In One Piece, after Nico Robin joins the crew, Nami is the first of the crew members to voice her objection over Robin forcing herself into the crew. Robin manages to win Nami over quickly by giving her money, and later she refers to Robin as her Cool Big Sis. Of course, Nami's objections were less about Robin's gender, and more because she was The Dragon of the previous arc's Big Bad. The fact that Nami had an "older sister" type friendship with Vivi - the princess whose kingdom went through intense turmoil because of Robin's actions - and probably had the most empathy of anyone in the crew for the pain she went through probably had something to do with it as well.
Speaking of Princess Vivi, it should be pointed out that Nami had no objections to letting her travel with the crew back when she was still the only woman in it. In fact, it was her idea.
Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann: Yoko has some difficulty dealing with Nia when she joins Team Dai-Gurren, more because her Moe-ness wins over the guys than because of her being the Big Bad's daughter. Possibly justified in that, back then, she considered Nia dead weight: they were fighting a rebellion, and Nia had no combat skills. Then Nia won Yoko over via showing her Silk Hiding Steel side, specially via not even blinking when Yoko released her from a monster via shoting said monster when it was holding Nia hostage, and later said she totally trusted Yoko to not fail a shot that could have potentially killed her. It was sealed when Nia asked Yoko to give her an Important Haircut (as she lost a bit of hair in the rescue process) and Yoko did so without any problems.
It may not entirely count anyway, as there were other females in the team already before Nia joined. (Kittan's sisters, anyone?)
Played straight and for absolute comedy: in Yayoi's first apparition in the elementary school arc, Sanae was pissed and openly jealous. It's not helped by a totally oblivious Yayoi revealing her past with Tsubasa and, well, by both of the being little girls back then. (They're hinted to have become good friends as teenagers.)
Downplayed: Sanae showed some jealousy when Kumi arrived, but this was mostly because she openly said she joined due to Tsubasa and other than that they're best friends. Also, Sanae is the one who brought Yukari to the team and never showed anything similar to jealousy towards her.
Marvel Star Wars: Princess Leia shows signs of this when a Fiery Redheaded wingmate of Luke's, one Shira Brie, starts flirting with him, although she gets over it. Then Luke discovers that she was an Imperial Deep Cover Agent after unwittingly shooting her down during a mission; she survives, and eventually returns as "Lumiya".
In the same series, Leia also dislikes Dani, a Zeltron woman who travels with them on several occasions and also has a thing for Luke. But after they work together on a mission this dislike largely fades.
Subverted in Iron Man 2. Tony Stark expects this to happen with Pepper and the new aide Natalie Rushman, but the two of them actually get along fine. Pepper takes it as a sign of Tony's arrogance that he'd assume another Love Triangle would form over him.
Pepper does once snap at Natalie, but it had nothing to do with her being a woman or any Love Triangle, but because of the very correct observation that things seemed to go bad whenever Natalie was in the area (since Natalie is actually an undercover agent of S.H.I.E.L.D). By their next scene together, Pepper has calmed down and made up with Natalie.
Carla toward Dr. Clock in Scrubs. Mainly because as a psychiatrist Clock was just as good, if not better, at being The Chick and began solving everyone elses problems (while, ironically enough, doing a study into exactly the same sort of workplace hostility while being unaware of Carla's grudge).
The Big Bang Theory: Penny acts like this a couple of times toward an attractive Girl of the Week who will usually be using one of the boys for something. When more permanent members Bernadette and Amy join, though, she's very friendly and bonds with them quickly. Even afterward she ends up this way toward Raj's sister Prya for a while, but ends up befriending her as well (bonding, ironically enough, over their sex life with Leonard.)
Averted in an episode of the American The Office. When a purse saleswoman comes into the office to sell her products, Michael jokes that Pam will be catty to her since she [Pam] is no longer the hottest woman in the office. Both women are understandably repulsed by Michael's statement.
On Star Trek: Voyager, B'Elanna Torres reacted this way toward Seven of Nine. It was pretty justified.
As feral on Mutant X are notoriously territorial, Shalimar did not take kindly to another feral joining the team. Per the trope, the new girl was a joy bringer everyone else liked. Worse, Shalimar was ordered to stay at Home Base due to an injury but was normally the I Can Still Fight type without two layers of jealousy for extra motivation. It turned out the new feral was even more territorial. She staged the accident that injured Shalimar then joined the team to finish her off.
Chiana in Farscape tolerated Aeryn, even seeing her as something like a sister (Aeryn was also on the ship before Chiana was) but reacted this way toward both Jool and Sikozu when they came aboard.
An episode of The Brothers Garcia had Carlos and Lorenna trying to join a band. The girl in the band (aptly named "Diva") protested against Lorenna joining because she wanted to be the only girl.
Lampshaded in Red Cap, and put down to the instinctive need of a woman to remove a female rival. When Jo complains this is sexist, her male partner says he'll stop having this belief when women stop proving him right.
Kate from Robin Hood is in the midst of a conversation with Much and Allan in which she explicitly identifies herself "the girl" of the gang. Seconds later Robin turns up with Isabella in tow. Kate immediately snarls: "what's the reason for her?" It all culminated in a Love Triangle and a Cat Fight.
On That '70s Show, Eric's hot cousin Penny comes to visit and ticks Donna and Jackie off because the guys keep fawning over her.
Jackie: How dare she come into our town, and try to out-hot us?
In Sliders, Wade Wells character does not respond well to the adding of Maggie Beckett to the group. Wade was the only women in the first seasons.
Ashley of Mass Effect 1 is critical toward Liara joining the squad. Though in this case, it was not specifically because Liara was female (...sort of...), but because she was the daughter of a major enemy agent. However it's played a little more straight in that there can be a little bit of jealousy regarding a romanced Liara.
An odd variant in Something Positive: PeeJee joins Jhim's role-playing group and designs a female character. Mike, who had previously been the only one with a female character, objects to having two in the party. The Dungeon Master, annoyed, declares that something Mike did in their last session has given his character a permanent Gender Bender.
In Red vs. Blue, when Agent Tex first met Sister, she was rather hostile toward Sister, even going so far as to lay down the law in a private conversation (which Sister, who is one of the Cloudcuckoolanders of the series, mistook as "you know, girl stuff").
Parodied by The Nostalgia Chick. She's The Lad-ette who doesn't know what a Chick Flick is at first and had a whole mini-arc about not wanting to do just girly movies anymore, but she'll still threaten anyone who dares go into her area of female nostalgia.
Averted on Avatar The Last Airbender. Katara and Toph clashed after Toph joined, but this had nothing to do with gender (Katara even liked having another girl around) and everything to do with Toph's standoffish attitude. Plus the fact that the entire Gaang was sleep-deprived at the time kept everyone on edge.
Subverted on Young Justice.M'gann actually tried to befriend Artemis, but the latter ignored the her efforts and openly oggled Superboy, M'ggan's crush. M'gann was clearly aggravated, but after some light bickering, decided to keep being friendly anyway. Sure enough the two become close friends. Also Averted later when Zatanna and then Rocket show up.
Kimiko from Xiaolin Showdown reacted poorly to the addition of the mermaid Dyris to the team, mainly because Dyris had no problem flirting with the boys to get them to do things for her. Then Dyris taught Kimiko the same trick and they became great friends...but it was discovered later that Dyris was actually evil and that went out the window.
Happens again in the sequel series, Xiaolin Chronicles between Kimiko and Willow. And once again, the new addition is actually evil and ends up leaving so that Kimiko remains the sole female on the team.
In the episode "Forget-Me-Not" Stewie puts Peter, Brian, Joe and Quagmire in a simulation where they all have amnesia and are the only people around just to see what would happen. Aside from a misunderstanding that leads the others to believe Peter destroyed everyone else on Earth they get along fairly well. In the end we see Stewie has done the same thing with Meg, Lois and Bonnie. They started clawing at each other's throats after just a few minutes.
Played with in a cutaway gag where a couple of women compliment each other with unflattering remarks. It then cuts away to two guys who genuinely get along, ending with people singing, "Men! We know how to be friends!"
Inverted in an episode of The Simpsons where Lisa tries to pull off a Jackie Robinson Story and announces she's joining the football team. Only when she gets there she finds out there's three other girls on the team already and the coach is welcoming. Enraged she can't be the only girl on the team (or protest the use of pigskin footballs since they're entirely synthetic and the producing company donates to charity) she runs off crying.
Boom-Boom/Tabitha is the only girl in the Brotherhood house in X-Men: Evolution and when Mystique arrives back she leaves saying "too many girls in this house". Then again, Boom-Boom tended to get along well with other girls as proved by her Romantic Two-Girl Friendship with Amara, and she never really fit in the Brotherhood too well. And considering the stuff Mystique did later...
The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy: One episode featured a tribe of Smurfexpies and Grim tried to capture them. One of his attempts consisted on disguising himself as a female of their species, resulting on him getting a beating from their Smurfette.