Keep It Foreign
"Admiral Piquet (Joaquim de Almeida) — a Frenchman who is so devious he substitutes French NATO troops for Americans in a phony rescue mission, and calls them off just when Burnett is desperately waving from a pickup area. Bet you a shiny new dime that when this movie plays in France, Admiral Piquet becomes an Italian.note "Say there is a foreign product which gets ported over to your local market. It is notable, though, that the original version features references to this new culture. This reference will often be changed to another culture. This is usually done to keep the "exotic flavor" that is invoked in the original work, but sometimes this is done for less wholesome reasons: After all, who wants to see a bad guy whose defining character trait is that he comes from the audience's own country? Other times, it can have a pragmatic reason, since sometimes having the person be foreign is necessary to the plot. (For example, in the play Chicago, a minor plot revolves around an innocent woman being sentenced to death primarily because she spoke no English and no-one could understand her Hungarian. Obviously, this wouldn't work when the show was performed in Hungary, so the Hungarian was changed to Chinese.) When this is not done and there is a footnote or any author/translator's comentary of sorts, it will often say something on the lines of "In English in the original". Subtrope of Cultural Translation. See also Accent Adaptation, Too Long; Didn't Dub.
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Anime & Manga
- In an Fan Sub of The World God Only Knows, when Keima needs to "capture" Ayumi(sports girl) for the second time, he reaches a point where she asks him to confess to her(long story). Being Keima, and not really loving her he kept saying "I love you". In the original, the first was in Japanese, the second was in English. In the translation, however, the first was in English the second was in French, to preserve the meaning.
- Yukari-sensei becoming a Spanish teacher in the Azumanga Daioh manga translation might count here. It later becomes an Inconsistent Dub, because several jokes later depended upon her knowing English.
- In the dub of the anime she's simply a language teacher instead of an English one. And when one girl challenges another to say a phrase in English, it's been translated to "Why don't you say it in French?"
- Fortunately, the most recent manga translation just relies on Translation Convention and uses <brackets to indicate English speech>. This is necessary, since the blackboard (and at one point, the language bubbles) actually has proper English written on it.
- In the Pretty Sammy OVAs, Pixy Misa peppers her speech with Gratuitous English. When Pioneer dubbed the show into English, it became Gratuitous French.
- Eiru and An were posing as American exchange students in Sailor Moon and turned into French exchange students in the DiC English dub. In the Viz Media dub, they're transfer students who "lived abroad for some time" in a Spanish-speaking country.
- In one episode of Sailor Moon, there is an English gentleman who invites the Sailor Senshi to his party, and they try to learn English to communicate there. In The '90s English dub, the new language was changed to French and so was the nationality of the rich gentleman who invited the girls and Darien to his party.
- This happened once more in the Super S season, when Tiger's Eye was posing as a Funny Foreigner. The "One! Two! Three!" incantation the Amazon Trio used was even replaced with "Un! Deux! Trois!" just for that episode.
- Inverted in both the two Spanish language dub versions (i.e., Latin American and European), and the Italian dub version, where the word "luna" is used in both languages when referring to the moon. In all three, the black cat character retains her original name of "Luna". As a result, she is essentially being called "Moon" in those versions.
- And then some. The Brazilian Portuguese dub, supposedly translated from the Latin Spanish dub, apparently thought "Luna" was already an adaptation, a Spanish word, and thus it was rendered as "Lua" (Moon).
- In the episode of The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya where Asakura attacks Kyon, Kyon asks himself "why?" in Gratuitous English, followed immediately by a Japanese "naze?" The English dub keeps both, though it switches the order around. Line is referenced in episode 7 of Nyoron Churuya-san.
- Can be seen in a lot of anime fansubs, when English loanwords and Gratuitous English in general becomes Gratuitous Japanese in the subtitles. A common example is "Sankyuu!" ("Thank you!") being translated as "Arigatou!"
- Several professional companies have also done this. Notably Animeigo for the (live-action) Sure Death! Movie.
- One episode of Excel Saga had Il Palazzo briefing Excel in Gratuitous English, which the dub changed to Gratuitous Spanish. Later, Excel trying to talk to some people on the street when she landed in America in Gratuitous English was changed to a mix of Spanglish and faux ghetto-slang.
- An episode of Tokyo Mew Mew featured an American pianist who didn't speak Japanese. When 4Kids turned it into Mew Mew Power, she became Spanish.
- Similarly, in a later episode an American director became French.
- Not so much a translation as an update - in Gankutsuou, The Count of Monte Cristo's servant Ali is changed from a black African man to an Alien partly to keep him 'exotic'.
- Arisa's Gratuitous English in Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha is changed to Gratuitous Japanese in the English dub.
- Similarly, in one fan translation of the As manga she says "I am perfectly bilingual" in Japanese rather than English. Somewhat justified in that she was deliberately showing off her skill in the other language.
- The English subtitles (though not the dub) of Hand Maid May translate Cyberdoll Mami's Gratuitous English into Gratuitous Japanese.
- An in-story version occurs in One Piece, when Usopp creates the alter ego of "Sogeking." Sogeking uses all the same attack names, but speaks them in English instead of Japanese as Usopp does.
- A kind of example of this occurs in Viz's manga translation. The character Eneru gives himself the title God, which in the Japanese manga and anime is pronounced the same as the English word God. So what does Viz do when their translation reaches this point? Change his title to Kami, the Japanese word for God. Note that the actual connotations of the word Kami are different from those of the Abrahamic God, although either works for the character.
- In Yu-Gi-Oh! GX, Napoleon (in the english dub, "Jean-Louis Bonaparte") constantly uses Gratuitous French. In the French dub, he becomes "Wellington" (probably after the Duke of Wellington who defeated Napoleon in Waterloo) and uses Gratuitous English.
- The Yu-Gi-Oh! card "Hitotsu-me Giant"'s Japanese name was "Cyclops" in Gratuitous English.
- "Raigeki" was originally called "Thunderbolt".
- "Hinotama" was "Fireball" in Japanese, and "Sakuretsu Armor" was "Reactive Armor". It should be noted that when the English version of the TCG was in its infancy, Upper Deck (The original Western distributors) had a ruling where most cards with English names in the OCG were retroactively translated into Japanese for the TCG.
- Digimon's dub likes to do this from time to time (when it's not changing Japanese names to different Japanese names). Snowbotamon becomes Yukimibotamon, and Fairymon becomes Kazemon.
- In Bakuman。, Eiji Nizuma and Aiko Iwase, meeting for the first time, greet each other in English. In the English translation by Viz, they greet each other in Japanese.
- In an early episode of Venus Versus Virus, one character is encouraging another to confess his love to Sumire, and gives examples of the phrase "I love you" in different languages. In the original Japanese, she says "I love you" in Gratuitous English, "Wo ai ni" in Gratuitous Chinese, and fakes something in Russian ("Suki desuki", which is just "suki desu" with -ski added on the end). In the English dub, she says "Suki desu" in Gratuitous Japanese, "Te amo" in Gratuitous Spanish, and "I loveski youski" in fake Russian.
- One of the first scenes in FushigiYuugi has a teacher saying "I want him to do his best," in English. In the English dub, he says, "El libro está en la biblioteca" Spanish for "the book is in the library."
- Working was renamed Wagnaria!! for the English-speaking market. Despite appearances, "wagnaria" is not the Japanese word for "working," it's the name of the restaurant they work at.
Films — Animated
- In the German dub of Chicken Run, Mac, the Scottish inventor hen, becomes Dutch.
- Toy Story:
- In the Spaniard dub of Toy Story 2, Tour Guide Barbie's saying "please remain seated" in English and Spanish is changed to Barbie saying it in Spanish and French.
- In Toy Story 3, Hamm can't continue reading Buzz's manual because it is in Japanese, instead of Spanish as in the original. Buzz still changes into an hilarious Spanish mode, which in the Spaniard dub is symbolized by him speaking with an over the top Andalusian accent.
- There's a version of this in Shrek 2. Antonio Banderas voices Puss with a generic Spanish accent in the English version; in both the Spanish and Latin American versions, he voices him with a thick Andalusian accent instead, different of any of the other characters.
- Averted in Astérix in Britain. Normally, in the English dubs of Asterix movies, the Gauls and the Romans speak the same accent. In this one, however, all the Britons have British accents and the Gauls all have French accents. However, the Romans still have American accents rather than Italian.
- In the Russian dub of Coraline, Bobinski is Ukrainian instead of Russian.
Films — Live-Action
- Famous example (because of Executive Meddling): The German dub of Die Hard (the first one) changed the German terrorist team to an international one, and the main villain Hans Gruber was renamed Jack Gruber. During the scene where Bruce Willis' character writes the names of two of the bad guys on his hand, this is explained by him calling them after giants from a fairy tale. This is all but ignored during Die Hard with a Vengeance, which even featured a flashback sequence to the first Die Hard.
- The "I always wanted to become a surgeon" guy in Hostel became Spanish in the German version of the movie.
- Terminator 2: Judgment Day:
- In the European Spanish dub, "Hasta la vista, baby" became "Sayonara, baby". The Latin American dubs, however, usually keep it the same.
- In the Mexican Spanish dub, the dialogue between Sarah Connor and her Mexican friends are kept, but the Mexican characters and Sarah in the Mexican dub uses an over-the-top Mexican accent in their voices. This is justified, since in the original English version, they used Spanish profanity and it cannot be translated due of the censorship in that time.
- The same thing happened in the Mexican Spanish dub of The Old Gringo: The American characters speaks using polite neutral Mexican Spanish, but the Mexican characters themselves speaks with an exaggerated, stereotypical, Mexican accent.
- In the Spanish dub of The Goonies, Mouth and Rosalita speak Italian.
- In the French dub of The Day After Tomorrow, the woman who gets stuck in a cab during the tsunami sequence has been changed from French-speaking to Spanish-speaking.
- In A Fish Called Wanda, Kevin Kline's character talks in Italian to his mistress to get her aroused. In the Italian dubbed version, he uses Spanish.
- Averted in Top Secret, as the Saxon accent is distinctively different from the mainstream German.
- In a scene from the 2006 version of The Pink Panther the humor is derived from the contrast between Clouseau's "French" accent and another character's Russian accent. In the Russian dub the latter character, while still referred to as a Russian, was given a Ukrainian accent. Could be justified, since Ukrainians are the second largest ethnic minority in Russia and some southern Russian accents sound a lot like Ukrainian.
- In the Russian dub of Cloverfield, the Russian guy who approached Hud was changed to Belarusian.
- In the Eddie Murphy Dr. Dolittle, he can't talk to the orangutan because it speaks Spanish (try not to think about that too hard). In the Spanish dub, it speaks French.
- Paramount wanted to change The Mole in Stalag 17 from a German-American to a Polish-American for the film's West German release to avoid offending German sensibilities as they perceived them. This idea was dropped after director Billy Wilder protested, but subsequently Wilder made no more movies for Paramount.
- Rowan Atkinson plays a narcoleptic Italian tourist named Enrico Pollini in the 2001 film Rat Race. The Italian dub changed his nationality to British (what else) and renamed him "Henry McCollions".
- In the French dub of Looper, Joe learns Italian to go to Florence while originally he learns French to go to Paris.
- In the Spaniard dub of The Devil's Advocate the hispanic guy that taunts Milton in the subway speaks Portuguese.
- In the Spaniard dub of Capote, the Gratuitous Spanish sayings of Perry Smith ("saludos amigos", etc) are changed to French. On the other hand, the "adios" that Capote himself says in the Costa Brava scene is changed to Catalan ("adeu"), since Costa Brava is in Catalonia.
- In movies where French is used in a romantic context ("Ze language of love"), the French dub usually replaces it with Italian.
- For instance, the fancy French restaurant in Spider-Man 3 is Italian in the French dub.
- In the French dub of Captain America: The First Avenger, French soldier Jacques Dernier speaks a very accentuated French slang (argot).
- In the Mexican dub of Mrs. Doubtfire, Daniel Hillard's nanny alter-ego pretends to be and speaks with a fake accent from Spain, to mirror the fake Britishness of the alleged nanny in the original American version. Likewise, Stu is also turned into a Spaniard for consistency's sake.
- In French translations of Animal Farm, Napoleon's name is usually changed to César (Caesar).
- Jim Butcher's The Dresden Files novel Fool Moon takes Our Werewolves Are Different to great lengths, featuring no less than four completely different takes on them in a single story. The baddest-ass among them is the "Loup-Garou." Unfortunately for the French translation, loup-garou is already French for "werewolf." The translator had no choice but to find another word, and settled for "devourer".
- The passage "Ima trava okolo i korenja okolo" in Dune means "There are herbs around and roots around" in Serbian, but to Russians it sounds like bad Gratuitous Russian. Pavel Vyaznikov's Russian translation translated it into Hindi-Urdu. Notably, Vyaznikov himself didn't realize it was Serbian until much later.
- Russian translations of the Vorkosigan Saga suffer from this really hard. Barrayar is heavily modeled on the Tsarist Russia, so the translators turned to this to make it more exoticnote , and to mask some bloopers from LMB's rather cursory knowledge on the subject. Both reasons have since largely disappeared, but the tradition has already taken root.
- Many works written in the 19th or early 20th century will have characters speaking a line or two of French, as it was something of an international language. Most French translations will put the passage in italics with a footnote saying it was French in the original (en français dans le texte). Similarly, Russian books (such as Anna Karenina) translated into English that involve lines in both English and French usually put both in italics, allowing English readers to figure out that italics signify another language, even if it's equally readable.
- In Sholem Aleichem's stories about Tevye (which Fiddler on the Roof is based on), Tevye quotes the Torah or Talmud in Hebrew sometimes, and comments on it in Yiddish (which the stories are written in). One translation put the Hebrew in old-fashioned English (with "thee," "thou," "hath," etc., like the King James Bible), and then a dash between that and the regular English translation from the Yiddish.
Live Action TV
- Versions of Fawlty Towers shown in Spain did this with Manuel, the well-meaning but dim waiter who happened to come from Barcelona. In the Catalan version, he is Mexican. In the Castilian, he is Paolo from Naples.
- In the Italian dub of Friends the Italian character Paolo from the first two seasons is renamed Pablo and comes from Spain.
- In the French dub of Lost, Danielle Rousseau is German.
- Bizarrely averted by the Korean dub, where Jin & Sun are kept Korean and have difficulties communicating with everyone else, who also speak Korean.
- The same goes for Malcolm in the Middle.
- The German in Scrubs becomes Danish in the German dub.
- In the Spanish dub, Spanish becomes Italian.
- Mr. Sulu is Filipino in the Japanese dub of Star Trek and renamed Mr. Kato. Some Star Trek Expanded Universe materials make Sulu a mix of Japanese and Filipino descent, mostly to explain his un-Japanese surname.
- In the Latin American dub of Suddenly Susan, the exiled Cuban photographer played by Nestor Carbonell is Russian... a Russian called Luis.
- In The Addams Family, the French version of Gomez Addams loves when Morticia speaks Spanish (instead of French in the English version).
- In the 1954 adaptation of Casino Royale, which turned Bond into Jimmy Bond of the CIA, Felix Leiter becomes a British agent called Clarence.
- Done only half-voluntarily in one English fansub of Tokumei Sentai Go-Busters. Early in the series a mecha formation called "Go-Buster Oh" appeared. "Oh" is Japanese for "king", and because of the somewhat Western flavor of the show's setting the fansubbers decided to translate it to "Go-Buster King". But then later on in the show, a mecha literally called "Go-Buster King" in Gratuitous English appeared, so they had no choice but to follow this trope by translating that as "Go-Buster Oh".
- In the Swedish version of The Muppet Show, the Swedish Chef is called "The Norwegian Chef".
- In the English version of Violetta, the songs are dubbed into English. In season 2, there are some originally English songs. These have been dubbed into French.
- The first few editions of the Yu-Gi-Oh! Card Game had cards that had English names in the Japanese version - these became Japanese in the English version.
- Example: Cyclops (Japanese) became "Hitotsume Giant" (Hitotsume meaning One-Eye) in the English version.
- Thunderbolt (Japanese) became Raigeki (English)
- Diamond Dragon (Japanese) became Hyozanryu (English), which translates to "Iceberg Dragon"... They didn't even try with the Sapphire and Emerald Dragons (Luster Dragons 1 and 2, respectively)
- Ryu Senshi and Jigen Bakudan had names written in Gratuitous English (Dragon Warrior and Time Bomber respectively). Their names were also changed to a Japanese translation of the English word.
- The Japanese Yu-Gi-Oh card "Rai-Oh", meaning Thunder King, arrived in the English version as "Thunder King Rai-Oh", which literally means "Thunder King Thunder King".
- They do this a lot. Another example would be the "YU-JYO" (Friendship) card, that became "Yu-Jo Friendship" in the English version. "Friendship Friendship".
- And now a whole archtype. The Gishki were called the Ritua in Japan. Ritua is a corruption of Ritual, and Gishki is a corruption of Gishiki. Either way, both names are based upon the name for Ritual cards in the other language.
- Interestingly, Satellarknight Triverr's official French name is Satellarknight Triwinter.
- The Russian version of Heroes of Might and Magic V changed Russian-like names of the kings of the Griffin dynasty to vaguely Latin-like. (Nival is actually a Russian company, but since it was contracted by the French publisher Ubisoft, the owner of the rights to the Might and Magic franchise, the international English version was made first.)
- Oddly, Heroes VI didn't follow suit with its Slavic names of the Griffin family. They did, however, do a Translation Correction on a misspelled name (Sveltana to Svetlana).
- The Russian version of War Craft III left Rexxar's bear, Misha, nameless. Probably in order to avoid the association of WarCraft with a children's story. In most Russian children's stories with talking animals, the bear is always named Misha (short for Mikhail). The name is also often used for circus bears.
- Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney:
- Pretty much all references to America in the Japanese version are changed to Germany in the English version. Thus we get Manfred von Karma, among others. This was actually probably their best choice, considering that their last name was still "Karuma", and more to the point they dress like 19th-century German fashion plates.
- Notably averted in the German translation which keeps the von Karma family German.
- The regionalization does get a Lampshade Hanging when Morgan Fey constantly refers to Lotta Heart as a "foreigner" due to her Southern accent (originally Kansai). Phoenix has to point out that the "heartlands" are still technically a part of America.
- Redd White's Gratuitous English turned into Gratuitous Spanish in the English version of the first game.
- In the French version of Phoenix Wright: Trials and Tribulations, Jean Armstrong, the French chef, is Italian. His name is Luigi Labocca, averting the One Luigi Limit.
- Villain Yeager from Tales of Vesperia spoke in a rather peculiar way in the original Japanese dub, filled to the brim with Gratuitous English. Rather than going with the typical response of some other gratuitous language to this in the English dub, he was given a goofy, over the top german accent. Not exactly the same, but gets the character's "off-kilter"ness out just the same.
- In Sonic Adventure 2, the line "Adios, Shadow the Hedgehog" is translated "Sayonara, Shadow the Hedgehog", presumably because the common Spanish word for goodbye didn't sound very exotic for countries with large Spanish-speaking populations.
- In Spanish translation of The Longest Journey, the Hispanic Cortez, who often slips in bits of his "native" tongue becomes Corthes, the Frenchman who often slips in bits of his "native" tongue.
- In the Japanese version of Pokémon Diamond and Pearl, a random NPC in Veilstone City asks you a question in English, which the English version changed to French.
- In Diamond and Pearl, the Gym Leader Fantina was originally named "Melissa" in the Japanese version, and spoke English. In the English translation, her name was changed to the more French-sounding "Fantina", and she spoke French. In the French version, she spoke English again and her name was changed to "Kimera".
- Many of the Pokémon species themselves, especially in the very first games - in Japanese, many of them had English words for names (often just the English word for whatever animal/object they were), so the English translation had to get more creative ("Lizard", "Cocoon", "Pigeon", "Sand", "Ghost", "Crab" and "Strike" became "Charmeleon", "Kakuna", "Pidgeotto", "Sandshrew", "Haunter", "Krabby" and "Scyther", respectively).
- Pokémon X and Y's international theme meant quite a bit of Gratuitous English text appeared in the Japanese version, which was mostly replaced with Japanese for the English translation (or German in one instance).
- Waka of Ōkami originally spiced up his sentences with Gratuitous English, which was mostly changed to Gratuitous French... except when he quotes recognizable catchphrases, such as "Let's rock, baby!" or "Just go for it!"
- One thought of an NPC in The World Ends with You is in English in the Japanese version. This was changed to Japanese in the NA and PAL version.
- Which is kind of awkward, because it's about how he can't find a samurai sword he needs because he's American and everyone else speaks Japanese.
- The character called Master in Breath of Fire IV ended up with a Dub Name Change in a deliberate attempt to Keep It Foreign—to preserve essentially a multilingual Prophetic Name. "Master", in the original Japanese version, was a reference that the literal clockwork Cloud Cuckoo Lander that joined your party was actually Sealed Good in a Can and was hosting a goddess. This would have been too obvious in English, so they renamed the character—to Ershin, which means "two souls" in Chinese.
- In the Prism Rangers bonus mission of Disgaea 2, the Japanese dialogue has Prism Orange as a Funny Foreigner who speaks a mixture of English and nonsensical Japanese with a thick American-tourist accent. In the English translation, he speaks Intentional Engrish for Funny with a thick Japanese accent.
Prism Orange (Japanese): Fujiyama, geisha! Fantastic ne!!Prism Orange (English): Supah pahti! Fantastic spahkaru! Let's gooh nambah waan!
- The Chinese characters of Capcom's arcade beat-'em-up Tenchi o Kurau II ended up becoming the Mongolian characters of Warriors of Fate, the English version of the same game.
- In the Russian version of Sins of a Solar Empire, the names of the Kol battleship and the Sova carrier for the TEC faction were changed by duplicating the last consonant in a typical English fashion for common word last names (e.g. Starr), making them Koll and Sovva, respectively. "Kol" in Russian means "stake" (as in for killing vampires), and "sova" is Russian for "owl". The Russian-sounding Dunov battlecruiser kept its name.
- In Portal 2, Wheatley is seen shortly switching to Spanish "Blind Idiot" Translation. In the Spanish dub, he is speaking English.
- In Command & Conquer: Tiberian Dawn, Kane orders the fake news about a massacre (to frame GDI) to be translated to German and French. In the German version of the game, Kane orders the translation to be done to English and French, and vice versa.
- In the Japanese version of Persona 3, Mitsuru Kirijo uses Gratuitous English at times. In the English dub, this is changed to Gratuitous French.
- Data East's arcade Mecha Game Wolf Fang was released overseas as Rohga: Armor Force. "Rohga" means "wolf fang" in Japanese, but the English title was used in Japan.
- In Futurama, French is a dead language. In the French version, it's German instead.
- Uter is Swiss German in the German dub of The Simpsons.
- In the European Spanish dub, Bumblebee Man's Gratuitous Spanish is retained, but he still has a Mexican accent.
- Averted by the Quebec dub of "The Crepes of Wrath" as Parisien French is different enough from Quebec French (and possibly the rural French of the characters in the European French dub).
- In the Latin American Spanish dub of Cow and Chicken, Supercow's Gratuitous Spanish dialogue was changed to Gratuitous English.
- Not used in some Spanish-language versions of Dora the Explorer. Instead of speaking in English and repeating in Spanish, everyone says everything in Spanish twice. This kinda defeats the purpose of the show.
- Other translations replaced Spanish with English. In fact, the use of this trope varies in different countries, and from one translation to the next. Some versions are in a single language and others throw in foreign phrases, but for the most part the show's bilingual roots remain: some versions use the local language plus English, some add Spanish instead, and in rare cases three different languages can be heard. The other wiki has a helpful list.
- An episode of Kim Possible has Kim's brothers suggesting that she send an anonymous email to someone. When she hesitates, they explain that "[They], like, route it through Sweden or some place, and it can't be traced." Since that wouldn't work in the Swedish dub, they changed the reference to Iceland.
- In the French dub of Looney Tunes, Pepe Le Pew is Italian, though the other characters around him still speak French (and in real French, not silly fake French).
- Strangely averted in the French dub of Angela Anaconda, in which French Jerk Nanette Manoir is still French. Which means that, while in the original she used Gratuitous French, in the dub she just repeats herself a lot. And having a girl say the French equivalent of "Good morning! Which, in English, means good morning!" does not make her sound pretentious, it makes her sound insane. (Question: What did they do in the episode featuring that exchange student from France?)
- One episode of Batman: The Brave and the Bold featured Brazilian heroine Fire speaking a line in her language (Brazilian Portuguese). When that episode was dubbed for Brazilian audiences, that line was translated into English.
- There is a food item called (in the U.S.) an "English muffin." In the U.K, they call it an "American muffin."
- The Roller-coaster amusement ride is only known in Russia by the name roughly translated as "American mountains/hills/slides". Contrariwise, in some European countries (like France, Italy and Spain) they are known as "Russian mountains".