Glynda Goodwitch are very obvious and confirmed nods to The Wizard of Oz.
In episode 1, a row of magazines seen to the right of Ruby when a mobster is threatening her have a grinning grey silhouette on their covers that looks practically identical to Truth.
Also in episode 1, a humorous example: Ruby's line, "Oh, that's my uncle!" is a shout out to the Rooster Teeth podcast, where Burnie once used that line to summarize his problems with Japanese-style storytelling.
Jaune Arc is inspired by Jeanne D'Arc, who did disguise herself as male for a while. His entire team are confirmed to be based on famous characters who, at some point in their legend, disguised themselves as a member of the opposite sex. Nora is based on Thor, Pyrrha on Achilles, and Ren on Hua Mulan.
In episode 2, Weiss says to Ruby, "Aren't you a little young to be attending Beacon?" This is likely a reference to a Running Gag in Phineas and Ferb.
Roman Torchwick by his dress and signature color seems to a be a reference to Alex from A Clockwork Orange.
A substance called Dust has powerful, mysterious qualities, and people are fighting over who controls it and how to use it. Sound familar?
The lack of color in the background characters is similar to what is utilized in Durarara!!.
Ruby's line about growing up because she drinks milk might be another reference to Fullmetal Alchemist due to the main character there Edward Elric never drinking his milk, which is the reason (according to his friends and family) for his never getting any taller.
Yang's sunglasses in episode 4 are a homage to Top Gun.
Considering Monty Oum referenced Soul Eater when describing how he envisioned his characters, it's very likely that the arrow-like patterns of Glynda Goodwitch's ragged cape are a shout out to Medusa. There's also a mook in episode 8 that looks like a Arachnophobia member.
One of the articles of clothing hanging on a clothesline in the alley where Torchwick and his lackeys are introduced is a rather iconic looking scarf that belongs to the Fourth Doctor.
The book Blake was reading turned out to be about a man with two souls, each fighting for control over his body. Proof? A transcription was done.
Ren's dual guns greatly resembles Haseo's Xth Form weapons' DG-X.
Ruby's position while she's hugging Weiss in Episode 5 perfectly mimics that of the original "X. X everywhere." meme, and someone has actually used it for that.
The gang fights a giant raven-monster. The bird is called a Giant Nevermore''. When Blake (read:Belle) was swinging from the architecture to attack the flying Giant Nevermore, it emits a roar not unlike a certain chimera.
During lunch, what is the only thing on Weiss's plate? An apple.
The History teacher? Dr. Bartholomew Oobleck, after Dr. Seuss' children's novel Bartholomew and the Oobleck.
At two points, Jaune goes into slow motion. The second the slow-motion activates, the sound the Slow Mo Guys use plays.
Yang's full name is Yang Xiao Long, a reference to Bruce Lee, whose Chinese screenname was "Li Xiaolong".
Kind of a coincidence, but Yang's color choice and name brings the Yellow Dress Maiden of Heavenly Sword and Dragon Sabre to mind, who is a descendant of Yang Guo and Xiaolongnu, the protagonists of the aforementioned series prequel (Return of the Condor Hero).
Penny's fighting style is pulled straight from BlazBlue's Nu-13.
Blake and Roman's fight in episode 16, the sequence when Blake is attacking at multiple angles is reminiscent of Monsoon's Red Phosphorus attack pattern.