"Towards thee I roll, thou all-destroying but unconquering whale; to the last I grapple with thee; from hellís heart I stab at thee; for hateís sake I spit my last breath at thee. Sink all coffins and all hearses to one common pool! and since neither can be mine, let me then tow to pieces, while still chasing thee, though tied to thee, thou damned whale! Thus, I give up the spear!"
Knowing that you're about to die can certainly have a liberating effect on people, as suddenly all the constraining rules of etiquette and having to play nice suddenly don't seem so important anymore. For example, sometimes it lets people get past hangups like Cannot Spit It Out and make a final, tragic statement of love... and sometimes it lets you tell someone you loathe, especially you've had to put up with because they're part of your social circle or someone with power over you like a boss, just what a Jerk Ass they are.
This can be played either for laughs or drama. Either way counts as being related to "Facing the Bullets" One-Liner, while the more dramatic version tends to overlap with tropes such as Dying Curse and Defiant to the End. Inversions include Dying Declaration of Love and It Has Been an Honor.
Naturally, if the character do wind up living through whatever they're experiencing, this can cause quite a bit of embarrassment and trouble for them...
Compare See You in Hell. See also Last Breath Bullet.
As a Death Trope there may well be unmarked spoilers! Proceed at your own risk!
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Anime and Manga
Evil Matriarch Precia Testarossa in the original Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha series confesses her hatred for Fate, though neither is dying at that point. Later on, when Precia is falling to her death, Fate tries to save her but she rejects her again.
In Umineko: When They Cry, Eva declares her hatred of her niece Ange a few minutes before she dies. Ange hardly seems surprised and retorts that it's mutual.
Naruto makes it one its biggest Tear Jerkers in the Gaara flashback, when Yashamaru says to Gaara that he never loved him, nor did Gaara's own mother (who died giving him birth), before making himself explode. And it's revealed much later that it wasn't even the truth.
In Fullmetal Alchemist, before Roy finishes off the last remaining Ishbalan, his victim calmly says "I... will never forgive you."
In a flashback in Fruits Basket, Tohru's mother Kyoko tells Kyo "I'll never forgive you," as she lies dying after being hit by a car that he could have saved her from but didn't due to fear of revealing his curse. A later flashback reveals that this is actually a subversion: Kyoko was trying to tell Kyo that she would never forgive him if he didn't keep his promise to look out for Tohru.
The Emperor's New Groove: Right after Pacha rescues Kuzco from the panthers, they end up tied to a log. Pacha insists he can think of a way out; the log then cracks, leaving just enough time for Kuzco to say "I hate you", before they plummet into the chasm below.
Aliens has an unusual variation. When Vasquez and Ensign Newbie Gorman get ready to kill themselves and some nearby aliens with a grenade, Vazquez says "You always were an asshole, Gorman." The unusual thing is that she means it, referring to Gorman's incompetence as an officer and such, but there's also a twinge of respect because Gorman showed in courage in trying to come back to save her.
In Revenge of the Sith, after Obi-Wan defeats Anakin in a duel (cutting off Anakin's legs and non-cybernetic arm and leaving him very close to a large pool of lava), Anakin's reaction to Obi-Wan's lecture about his failures as The Chosen One is a very angry "I HATE YOU!"
Khan figured why bother being original and used Ahab's parting words as his final declaration of hatred of Admiral Kirk.
In Dumb and Dumber, as the duo accidentally feed Mental rat poison thinking it's his ulcer medicine, he shouts at Harry "You... son of a bitch!". He's visibly depressed later ("But he blamed me. You heard him. Those were his last words." "Not if you count the gurgling sound.").
Moby-Dick gives us one of the most famous of all time, as seen on the page quote.
In A Song of Ice and Fire, Tywin Lannister never made it secret that he loathed his son Tyrion, but he still grudgingly acknowledged that Tyrion was still his son. When said son finally gets fed up with all of Tywin's abuse and murders him in the privy, Tywin's last words are "you are not my son".
When Robb Stark has to execute one of his bannermen for a treasonous act, he asks him if he has any last words. The man spits at him, "Kill me and be done with it. You are no king of mine."
"On my deathbed, my final wish is to have my ex-wives rush to my side so I can use my dying breath to tell them both to go to hell one last time."
In 24, Tony Almeida gets this from his long-time collaborator David Emerson after betraying him.
There is a joke (told in several variants) about a man who, while on deathbed, asks his wife to marry a certain person after his death. She agrees, and then says "I thought you hated him". With his last breath, the husband says "hell yes I do".
In Red vs. Blue Church uses his dying words to say that he always hated Tucker most.
Also, during Recreation, when Grif thought they were going to die he used the time to call out Sarge and tell Sarge what he really thought of him.
Romeo and Juliet has the last words of Mercutio (whose death changes the tone of the play completely), where he says this not just of Tybalt (who actually killed him) but Romeo and everyone in the families whose feud lead to his death.
Towards the end of 8-Bit Theater, Black Mage starts using power that essentially make him a Humanoid Abomination and killing off the other main cast members. Thief attempts to backstab Black Mage, but it does no harm at all. Thief's last words:
"My only regret is not hating you more."
In one strip of Beaver and Steve, the two title characters are cornered by monsters in an alley. When Beaver asks Steve if there's anything he wants to say before they die, he replies "I've always secretly hated you."
As Redcloak's brother Right-eye is dying at the end of The Order of the Stick prequel Start of Darkness, he refers to his brother as "Redcloak", a name he basically considers a demeaning slave name, for the first time.
In Dragon Ball Abridged, Guldo, the Butt Monkey from the Ginyu Force, often tried to reach out and be friendly to Vegeta, only for Vegeta to abuse him in return. In particular, Vegeta had a fondness for throwing doggie treats at Guldo's head, which Guldo found especially demeaning. When Guldo is fighting Gohan and Krillin, he gets mortally wounded by a sneak attack by Vegeta, and begins pondering the afterlife... and Vegeta breaks it up by throwing a dog biscuit at his head.
Bakura: Marik, I... I hate you. I hate you with all my heart. I hate you more than I've ever hated anybody. I hate you so much I can barely take it. In fact, I want to go on hating you for the rest of my life. And if our world is destroyed, well, I won't be able to hate you anymore.
Marik: Oh, Bakura! I had no idea you felt that way about me! I-if it makes you feel any better, I hate you too. I think I hated you from the moment I first met you.
Bakura: In that case Marik, if we win this duel, let us go and make sweet hatred together. Just you and me. Hating each other. All night long.
Marik: Yes! Wait a second, are you coming on to me? I already told you, Bakura, I'm not gay!
In Family Guy, when a very drunk Peter accidentally causes his father's death, Francis asks Peter to come closer to listen to what he has to say. His last words were "You're a fat, stinking drunk!" Francis "loved" Peter like a son, but he never LIKED him. Peter soon realized afterward that Francis wasn't even his biological father in the first place.
In the Futurama episode "Teenage Mutant Leela's Hurdles", Professor Farnsworth (who's drowning) curses Zoidberg (not for any related reason, everyone just hates him). Definitely a parody of the Dying Curse trope.
Fansworth: With my last breath, I curse Zoidberg!
From the 1949 Looney Tunes "High Diving Hare," after being tricked by Bugs Bunny for the third time, Yosemite Sam unfalls to glare at his adversary long enough to say, "Ah hate you." Sam then resumes plummeting to his doom.