Industrial

Primary Stylistic Influences (Old-School Industrial):
Secondary Stylistic Influences (Old-School Industrial):

Primary Stylistic Influences (EBM and Futurepop):
Secondary Stylistic Influences (EBM and Futurepop):

Primary Stylistic Influences (Electro-Industrial):
Secondary Stylistic Influences (Electro-Industrial):

Primary Stylistic Influences (Industrial Hip-Hop):
Secondary Stylistic Influences (Industrial Hip-Hop):

Primary Stylistic Influences (Ambient-Industrial, Post-Industrial and Martial):
Secondary Stylistic Influences (Ambient-Industrial, Post-Industrial and Martial):

Primary Stylistic Influences (Power Noise):
  • Old-School Industrial, Electro-Industrial, Harsh Noise
Secondary Stylistic Influences (Power Noise):

Primary Stylistic Influences (Power Electronics and Death Industrial):
Secondary Stylistic Influences (Power Electronics and Death Industrial):
  • Modern Classical Music (Especially the kind which uses drones extensively)

In the late seventies, when Punk Rock was the dominant form of rebellious music, several artists felt that punk was not as effective a means of expressing true rebellion as they had hoped. These musicians decided to abandon punk and move towards Electronic Music. Rather than embracing the mainstream electronica of their time, however, they drew inspiration from bands like Suicide and strove to combine Electronic Music with a punk mentality.

The new genre grew to be referred to as "Industrial" partly (and primarily) because the majority of its artists were signed to Industrial Records (which was itself founded by members of the pioneering Industrial group Throbbing Gristle), and partly because of the tendency of artists within the genre to involve non conventional, metallic sounding instruments / sounds in the composition of their work.

The first widely recognised (-ish) Industrial group was the aforementioned Throbbing Gristle, a highly experimental outfit that incorporated electronic music with elements of avant-garde, Dadaism, and performance art. Their lyrical themes focused mainly on violence, rebellion, sexuality, and neo-pagan philosophy. Band membership consisted of several English performance / visual artists, musicians, and writers already well-known within Britain's underground art scene. Their material was not strictly composed of recognizable electronic instruments; they would use any sound they deemed necessary.

Arguably, German group Einstürzende Neubauten also fit alongside Throbbing Gristle in terms of being one of Industrial's experimental forebears. Less well-known but equally innovative acts like experimental trio Cabaret Voltaire of Sheffield, Chrome of San Francisco, and extreme performance artists SPK and NON also contributed significantly to the fledgling genre.

As electronic music became more popular during The '80s, the earlier kinds of experimental Industrial music underwent refinement and became increasingly synthesizer based. The genre grew in two major directions; the first approaching almost entirely electronic music in the bizzare and experimental spirit of Throbbing Gristle (this direction being exemplified by Canadian group Skinny Puppy), where the second focused more on producing danceable electronic music that retained the cold and aggressive Darker and Edgier qualities and attitude of the early experimental Industrial artists (this direction, often called Electronic Body Music (or EBM) or Industrial Dance, was exemplified by groups such as Nitzer Ebb and Front 242).

Two other, frequently-intersecting "purist" directions in Industrial music also emerged at the turn of the decade: Power Electronica and Post-Industrial.

The former was first pioneered by a group called Whitehouse in the late Seventies with the express purpose of fusing offense, Sensory Abuse and Hell Is That Noise into one teeming mass of Nightmare Fuel.

The latter is a much more nebulous term, applying mostly to the many esoterically-inclined groups formed by members, ex-members and colleagues of Psychic TV and Coil (groups that formed from the ashes of Throbbing Gristle following the band's 1981 breakup) alongside those of Nurse With Wound and Current 93. Coil would evolve into Harsh Noise, then Dark Ambient. Nurse with Wound debuted two years after Throbbing Gristle, incorporating Musique Concrète with numerous surrealist influences over time. Current 93 eventually transitioned from nightmare-inducing drones and chants into a form of lilting acoustic music which would become known as Apocalyptic Folk. These bands made little direct impact on the future Industrial genre (Coil's early albums being an exception), although there is a certain degree of fan overlap.

As the genre kept evolving, it began adding elements from other genres and/or recombining with various forms of itself. Bill Leeb, an early member of Skinny Puppy, tamed his former group's bizzare experimentalism by building his songs around an EBM-ish backbone and going all-out Cyber Punk in attitude. Albums from his project Front Line Assembly, particularly Tactical Neural Implant, have often been considered landmarks in the genre.

The EBM faction of the genre kept making itself progressively Darker and Edgier, sometimes increasing the tempo and toughening up the drums whenever possible. The project Leaether Strip (misspelling deliberate) embodies this trend pretty well.

Naturally, the dark, chaotic lyrics and sound of Industrial music caused it to acquire a fanbase within the goth community and it didn't take too long for stylistic blending to occur. Industrial was already pretty Dark and Edgy, but when some very depressed Germans decided to goth it up (influenced by a gothic-inspired form of Synth Pop known as Dark Wave), it became Nightmare Fuel. The project :wumpscut: took this to potentially Wangsty extremes: their album Embryodead is a Concept Album which argues that it is better to die in the womb than to be born in this cruel and miserable world full of hate and beyond reason. Needless to say, it isn't the most pleasant listen for most audiences.

Of course, this new audience opened up a new marketing opportunity for many Industrial bands, leading to an increasing focus on making successful dance-floor hits for goths. The more mainstream Industrial groups (for a given value of mainstream) progressively incorporated influences from pop-based dance genres. Trance became a significant influence (though admittedly, Electronic Body Music can at times sound like Darker and Edgier Trance, so it wasn't a particularly huge deviation from established norms), something which resulted in the rise of a sub-genre called Futurepop. Bands that pioneered this style includeVNV Nation (whose album Empires is the Trope Codifier for Futurepop), Icon of Coil and Apoptygma Berzerk.

A less dance-friendly fringe style known as Noise later appeared as a reaction against Futurepop and an attempt to remove any and all mainstream elements form industrial and focus solely on the abrasiveness. Noise mostly consists of loud electronic samples brickwalled and distorted in order to inflict pain upon the audience. If there are any lyrics then they're usually angry, offensive and violent. Merzbow is the most recognizable name among fans of Noise music.

Members of the subculture that arose from the Industrial scene became known as "rivet-heads", and adopted a militaristic dress code. Unsurprisingly, rivet-heads got on supremely well with goths, due in no small part to their shared love of Industrial and Industrial-related styles. Fans who fall somewhere between rivet-head and goth are often referred to as "cybergoths".

As of the writing of this page, Industrial music has entered a period of stagnation, with two main sub-genres/derivative genres retaining some level of popularity; the remnants of the Futurepop acts that are sliding into synthpop and/or more retro forms of electronic music, and the Darker and Edgier Hellektro (essentially really, really hard EBM, sometimes with insanely angry and/or miserable attitudes and sometimes without) acts like Combichrist and Psyclon Nine. This is of course a simplification and many artists can be found that defy this basic characterization but it certainly applies to the majority of the Industrial that gets played at most goth clubs these days. Several older Industrial Dance songs sometimes get spun in clubs as part of '80s nights, due to their compatibility with the format (compare Depeche Mode's "Shake the Disease" and Ministry's "Everyday is Halloween", for example.)

While the Industrial genera itself may be developing a bit of rust on its rivets, modern movements like Dubstep, Harsh Noise, and Glitch owe a debt to the pioneers who discovered the art creating emotionally charged music from controlled chaos and many artists in these genres cite Industrial groups as a major influence.

Not to be confused with Industrial Metal (the genre into which bands like Ministry, Rammstein, Nine Inch Nails, and KMFDM fall), which is the result of bands combining elements of industrial music with metal.

Industrial acts and creators, categorized by subgenre:

Traditional or "Old-School" Industrial
The original form of the genre, originating in the mid-late The '70s and heavily influenced by (and sometimes overlapping with) Post-Punk. Often characterized by harsh or primitive production quality, crude synthesizers and/or drum machines, the use of found sounds (including metallic percussion), incorporation of tape music and musique concrete and often harsh, distorted or electronically processed vocals in combination with traditional rock music instrumentation used in decidedly non-traditional ways. The basis for the later styles, and what the term "Industrial Music" originally referred to.

Electronic Body Music (EBM)
A subgenre that first appeared in Europe in the early '80s, characterized by Synth Pop influenced minimalistic production, hard-hitting drum machines and/or drum loops playing a steady, four-on-the-floor beat, rhythmic synth basslines, extensive use of sampling (televangelists and advertisements were/are popular choices), often minimal synthesized atmospherics and shouted or chanted, "militaristic"-sounding vocals. Guitars are limited to the odd blast of rhythmic noise (and not even that, often). Was fairly popular in clubs back in the 80s, and was the first form of Industrial to gain any kind of commercial success. Spawned the Futurepop subgenre and influenced most later dance-oriented Industrial subgenres.

Futurepop
An offshoot of EBM that appeared in the mid-'90s, Futurepop (also known by a few people as "Bodypop") combines the classic EBM sound with additional doses of Synth Pop influence, as well as Techno, House Music and Trance elements. The songs typically follow Verse / Chorus structures and the vocals and music are more melodic than other genres of Industrial, making it more accessible to fans of less abrasive Electronic Music genres, and also making it somewhat divisive among a few Rivetheads. However, the genre remains pretty popular both within and outside the Industrial fanbase.

Electro-Industrial (including Hellektro / Aggrotech and Dark Electro)
Nowadays, this is the genre people are most likely referring to when they talk about Industrial Music. Invented in the 80s, it combines Old-School Industrial with more danceable forms of Electronic Music, much like EBM, but unlike EBM, it tends to have a somewhat more layered and complex sound, with layered, atmospheric synths, throbbing basslines and more complex drum patterns than those found in EBM. Guitars are used occasionally, but even then, sparingly (and as a textural element, rather than a lead or rhythm instrument), and Harsh Vocals are common (and often pushed back in the mix). Later bands tended to combine this style with the rhythmic drive of EBM (Front Line Assembly pioneered this approach), spawning the faster and more aggressively dance-oriented Hellektro or Aggrotech subgenre (which also had some occasional Trance and Hardcore influences). Another offshoot is Dark Electro, which is slower, darker-sounding and influenced by horror movie soundtracks.

Industrial Metal & Industrial Rock
Two closely related and heavily overlapping genres that take the base elements of Industrial (especially Old-School Industrial, EBM and Electro-Industrial) and combines them with Heavy Metal and/or Alternative Rock. There are differences between the two, but in practice, they overlap enough to fit into one category. See the page for details- it's usually considered a genre in its own right.

Industrial Hip-Hop
As the name implies, this genre consists of artists who combine Hip-Hop with Industrial of any kind (usually EBM or Electro-Industrial). Often has distinct Dub influences as well, most notably the deep bass lines. Many of the artists who play this kind of music fall into the Alternative Rap, Conscious Rap or Trip Hop categories as well, but it is still a distinct genre.

Ambient-Industrial & Post-Industrial
A pair of related, nebulous categories that first emerged in the 80s, these two categories frequently overlap and are often confused with each other, though they are distinct. Ambient-Industrial first appeared in the early 80s and combined Old-School Industrial with Ambient Music to disquieting effect, hence the more-often used Dark Ambient tag. Hallmarks of the genre are atmospheric synths, creepy loops and samples, very occasional vocals and an emphasis on atmosphere over rhythm or melody (indeed, they may be absent altogether). Post-Industrial, on the other hand, combines Industrial with all sorts of other kinds of music- World Music, Folk / Neo-Folk, Classical Music, Dub, etc. Many acts blur the boundaries of these two categories, hence the single heading.

Martial Industrial
A subgenre (first created by Laibach in the '80s) combining the samples and loops, distortion, synths and other elements of Industrial with Classical and Military music, especially marches. Commonly incorporates marching-band percussion and chanted vocals, and sometimes elements of Neo-Folk manage to find their way in as well. Frequently overlaps with Ambient-Industrial and Post-Industrial.

Harsh Noise
An offshoot of the genre characterized by being, well, extremely harsh and noisy. Sufficiently different from the rest of the genre to have its own page- go here for more details...

Power Noise (also known as Rhythmic Noise, Noize and Distorted Beat Music)
A subgenre that combines the rhythmic and structural elements of EBM and Electro-Industrial with the extreme distortion and abrasiveness of Harsh Noise. Distorted drum machines (especially the kick drum) are common, and rhythms are usually in the four to the floor vein, much like in EBM. The genre can be thought of as a more abrasive and harsh derivative of Electro-Industrial, and took its present form in the mid-90s, though there are earlier antecedents. Not to be confused with Power Electronics, which is something else entirely.

Power Electronics & Death Industrial
Perhaps the most abrasive subgenre aside from Harsh Noise, Power Electronics (not to be confused with Power Noise, above) has its origins in the 80s work of Whitehouse. It is characterized by analog synths producing sub-bass pulses and drones and/or distorted, high pitched squeels, waves of feedback, distorted samples, harsh, screamed vocals and misanthropic, often offensive lyrics. It usually lack conventional melody and rhythm. The related Death Industrial genre is somewhat less abrasive and more atmospheric, with greater emphasis on low drones, though it still has the Harsh Vocals. It is usually heavily influenced by Ambient Music.

This genre contains examples of:

  • Angst
  • Brown Note: sometimes pops up, usually on the abrasive end of things.
  • Crazy Awesome: Both the musicians and the fans, a lot of the time.
  • Creator Couple: Present in Chris & Cosey (Chris Carter and Cosey Tutti Fanni) and Coil (Jhonn Balance and Peter Christopherson), among others.
  • Crowning Music of Awesome: Depending on one's tastes, the genre may have a lot of this.
  • Cyber Punk: A frequent mood/aesthetic the genre aims for. Tactical Neural Implant and Hard Wired by Front Line Assembly are classic examples, other examples include Harsh Generation by Grendel and Serenity Is The Devil by Icon Of Coil.
  • Cyber Punk Is Techno: Frequently used in Cyber Punk media as a soundtrack and Industrial has drawn on the literature and movies significantly.
  • Darker and Edgier: Over the course of genre and subgenre evolution, over the course of individual artist's careers, you can find a lot of this.
  • Ear Worm: Gotta fill the dancefloors somehow!
  • Everything Is an Instrument: Synths, violins, drums, tambourines, bells, guitars, pipes, bones, jackhammers, televisions, and whatever the musicians can play...
  • Exactly What It Says on the Tin: The Rhythmic Noise (or Powernoise) movement. Harsh noises set to a beat.
  • Fan Disservice: Throbbing Gristle were particularly good at this.
  • Fetish Fuel: Where to begin? Strap Me Down? Catharsis (Heal Me; Control Me)? Andy LaPlegua jumping around in skin tight latex and rubber? The outfits of the Target Audience?
    • On the more extreme end, often bordering on Fan Disservice, Fetish Retardant, or even Nausea Fuel, some of the very earliest Industrial lyrics are only sexual in the most repellant and bizarre ways possible (Cabaret Voltaire's "Bedtime Stories").
  • Gorn: Lyrically and often shows up in live shows, as well.
  • Goth: The Target Audience
  • Hell Is That Noise: Distortion, feedback, backmasking, Scare Chords, samples from horror films-Industrial artists always find a way to freak out their listeners.
  • Heterosexual Life-Partners: Most non-solo projects are very... close partnerships.
    • Though averted in the case of Coil, who were actually a couple for a long period of time.
  • Ho Yay: Industrial was and still is a very male-dominated genre, so this is inevitable.
  • I Am the Band: Many solo projects exist in the genre.
  • Improv: A typical compositional technique, especially for the more experimental acts.
  • Indecipherable Lyrics: Many bands fall prey to this trope and/or deliberately use it.
  • Intercourse with You: Many.
    • Usually averted. The subject matter of the lyrics doesn't deal with sex too often, except when it crosses into Fetish Fuel. But occasionally this is played straight.
  • Lighter and Softer: As Darker and Edgier above. Particularly with the Futurepop subgenre.
  • Loudness War: Especially early works (intentionally invoked, although not as extreme as today) and the Hellectro subgenre.
  • Madness Mantra: Many songs. Nine Inch Nails is particularly fond of this.
  • Mind Rape: What some of the songs in the genre can induce. especially power electronics
  • Misogyny Song: Most of the oeuvre of Power Electronics acts, especially Whitehouse, Sutcliffe Jügend, Snuff, RxAxPxE, and Taint.
  • Mohs Scale of Rock and Metal Hardness: Industrial songs have been slowly creeping into the harder regions of the scalenote . On average, industrial songs can range from 6 (e.g. Skinny Puppy — "Pro-Test") to 11 (e.g. Merzbow — "Promotion Man"), depending on how abrasive and "metallic" they are.
    • Futurepop, the Lighter and Softer variant, usually ranges from 2 to 5, gothic industrial can range from 3 to 8, and EBM can range from 7 to 10.
    • Subgenres like Power Electronics and Power Noise/Rhythmic Noise sometimes go up to 11. To say nothing of the Harsh Noise offshoot. And, on the other end of the scale, there's Industrial Ambient (bands like Coil, Current 93, Zoviet France, Rapoon and Lustmord), who can drop all the way down to a 1 at times.
    • In a nutshell, there is basically no limit on how industrial music can be heavy.
  • Music to Invade Poland To: EBM bands especially, but the whole genre has been accused of promoting Nazism at times. Partly because the logo of Industrial Records was the outline of Auschwitz. Subverted in that the logo was an attempt to identify modern life at large with industrialised mass murder. So... yeah. Averted by Die Krupps, who are very vocal in their anti-Nazi views.
    • Played unfortunately straight with Von Thronstahl.
    • Martial Industrial invokes this trope.
  • Nightmare Fuel: Most music videos in the genre and quite a lot of the lyrics and movie samples and album artwork and possibly even the music itself.
  • Obligatory Bondage Song: Quite frequent.
  • Ominous Music Box Tune: Listen to Stillbirth on Embryodead by :wumpscut:. You will never, ever, ever be able to listen to "London Bridge Is Falling Down" ever again.
    • KMFDM tried their hand at this with "The Death and Burial of C.R.". There is also the opening to "Day of Light".
  • One of Us: It's music for angry geeks by angry geeks, so it's only to be expected.
  • Playing To The Fetishes: Very frequent. Especially in Leaetherstrip's songs like Strap Me Down.
  • Protest Song: Sometimes.
  • Sampling: Lots and lots of sampling. Best examples include Skinny Puppy's "Worlock", sampling Charles Manson singing The Beatles' "Helter Skelter", C/A/T's "Enhancer" sampling dialogue from Curb Your Enthusiasm about boobs, and Suicide Commando's "Bind, Torture, Kill" sampling news reports on serial killer Dennis Rader.
    • The Ur-Example of the trope's use in the genre is probably the first disc of Cabaret Voltaire's compilation Methodology, whose material stretches back as far as early 1974.
  • Religion Rant Song: Extremely common.
  • Scary Musician, Harmless Music: Inverted, more often than not.
  • Sensory Abuse: Common in both the music and fairly often the live shows as well. In particular, Throbbing Gristle, Einstürzende Neubauten, and Skinny Puppy are all well known for this in concert. Unsurprising, considering that many of the early artists in the genre had roots in performance art.
  • Silly Love Songs: Often subverted. This genre's examples of love songs are things like Love Breeds Suicide by Suicide Commando and Strap Me Down by Leaether Strip (it's romantic! really!). However, sometimes this is played straight, for instance the Futurepop song Beloved by VNV Nation, or on Throbbing Gristle's (ambiguously sarcastic/serious) Synth Pop anthem "United".
  • Tear Jerker: Yes, even industrial can have Tear Jerker moments, such as Throbbing Gristle's suicide themed "Weeping," but a more modern one would be the song "My Crutch" from rhythmic noise band Caustic. Despite the band's motto (and debut album title) being "Booze up and Riot!" My Crutch is a stripped down, guitar and vox song with the singer describing how his alcoholism ruins his life and how he must quit drinking to save his marriage and his life. Also, Laibach did a mashup of the Israeli and Palestinian national anthems on their album Volk, in an attempt to show that the two warring peoples aren't so different after all.
    • The very first AIDS benefit was Coil recording "Tainted Love" as a dirge- recognizably the same song, but dreary and wretched instead of upbeat. The result is remarkable.
  • This Is Your Premise on Drugs: The first album of Skinny Puppy was essentially 80's Synth Pop on drugs. Quite literally, given Skuppy's compositional techniques.
  • Title Only Chorus: Usually averted but sometimes happens.
  • Torture Cellar: Another frequent mood/aesthetic the genre aims for, especially lyrically.
  • Trash Can Band: Certain Old-School Industrial bands like Test Dept. and Einstürzende Neubauten are this in part. More recent Industrial groups usually just use samples of such sounds (when they're desired at all, anyways).
  • True Art Is Angsty: Where to begin?!?! From concept albums about babies that die in the womb to concept albums about serial killers to songs about the Columbine massacre to bands whose entire act is about bashing Christianity to songs about animal vivisection, and these are just the examples I can think of off the top of my head.
  • True Art Is Incomprehensible: Skinny Puppys more esoteric works, the early Industrial artists, most of Skinny Puppys music videos, many lyrics of multiple bands...
  • Wangst
  • What Do You Mean, It Wasn't Made on Drugs?: Subverted. It's often made on drugs. Skinny Puppy were pretty open about this.
  • Word Salad Lyrics
  • World of Ham: The bands are populated by large hams and weirdos writing anvilicious, insane, shocking, weird, scary, and wangsty lyrics, giving theatrical and offensive performances while barraging and bukakke-ing the listener with loud and scary noises, infectuous dance rythyms, and the occasional metal guitar. This genre is a great example of how strange music and art can get.

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