"The city was on fire for weeks... maybe months, I don't know. I hid down here in the museum... it was the closest building to the shelter I was in. But I could hear what was happening above. People howling like animals. Chaos. Looting, killing, it's like every foul thing inside of them came out."An asteroid is falling to Earth. A tentacular monstrosity has risen from the depths and is unstoppably destroying everything and spawning horrors. Satan has successfully copulated and his spawn will doom us all. Regardless, it's The End of the World as We Know It, which means it's time to party. Or Freak Out!. Or run. Whatever. There's no tomorrow, which means all bets are off. This usually crops up in Just Before the End settings. Either the hero takes part in the orgiastic excesses before the start of The Hero's Journey or he holds himself above it all to show nobility, or maybe he has no clue what's going on and just gets caught up in the action. This comes in two forms:
— Carol, Fallout 3
- The world is currently ending. Everyone is freaking out and going crazy, drinking, looting, and having an evil time.
- The world has ended, and civilization is gone. All that's left are survivalist compounds, roving bands of brutal raiders, chaos and despair, and a lone anti-hero with a cool car.
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- An ad for Pepsi Max has a group of guys invoking this trope by staging a fake newscast announcing that the earth is about to be hit by an asteroid to enable their friend to score with a woman in a bar.
Anime and Manga
- Fist of the North Star is one of the prime examples of this trope. After the world gets devastated by nuclear war, practically all forms of government have been abandoned. The highest sort of organization the villages have are little communities headed by an elder. Meanwhile, there are either random gangs of mohawked thugs or armies organized under one very powerful individual, and both are more than willing to take what they want from the villages without remorse.
- Go Nagai's Violence Jack, from which Fist of the North Star took inspiration, is even worse about this trope than that series, and its villains sink to depths of utter depravity that would provide inspiration for the darker manga that would follow.
- Shouran Academy during the zombie outbreak in Apocalypse no Toride.
- Dragon Ball Z: Trigger Happy lunatic Van Zant decides to go on a killing spree when Majin Buu goes on his rampage, apparently with the rationale that, since Buu was going to destroy the world either way, he wants to go out with a bang. However, he soon drops this and decides to kill Majin Buu so he would be able to go on killing people himself, which doesn't end well for him.
- In Magical Girl Apocalypse, corrupt cop Akuta declares that with the Magical Girl invasion and Zombie Apocalypse, he can do whatever he feels like, which includes killing and raping.
- Christopher Titus' 2000 routine "Norman Rockwell Is Bleeding" closes with a bit that evokes this trope. According to Titus, when the apocalypse does happen, the "normal people" of the world will run around screaming "OH MY GOD! THE WORLD IS ENDING!" while the "screwed-up people" of the world will merely stand by thinking, "Hey... there's nobody watching the Lexus dealership!"
Christopher Titus: We're going to the apocalypse with leather and a CD player!
- Inverted and invoked by V in V for Vendetta (both film and comic). He's trying to bring about the end of a fascist system by increasing the amount of disorder. He inspires the population to more acts of violence and vandalism, which causes the government to crack down, which leads to more uprising, and so on. The inversion comes from the fact that, for V, the anarchy was a means to an end; the fascist government was bad, the anarchy was worse, but was a necessary step to achieve a truly happy ending with a "proper" government. It's telling that, as an agent of said anarchy, he didn't feel (in the comic at least) that he was even worthy of said happy ending.
- In the comic at least, he draws an explicit distinction between Chaos and Anarchy (which literally means "without leaders"). He likens it to the difference between "do-as-you-please" and "do-as-you-will". The Chaos is a temporary phase of disorder in which the repressed people vent their frustration and hostility, but it will eventually give way to a more ordered period of Anarchy in which people will be truly free and able to organize/cooperate without the oppressive fascism of the Norsefire government. Or maybe it won't. Comic V doesn't really care either way, tearing down the old being his only goal. Building something new he leaves for his successor.
- Judge Dredd:
- In Origins, during the Atomic War of 2070, the young Judge trainees Dredd and Rico, along with their field supervisor, came across a group of U.S. soldiers who were gang raping a civilian in the middle of the ensuing chaos in the nuclear exchange. When the soldiers sneer that rules don't matter as they're going to die anyway, the Judges oblige them.
- Towards the end of the Total War arc, Vienna is caught up in a sector affected by a nuclear blast. One man attempts to rape her, telling her that it hardly mattered now as the city was being nuked. Luckily, Nimrod comes to her rescue.
- In Apocalypse Nerd, North Korea bombs Seattle, and while a "nerd camp" and a feminist commune seem to be weathering being cut off by the U.S. government in the Cascade mountains just fine, outside the camps, there are raving gangs of big city refugees and Native Americans looting small towns and other settlements of any useful supplies.
- The Conversion Bureau: The Other Side of the Spectrum has this in its background, marking it as a much Darker and Edgier The Conversion Bureau story. The few nations that still exist untouched and unconsumed by the Barrier aren't exactly in good shape.
- China: By the time of the main story, it's devolved into a lawless hellhole, with "reports of mass public executions, mass suicides, riots and God knows what else in whatever's left of the place."
- Brazil: We don't see much outside of Rio De Janeiro. However, it's become an almost Cyberpunk Wretched Hive reminiscent of Elysium, full of starving War Refugees, incredibly overpopulated, and so short on food that some jobs actually pay in food rations instead of money. The narrator describes the city as "damn near a warzone" and considers it a terrible idea to walk outside his apartment without body armor. He also alludes to race riots and food riots, and there's apparently lost newfoals in the city.
- America: It's not in good shape either. Despite the fact that the PHL/UN taskforce has rather good publicity, there's growing anti-pony movements affiliated with the HLF, which has become a frighteningly hate-filled movement of Right Wing Militia Fanatics with enough firepower and/or rage to attempt a takeover of a military base. Not to mention, like the people in Rio, most civilians are going hungry a lot of the time.
- Before and during the Alien Invasion in Worldwar: War of Equals, several examples pop up:
- According to Chapter 5: Interlude to War 2 when The Race's existence was announced in Brazil, preachers in the street became common and there were rumors of cults abducting tourist.
- Two months before the invasion, UFO and Mayan Doomsday cults spring up and attack military installations in San Francisco. They end up getting hunted down by the FBI and the Department of Homeland Security.
- Los Angeles has been reduced to a hellhole reminiscent of the Rodney King riots thanks to lack of power and drinking water.
- In Ambience: A Fleet Symphony, after the nukes finished falling, there was a second American Civil War that ended with several parts of the US seceding to form their own private sovereignties. Gangs and bandits rule much of the rest. The governments that survive, whether the Feds in America or elsewhere in the world, are little better than the rebels. Reawakening to this brave new world is what has soured many ship girls to the idea of being subordinate to humanity.
Film — Animated
- The Simpsons Movie: When the Simpsons family (minus Homer) return to Springfield for the first time after it's sealed under a glass dome and cut off from the outside world, they find it a wrecked cityscape of seemingly abandoned ruins. The first human they meet is Moe Szyslak, who is wearing a bathrobe, two bandoliers filled with bullets and a traffic cone on his head, and pronounces himself the Emperor of All Springfield. When Barney, offscreen, denies this, Moe responds by chucking a grenade at him.
Film — Live Action
- We see the aftermath of the apocalypse in 28 Days Later. Apparently, suicide was more common than not, as was an increase in church attendance.
- Seeking a Friend for the End of the World: An asteroid is headed for earth and people are doing everything from heroin to hiring assassins to kill themselves.
- While it doesn't happen for the world, Phil Connors in Groundhog Day discusses with a couple of guys what they would do if there was no tomorrow. Their enthusiastic answer is that they could do whatever they wanted, now with no consequences. Inspired by this, Phil decides he's going to live his "Groundhog Day" Loop in the most outlandish way possible.
Phil: What if there were no tomorrow?
Gus: No tomorrow? That would mean there would be no consequences, there would be no hangovers. We could do whatever we wanted!
Phil: [thinking] That's true. We could do...whatever we wanted.
- In Children of Men, society descends further and further into chaos as people realize that the human race will be extinguished in a matter of decades since reproduction is no longer possible.
- Invoked by Bane in The Dark Knight Rises. He wants to show Batman how depraved his city can be, given the chance. Quite a few citizens step up to the plate.
- Independence Day featured an upcoming alien invasion with a wide range of behaviour: panicking masses, looting, people trying to initiate contact, media covering the events, people awaiting more information, military calmly preparing for the worst, all of this portrayed in a surprisingly plausible way.
- The Day After has a rather low-key version of this trope. As tensions first build and then erupt into (conventional) war, the reaction of the public becomes more and more high strung, with traffic jams as people flee the cities, grocery stores being utterly overwhelmed by customers, and phone lines quickly becoming jammed as people try to get in contact with distant loved ones. Then the nukes launch and the building panic boils over with people stampeding en masse in a desperate attempt to seek shelter before the warheads start detonating.
- Threads follows a similar pattern to The Day After, except in Britain instead of the central United States.
- In The Road the world has descended into chaos. It's the law of the jungle.
- The Seventh Seal depicts a historical version of this during the Black Death. Lisa the blacksmith's wife runs away with her lover and passes herself off as "Lady Cunegunde"; some people go drinking and wenching, while others Burn the Witch!.
- Evolution goes with the first version, except it's more of a drunken frat party and one girl with a "I Don't Want To Die A Virgin" placard, among other more adolescent displays of anarchy.
Orlando Jones: (on smoking again after he'd long quit) Not much of a point to clean living anymore.
- Shown in Deep Impact: when the American President reveals that a comet is on a crash-course for Earth, he immediately attempts to head it off by declaring martial law and invoking emergency powers to freeze wages and prices. This is shown to be mostly successful: barring a few riots, society keeps functioning. Things start breaking down as the comet's impact grows imminent and the government retreats to its shelters, with the entire East Coast attempting to evacuate at once (with predictable results).
- Played straight in Battleship, when news of the Alien Invasion spreads, there are riots happening in several parts of the world. Though the attack is only on Hawaii, there are people who believe that its the end of the world.
- In Left Behind (2014): everybody seems to lose their shit when the Rapture takes place.
- In 20 Years After: There are no longer any modern governments due to the aftermath of the nuclear war and plague. There are only small settlements left.
- In The War of the Worlds as Dr. Forrester drives a truck full of equipment meant to help find a weakness to fight the martians, the equipment never makes it to a lab set up in the mountains. While driving through Los Angeles, a mob of rioters throws off the equipment from the truck, beat up Dr. Forrester when he tried to fight them off, and drive off with anyone who could hang on. When someone tried to bribe his way on, he was told his money was no good anymore, and thrown off.
- in Empire of the Sun, Basie mentions to Jim that the worst part of a war were the beginning and end. When the Japanese invade, they bomb Shanghai, and eliminate any token resistance, while people run every which way they can, and Jim loses his parents in the chaos. When the occupation sets in, foreign nationals are rounded up where they try to lead a comfortable life under Japanese care. When the Empire of Japan is defeated, the internees run out of the camp as allied forces systematically destroy any remnants of Japanese resistance, and Jim has to fend for himself for a while after being forsaken by Basie, until he's found by Allied forces and reunited with his parents.
- After The Day in Alas, Babylon, a not insignificant fraction of the town get dead drunk. A smaller fraction just gets dead. In the months that follow, the citizens of Fort Repose have to learn that "highwayman" wasn't always a romantic figure...
- On the Beach - at the end, people were just taking stuff from stores. Also, hosting a lethal car race.
- Moon Crash Series: "the dead and the gone" - stealing from corpses on the street to get food on the black market.
- In Isaac Asimov's Nightfall a planet with six suns periodically goes through an eclipse producing one night of total darkness every couple of thousand years, which freaks everyone on the planet out. They basically burn down their entire civilization in the freakout; then the survivors start over from scratch. By the time of the next eclipse, the only record of the previous one is in mythology.
- Newsflesh The novella Countdown has some of the major figures killing themselves as the rising begin. And San Diego 2014: The Last Stand of the California Browncoats has people going to San Diego determined to go to San Diego Comic Con despite rumors of the zombie apocalypse...rumors which turn out to be true.
- In The Road the world has descended into chaos. It's the law of the jungle.
- The Last Policeman has this as a framing device: A comet has been detected that will hit Earth and wipe out all life, without any possibility of survival. Society continues for about a month before people start to realize the futility, and subsequently everything starts breaking down. Jobs are abandoned, food starts to get scarce, and people start partying like it's the end of the world. In the midst of all this, someone is killed, and the protagonist, the titular last policeman, takes it upon himself to find the murderer, even as all his colleagues ask why he even bothers when everyone is going to die anyway.
- In the early Discworld novel The Light Fantastic, this occurs as the Disc heads toward a red star, and the population increasingly tends toward anarchy. In particular, because the Disc is implied to consist mainly of magocracies at this time, the established regimes fall apart when wizards discover that, under the red star's influence, magic stops working. Death notes this and comments on its strangeness:
The death of a warrior or the old man or the little child, this I understand, and I take away the pain and end the suffering. I do not understand this death-of-the-mind.
- Played with in The Twilights Last Gleaming. In part because of the nature of the apocalypse, society doesn't instantly collapse. However, as the reality of what has happened after the Yellowstone eruption sinks in, this trope plays out on the scale of nations, with Western Europe invading South America to grab their farmland, since Europe is about to turn into a frozen wasteland.
- Buffy the Vampire Slayer, for all that it treated apocalypse as routine, didn't often show the effect on the general public because the public almost never knew. Only thrice did they show how the public would respond to a world-ending threat.
- The season three finale: the students of Sunnydale High band together to take on an attack of vampires and snake. Averted.
- Season four, "Hush": The Gentlemen steal everyone's voices. Everyone freaks out, gets drunk, goes to church, resorts to violence in the streets.
- Season seven finale: Everyone knows the end is entirely nigh, and they all leave town. With a minimum of violence, even.
- In an episode of M*A*S*H when they think that they are all about to be killed, several of the NCO's get together for a high-stakes poker game. One of the neophytes asks, "So, what are the stakes again?" After explaining that they're basically a year's wages for the cheap chips, he asks, "And if we don't die tomorrow?" "Whites are a cent, blues are a quarter, and reds are a dollar"
- In Smallville, riots break out all over the world when Brainiac unleashes a computer virus which starts shutting down all technology on Earth (happens during the episodes Vessel and Zod)
- The Walking Dead is an extended exploration of this trope, with the first two seasons basically breaking Rick down and forcing him to abandon civilized behavior.
- This is the story of several episodes of Sliders particularly "Last Days" and "Exodus, part 1," in which the end is near and society has degenerated in this way.
- The X-Files, episode "War of Coprophages": People in one town think that they are all going to be killed by cockroaches which got there either due to Government Conspiracy and their experiments, or that they are alien robotic invaders. Chaos ensues. It's most apparent in one scene in a convenience store where everybody is trying to grab whatever supplies they can and two ladies fight over the last can of insecticide.
- "When the World Ends" by The Burning Hell is a vaguely tongue in cheek consideration of the end of the world, and asks what sorts of anarchy society might descend into.
When the world ends and everybody shows their fangs will there still be right and wrong? ... When the world ends and it's all a bit depressing will there be any law, will it be like Mardi Gras?
- Parodied in the Vocaloid song "Finally the End of the World (Except Not Really)", in which the world doesn't end on Mayan Doomsday and the singer has to apologize to the people she "Insulted, defiled, graffiti’d, and tortured, stole stuff from, harassed and abandoned"
Because in the end
It ended up
- The Far Side: From 1986. Two fishermen look at mushroom clouds, one says "I'll tell you what this means, Norm—no size restrictions and screw the limit."
- This trope, as well as the efforts to avert it and bring order back to the world, is a major part of the Fallout universe. Starting in April 2052 and ending on October 23, 2077 the world is embroiled in the Resource Wars, a series of conflicts over the last of the oil in the world, starting between smaller states and eventually resulting in Europe and the Middle East falling apart when the oil fields eventually dry up. China and the United States (and an annexed Canada) become the last remaining stable powers and intense rivals, a rivalry that boils over into nuclear conflict that finishes off both. There is widespread anarchy shortly after the bombs fell and in the ensuing weeks. The Sierra Army Depot closes itself off from the outside world as the Vaults seal and the Enclave escape into shelters. Major cities such as Los Angeles, Washington D.C., and Mexico City are destroyed. Survivors eke out a living in the ruins. Las Vegas and the surrounding Mojave area are largely protected by Mr. House and the Boston area receives a nuclear strike that turns the area into a radioactive quagmire.
- 2161: 84 years after the bombs fell begins Fallout. Civilization is reduced to shantytowns struggling to make an agrarian existence on the soil. There is trade between towns, especially to and from the Hub, but roving raider gangs as well as mutant animals pose a constant threat outside of city walls. The closest there is to Pre-War society is the Vaults, such as Vault 13. The only "superpower" is an army of Super Mutants that have ties to the Children of the Cathedral.
- 2197: 36 years after (120 years after the Great War) Fallout Tactics begins. Villages across the Midwest subside on agriculture. Major cities, such as Chicago, are left to rot as ruins with tribes living in the outskirts. The major superpower is the Brotherhood of Steel, the remnants of the Super Mutant army from the first game, and the Calculator. Sometime during this game and Fallout 3 the survivors of the Brotherhood airship form a new chapter in the Midwest.
- 2208: 47 years after the first game (131 years after the Great War) Fallout: Brotherhood of Steel begins. Texas, along with the rest of the Midwest, is still habited by tribal villages, while some city ruins are still being used. Major superpowers are the Brotherhood of Steel's Texas Expedition, the Reavers (a techno-religious cult), another group of remnants of the Super Mutant army from the first game, and the Church of the Lost.
- 2241: 80 years after the first game (164 years after the Great War), Fallout 2 begins. Major settlements, such as the New California Republic (previously Shady Sands) and Vault City, thrive and begin to bring order to the wasteland. Smaller settlements such as Arroyo continue to eke out a living but somewhat thrive. Smaller towns and cities from Pre-War times survive, such as New Reno which was shielded by mountains and the fact that it was a lesser target. New Reno becomes a den of vice and sin, all of the worst attributes from Las Vegas and amplified. Major Powers are still the Brotherhood of Steel and the Enclave.
- 2277: 116 years after the first game (200 years after the Great War), Fallout 3 begins. The Capital Wasteland is a barren and dusty wasteland with sparse water supplies, as the Potomac River being rendered partially undrinkable due to the radiation still present. The Pitt, once lawless ruins, in under control of Lord Ashur and his raider army. The East Coast Brotherhood, a splinter faction of the Brotherhood, as well as the "Brotherhood Outcasts", forms a major super power alongside Rivet City (a settlement build on and around an aircraft carrier) and the Enclave. Roving bands of raiders and Super Mutants, as well as ghouls and assorted monsters, prove a constant threat to anyone outside of a settlement's walls. There is minor trade between villages but not much else. Point Lookout, Maryland is nothing but a radioactive swamp inhabited by mutant rednecks called "the Swampfolk" as well as mutated animals and tribals. Additionally, smugglers set up shop in order to profit off anything they can.
- 2281: 120 years after the first game (204 years after the Great War), Fallout: New Vegas begins. In the 40 years between this game and Fallout 2, the New California Republic has established functioning law and order across what was California and Oregon. The young state has a standing army, currency, trade, mail system, and other pre-War services (though not to the same extent). The Followers of the Apocalypse provide large-scale humanitarian aid to the needy. Raider gangs are non-existent, long since replaced with political corruption and cut-throat business practice. In the east, the ex-NCR citizen Edward Sallow forms "Caesar's Legion" with Bill Calhoun and Joshua Graham. Formed out of seven tribes, Caesar's Legion becomes a major power east of the Colorado River bringing order under threat of death. Between these powers stands the Mojave Wasteland, which received only nine strikes due to the foresight of one Mr. House. The only major city is New Vegas, a ghost town turned glittering oasis. Small towns dot the area with trade between them, and are largely protected by the New California Army, with only the Fiends and Great Khans proving a large threat. Outside of the Mojave are primitive tribes such as the Dead Horses, the Sorrows, and the White Legs. The Enclave is non-existent and the Brotherhood of Steel is forced to hide in bunkers.
- 2287: 126 years after the first game (210 years after the Great War), Fallout 4 begins. The Commonwealth, post-War Boston, is in the same shape as the Capital Wasteland ten years prior. Raider gangs, monsters and Super Mutants prowl and settlements struggle to survive. The current superpower is the Brotherhood of Steel who arrived the same year in vertibirds and The Prydwen, an armored airship that serves as a mobile base. The Commonwealth Minutemen were once major players and allowed widespread protection but have since crumbled. Additionally, a mysterious group called the Institute is rumored to be present in the area. The Railroad is a minor faction and underground movement with a primary aim of freeing sentient synths from their creators at the Institute.
- The Last of Us: Over a 20 year span, 60% of humanity lies dead from either the cordyceps infection or from struggling to survive against the infected and themselves. Roaming gangs of bandits prey on small family groups, women and children are routinely abused, raped and murdered, and cannibalism is all too common.
- The protagonists of the Dead Rising franchise have to deal with a lot of looters and psychopaths who pop up with the Zombie Apocalypse.
- Done oddly in 1/0: It's the creator who decides to break all the rules when the apocalypse comes, removing the consistent physics and resurrecting all the characters who were Killed Off for Real so he can send them into our world before the comic ends.
- In one page of minus, after an asteroid is detected on a collision course with Earth, there are scenes of how various people react, some of them fitting the trope.
- In Bicycle Boy, the unforgiving desert is filled with several nomadic anarchist groups, and one of the main cities is described as run by anarchists.
- Cracked features a photoplasty contest "If Everyone Knew the World was Ending Tomorrow".
- Cracked.com's The Embarrassing Aftermath of the Mayan 'Apocalypse'
- This was one of the intents of "The Message" in the backstory to The Salvation War; the faithful would lay down and die, the rest would devolve into anarchy, and Satan's armies would stamp over the remnants. Instead, barely a handful of people heeded The Message, the first wave of the invasion ran into an array of main battle tanks and heavy artillery, and the rest of the story is mankind fighting back against the betrayal by Hell AND Heaven. And winning.
- Futurama Bender gave up his seat on the only evacuation ship just so he could participate in looting when earth was about to get destroyed (not that he doesn't steal under mundane conditions too). In fact, he displays this behavior as early as the eighth episode. When Fry accidentally discovers the smelliest object in the known universe and Prof. Farnsworth declares it's headed for Earth...
Bender: Welp, let's get lootin'! [picks up TV and walks out, whistling]
- The Simpsons:
- A common historical pattern, in historical accounts of lethal epidemics, death of empires, financial collapse and other severe regressions, is the breakdown of social mores and restraints on behavior.
- Thucydides said of the epidemic that took nearly a third of the Athenian populace in the summer of 430 B.C.E.:
Men now coolly ventured on what they had formerly done in a corner, and not just as they pleased, seeing the rapid transitions produced by persons in prosperity suddenly dying and those who before had nothing succeeding to their property [...] Fear of gods or law of man there was none to restrain them. As for the first, they judged it to be just the same whether they worshipped them or not, as they saw all alike perishing; and for the last, no one expected to live to be brought to trial for his offenses, but each felt that a far severer sentence had been already passed upon them all and hung ever over their heads, and before this fell it was only reasonable to enjoy life a little.
- The Black Death of 1348-1350 saw many outbreaks of mob violence against Jews, Roma, foreigners, lepers and other marginalized groups whom many Europeans blamed for the plague.
- The first years after the fall of the Soviet Union led to the dramatic rise of The Mafiya and other scofflaw groups. Hell, the first years after any of Russia's revolutions and societal catastrophes.
- The February-October period of 1917 is an even better example. The central authority ceased to exist, the police was shut down by angry mobs, the peripheries of the empire moved towards secession and the army started to wander away in the middle of a World War. Say what you will about Vladimir Lenin and his Bolsheviks, but they put an end to this chaos.
- The collapse of Sadam's dictatorial government led to the Americans entering Baghdad almost unopposed. That also had the unintended consequence of ending any semblance of law and order as Iraqi army personnel abandoned their posts and the police stopped patrolling the streets. Jails were opened liberating political prisoners, as well as legitimate criminals. While the U.S. Army guarded several strategic spots in the city, the jubilant crowds went ahead and looted Sadam's palaces, shops, museums, and other peoples' homes. Sadam's merciless tactics ensured that all Iraqis were oppressed equally, and anyone who showed dissent was brutally taken down. With his army, and brutality gone, militant extremist groups grew by leaps and bounds, forcing the U.S. into a bloody guerrilla war, and eventually led to the rise of ISIS.
- The Somali Civil War began when multiple clan-based rebel groups overthrew the government of Siad Barre in 1991, and after that the various groups almost immediately turned on each other, rather than set up a new central government. The next few years saw Somalia collapse into a mess of feuding warlords, guerrilla warfare, rampant piracy off the coast, disease and famine. The violence and anarchy, which has claimed the lives of an estimated 500,000 people, resulted in an environment that many observers equated to a real-life Mad Max. It's been a slow process, but gradually, a central government has started to form in Somalia with the assistance of several African Union nations and other foreign governments, but that government continues to find itself challenged by armed groups like the Islamic militant Al-Shabaab.