There may be possible parallels with the History Of Naval Warfare here, as well. Famous British admiral Horatio Nelson once shocked the world and revolutionized warfare by discarding traditions and turning to risky new tactics, for example.
Space Battleship Yamato featured this trope aplenty, especially in the big battle at the edge of the solar system in the very first episode, which was very obviously inspired by World War II naval engagements. It's hard to imagine making the Space Is An Ocean trope any more explicit than this show did...
Mobile Suit Gundam SEED Destiny the Archangel and the Minerva, engage each other at close range, and firing their weapons when both ships are about to intersect each other.
In the 2009 Star Trek film, we see some beautiful examples, though aversions of Point Defenceless and a general reduction in the amount of Techno Babble from previous Trek incarnations make it a less straight example than most.
The franchise as a whole gives far more focus to the Old School Dogfights between small fighters than to this trope. Usually when capital ships engage each other it is a brief fight. One side will be attempting a Hyperspeed Escape from the very start, or the fight will be a Curb-Stomp Battle with one side at a huge disadvantage, and in either case there will be little time for a Standard Starship Scuffle. For example, we see many of the elements of this trope brought out in The Phantom Menace when the protagonists' Shiny Looking Spaceship is breaking through the Trade Federation's blockade, but from the start the focus is not on the fight, but on trying to escape it.
Star Wars plays this trope straight in the opening battle of Revenge of the Sith. Among other things it lets us take a look at the starships' broadside cannons. The only thing they lack is that they're not muzzle-loaded.
The Battle of Endor from Return Of The Jedi starts out more as a Battle of Midway-style melee, with snub fighters attacking the enemy capital ships, but once the Death Star cranks up its superlaser the Rebel cruisers have no choice but to go in and engage the Imperial Star Destroyers toe-to-toe so that at least the Death Star can't get a clear shot at them. The novelization sort of lampshades it; there's a line to the effect that the opposing capital ships are now exchanging broadsides at point-blank range like the oceangoing vessels of another time and place.
In Serenity, the Final Battle between the Alliance and the Reavers plays out more like a cavalry charge than a naval battle.
To be fair, that's less the fault of the Alliance. The Reavers prefer to charge in and kill. There was also the element of surprise.
The Honor Harrington novels play with this. Although ships do tend to throw everything they've got at each other, they tend to do it from as far away as possible. Prior to the pod revolution, however, missiles were viewed as being more for softening up targets, and the only way to be sure to kill a dreadnaught or superdreadnaught was to close to energy weapon range.*
Even that, however, was still not "knife fight" range as often depicted elsewhere, however, with energy weapon engagements being at least several light-seconds apart.
David Weber was also one of the people behind the space strategy board game Starfire, and the space battles in Honor Harrington, especially early on, are influenced by the game mechanics.
EE Doc Smith's Lensman series had multiple examples, everything from one-on-one battles to huge space fleets fighting each other.
Dread Empire's Fall both plays this straight with the "Established Doctrine" espoused by the Government committee charged with running the war, and uses the Admiral Nelson angle of innovative tactics from the protagonists.
Vernor Vinge's A Fire Upon the Deep has a somewhat unique kind of starship combat. All ships use a kind of "stutter drive" for Faster Than Light Travel, with ships making many short faster-than-light jumps every second. Maneuvering in combat means trying to synchronize your jumps with those of your target, or throwing off the synchronization of your pursuers, while releasing torpedo-like drones that try to get close to the enemy and blow them out of the sky. This somewhat unique form of combat still leaves room for many of the elements of this trope. Because a ship is only in a given location for a fraction of a second before jumping light-years away, getting close to your target becomes important so that your attacks can reach them on time. Shipboard instrumentation simulates things like bright flashes of light from explosions to make the battle more intuitive. The Star Trek Shake and Subsystem Damage make occasional appearances. Perhaps the closest parallel is Hot Sub On Sub Action.
Pandora's Star and Judas Unchained both subvert this trope; space battles happen with nuclear missiles or relativistic projectiles, from many miles away. The crews of the human ships are immersed in the control system, controlling everything through their brains. Maneuvering, if it happens, happens in hyperspace. It still manages to be incredibly dramatic.
Live Action TV
Star Trek is the Trope Codifier; this sort of space combat shows up with frequency in all its incarnations. In the later series, the trope is sometimes averted by having giant capital ships engage in an Old School Dogfight, but it's still played straight very, very often.
In the episode Conundrum, the Enterprise-D hints at an aversion of the franchise's usual Point Defenseless battles, while simultaneously demonstrating why there aren't many fighters to be found in Star Trek when Enterprise destroys a half-dozen in under two seconds in a casual, almost offhanded salvo of phaser fire. That episode might not be the best example, since the fighters they destroy are stated to be technologically inferior to the Federation, but the Borg also swat Federation fighters aside just as easily as they approach Earth, and it's shown that, generally speaking, the relatively-tiny Marquis ships are helpless against Federation and Cardassian capital ships and only good for raiding transports.
In Andromeda, another Gene Roddenberry series, capital ships occasionally got close enough to one another to fire Anti-Proton guns at each other. But most of the time they lobbed relativistic missiles at blips on the tac screen several light-minutes away. And due to gravity manipulation most ships could maneuver like fighters anyway.
One episode of Stargate Atlantis involved Teyla pretending to be a Wraith Hive queen. She ends up starting a fight with another Hive ship, which involves both ships floating alongside one another (mind you, each ship is several miles long) firing powerful energy bolts at each other, while hundreds of their Dart fighters go at each other. In the end, Teyla's Hive only survives because the rest of the team sabotage the other Hive. Teyla then turns to the Hive's Number Two and berates him for questioning her tactics. Said tactics were, apparently, straight out of 18th century (minus Darts) without even any maneuvering or volleys.
The series would partake in this or Old School Dogfighting (the latter typically for the fighters, but occassionally for the faster or more advanced capital ships as well). If one side got the jump on the other before they could react (typically by ambushing them as they exited a Jump Gate, or jumping on them from a jump point of their own making once the target had been lured into a predefined killzone in a inversion of the Hyperspeed Escape) then the fight would be spectacularly brief. If both ships had fair warning that a fight was about to ensue, then it would be relatively lengthy, with the ships launching fighters and long-range attacks, using electronic countermeasures or interceptor weapons systems to avoid incoming fire while trying to get close enough to allow their own weapons systems to overcome the enemy's defenses. On at least one occassion, a duel between two enemy warships resulted in bothships being destroyed.
The first battle of the Earth-Minbari War (after the failed first contact) was near the Vega colony. The Minbari fleet closed to weapons range and waited for the slow Earth ships to take the first shot. The whole battle lasted about 12 seconds with most Earth ships destroyed in the first Minbari volley. Only one ship (a prototype Omega) managed to get close enough to ram a Sharlin war cruiser. Nearly all battles against the Minbari were usually pretty short and one-sided. Oh, and to add more similarities with the Age of Sail, humans had to "eyeball" their weapons at the Minbari (i.e. visual targetting only), as the Minbari stealth systems prevented normal weapons lock.
Firefly is an interesting aversion. The protagonists' Cool Starship is an unarmed transport, not at all designed for battle; when they meet a dangerous foe in space, all they can do is try to outrun it, trick it, or bribe it. In one episode, however, a kind of space battle proves inevitable, as the heroes have to disable a hostile space station. The closest they can come to a standard space battle: One of the characters puts on a space-suit, grabs a rifle, and basically leans out the airlock to take pot-shots at the enemy. (And the rifle has to be partially covered by its own space suit, because it was not meant to work in a vacuum...) Rather than using naval metaphors, Firefly was a Space Western; thus space combat ended up resembling not seagoing ships pounding each other with cannon, but cowboys shooting at each other while riding on horseback or in wagons. The main similarities to this trope were the very short range of the engagement, and the involvement of Phlebotinum Breakdown.
BattleTech's space combat spinoff, BattleSpace / AeroTech has this as one of its core mechanics. WarShips brawl with each other at ridiculously close ranges. The battles are very brutal and reminiscent of sea battles from the age of sail. However, it has advanced rules for Newtonian flight physics instead of the Old School Dogfight style physics, and three dimensional movement is important. Likewise, the fiction usually averts this, with direct combat between capital ships typically fought entirely by instruments and mathematics.
Additionally, 3D combat is handwaved as "just another range modifier", and since most of these battles take place over such insane ranges, the planar weapon distribution could even be structural, only requiring maneuvering rockets to aim in the z-axis (from the frame of reference of our 2D game surface).
The latter influenced the portrayal of space battles in the Honor Harrington books, as one of the creators of the game was also the novels' author, though how the two universes actually use this trope differs.
Attack Vector: Tactical is a good example of an aversion. Battles between "10,000 ton cruisers plying the pitiless depths of space" is the whole point of the game, but special care is taken to realistically simulate physics. As the name implies, the key is all in "vectors and timing". Even 2D Space is averted!
Ground Zero Games's Full Thrust plays this trope straight. Optional rules provide varying degrees of aversion.
Starcraft features this trope both in-game, and in an animation that plays on one of the menu buttons.
The space battle at the end of the first game looks a little more like a dogfight. The space battles in Mass Effect 2 are all between the same two ships, and manage to give the impression of an aircraft attacking an oceangoing ship.
The battle in the first game is a ludicrously short-ranged one for the setting; the Citadel flagship is actually unable to bring its main weapon to bear fast enough before being overwhelmed by smaller enemies much lighter human Cruisers take out in a single shot.
The battles in Mass Effect 3 tend to be one-sided on the part of the Reapers. However, we do get to see geth and quarian fleets slug it out without much maneuvering involved. Interestingly, despite the Codex claiming that the quarian heavy capital ships were upgraded with the Thanix cannons, we never actually see them in action. They keep using their standard Magnetic Weapons.
The Codex claims that all starship weapons have been upgraded to Thanix cannons. However, even during the final battle involving every remaining fleet vs. the Reapers, all ships advance in a wall and wait for Sheppard's order to fire, at which point we see standard shots (i.e. no Reaper-like beam "lances"). Only then do we see some maneuvering, such as dreadnoughts getting within spitting distance of Reapers, despite the fact that they're supposed to be the space equivalent of artillery. Also, all that talk in the second game about firing only when a hit is certain flies right out the window, as we see tons of shots miss... and head straight for Earth.
The X-Universe games often feature slug fests between capital ships at fairly short ranges, even though the weapons will reach out 8km, they're too slow to kill the enemy before they close to sneezing distance. Battles between the player capital ship and AI capital ships usually end with the playerplowing his ship into the AI ship. AI vs AI capital ship battles sometimes result in them both smashing into each other (if the player is speeding up time) due to the poor maneuverability of capital ships and the slow reaction time of sped-up AI.
Bridge Commander does allow you to take direct control over the ship and treat it like a fighter, especially if you're piloting a Bird-of-Prey (they only have forward-firing weapons).
Nexus: The Jupiter Incident is a game designed around this concept. While there are fighters in the game, they're useless until the enemy's flaklasers are disabled. All fights are big slugfests, especially the climactic fight in the penultimate mission, where the player's fleet must fight against the constantly incoming enemy fleets. Lasers are specifically used to knock out enemy systems but don't do much physical damage. The other weapons are meant to damage the hull (mass drivers) and shields (energy shells).
Fixed Forward Facing Weapons are the exception, not the rule. Most guns are turreted and located all over the hull, so you will often see ships rotating to bring additional weapons to bear while the ones currently facing the enemy are recharging.
The Final Battle in the game, while smaller in scale than the Decisive Battle in the penultimate mission, is definitely not much easier. Essentially, you have to slug it out with one of the most powerful ships in the game without your fleet. You also have to do it inside a Negative Space Wedgie that could suck your ship in if you're not careful. If you focus on disabling the enemy engines, though, then the fight becomes easier, as the enemy will then fall into the anomaly.
Artemis Spaceship Bridge Simulator often plays out like this, complete with bow-to-bow gun runs, preceded by long-distance missile firing as they close distance to beam weapon range. Skilled crews often use tactics based more on maneuvering around the enemy to strike weakspots than simply closing range and engaging in a slugfest, but novice crews often resort to simplistic scuffle tactics.
In one mission in Wing Commander III, you're escorting a pair of human destroyers that will engage Kilrathi destroyers in the area if given the opportunity.
One cutscene in the successful mission tree of Secret Ops shows an engagement between a Plunkett heavy cruiser and a Hydra cruiser. The losing mission branch version of the scene shows the Plunkett being swarmed by Nephilim fighters, however.
Computer-controlled Liir will try to swarm your ships and will try to surround-and-pound each of your ships, even if they are using dreadnoughts. If you were counting on a battle line, good luck.
In Homeworld series you command these as a part of gameplay, as this is a space RTS, and your task is not only to ensure that there are enough resources and ships to throw into combat, but to manage the combat itself. Which is harder than it seems because the games completely avoid 2-D Space.
One of the fillers for S.S.D.Dexplains why real life space battles wouldn't look like the movies.
Averted in Outsider. When the Loroi and Umiak engage in space combat, their fleets are face to face with each other at considerable long distances. The Umiak attack via Zerg Rush, and missile spam, while Loroi fight with carefully coordinated attacks with Beam Spam.