A subset of rock and roll noteworthy for its intricate arrangements and experimental sound. Originating in the late 1960s, "Prog Rock" often combines stylistic elements from Classical, Jazz, Folk or sometimes electronic implementations, uses non-standard song structures (including complex rhythms and time signatures) and complex instrumental orchestrations, and frequently employ lyrics which are abstract or fantasy-based
The original idea was to bring some of the sophistication of "legitimate" musical styles to rock, which was still regarded as worthless pop trash. The Beatles
' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
featured songs that were (loosely) tied together by a common theme, making it an example of a "song cycle". At around the same time, The Moody Blues
recorded their Days of Future Passed
album in which a full symphony orchestra accompanied the band and played interludes that connected the songs. Imitators followed
. Another major influence on the developing scene was the works of Frank Zappa
(with and without the Mothers of Invention), especially 1967's Absolutely Free
, which consisted of two side-long suites borrowing liberally from classical music (especially the works of Igor Stravinsky
) and including a mini-Rock Opera
, "Brown Shoes Don't Make It" (described as a "condensed two-hour musical").
Classically-trained musicians such as Keith Emerson
and Rick Wakeman
started to be drawn to rock, and they brought their repertoire with them. This is where Prog gets its modern image of classically-influenced songs with many extended solos, but Art Rock could refer to any attempt to elevate rock from its lowbrow image. This could include pop music with experimental elements (10cc and Roxy Music
), and bands that used orchestral instruments (The Electric Light Orchestra
). Some bands fused with other styles: Jethro Tull
were based on folk music, and the Canterbury bands leaned toward modern jazz. Prog was largely a British phenomenon, although Kansas
were significant examples from America and Canada, respectively.
Critics usually dismissed these bands as being "pretentious". Some people just want to have a good time, and Prog bands sometimes took themselves far too seriously. Perhaps the most notorious offender was Yes' Tales From Topographic Oceans
album: it was seen by many as a clear drop in quality from their previous efforts, and it taxed listeners' patience by stretching a total of four songs over 2 LPs. The genre was mostly exhausted by 1980, although notable later bands included Marillion, IQ and Spock's Beard. Prog experienced a rebirth around the turn of the millenium, led by Dream Theater
, Porcupine Tree
, and The Mars Volta
. Both Yes and Genesis shifted toward a more mainstream sound in The Eighties
, to great commercial success.
Prog Rock was one of the originators, and certainly one of the main motivators, of the Concept Album
See also Progressive Metal
for when prog gets heavy
, and Technical Death Metal
for when prog gets even heavier
is a somewhat more Teutonic variant, which is sometimes considered a subgenre of progressive rock and sometimes its own (albeit related) genre.
Notable Progressive Rock acts include and are labeled with their respective sub-genre according to the ProgArchives
- 10cc, in the Godley & Creme era (Progressive Pop)
- The Alan Parsons Project (Symphonic Prog)
- Amon Düül II (Krautrock)
- Amplifier (Psychedelic/Space Rock)
- Anekdoten (Heavy Prog)
- Änglagård (Symphonic Prog)
- Arena (Neo-Prog with Progressive Metal leanings)
- Ash Ra Tempel (Krautrock)
- Asia (Prog Related)
- Ayreon (Progressive Metal)
- Banco Del Mutuo Soccorso (Progressivo Italiano)
- Be-Bop Deluxe (Crossover Prog)
- Between The Buried And Me (Progressive Metal)
- Big Big Train (Symphonic Prog)
- Camel (Symphonic Prog)
- Can (Krautrock)
- Caravan (Canterbury Scene)
- Children of Nova (Neo-Prog)
- Citizen Cain (Symphonic Prog)
- Coheed and Cambria (Crossover Prog; sometimes Progressive Metal)
- Colosseum and their later incarnation Colosseum II (Jazz Rock/Fusion)
- Comus (Prog Folk)
- Conception (Progressive Metal)
- The Decemberists, sometimes (Prog Folk)
- Deep Purple recorded at least two "band and orchestra" albums in the late 1960s (Symphonic Prog)
- The Dixie Dregs, nominally a Southern Rock band (Jazz Rock/Fusion)
- Dream Theater (Progressive Metal)
- Dockers Guild (Neo-Prog)
- Electric Light Orchestra (at least their pre-Discovery stuff) (Crossover Prog)
- Eloy (Space Rock)
- Emerson, Lake & Palmer (Symphonic Prog)
- Extreme ( Progressive Funk / Hair Metal )
- Fair To Midland (Crossover Prog)
- The Fall Of Troy (Heavy Prog, although they're a slight case of Neoclassical Punk Zydeco Rockabilly and also count as Post-Hardcore and other styles)
- Faust (Krautrock)
- The Flower Kings (Symphonic Prog)
- Frost* (Neo-prog)
- Funny Aminals (prog/Jazz Fusion/chamber music project of cartoonist Isaac Baranoff)
- Gazpacho (Crossover Prog)
- Genesis up to Wind & Wuthering (and the occasional song afterward) (Symphonic Prog)
- Gentle Giant (Eclectic Prog)
- Golden Earring (Prog Related)
- Gong (Canterbury Scene)
- Roy Harper (Prog Folk)
- Hawkwind (Psychedelic Rock/Space Rock)
- Henry Cow (Avant-Prog/Canterbury Scene/Rock In Opposition)
- IQ (Neo-Prog)
- Jadis (Neo-Prog)
- Jethro Tull (Prog Folk)
- Journey prior to 1978 (Prog/Fusion)
- Kansas: a relative rarity who could compose successful commercial songs, but whose core material was more similar to Yes or King Crimson. Later overlapped with Christian Rock (Symphonic Prog)
- King Crimson (Eclectic Prog)
- Koenjihyakkei (Zeuhl)
- Kraftwerk (Progressive Electronic; also Krautrock)
- Magma (Avant-Prog/Zeuhl)
- Marillion (Neo-Prog)
- The Mars Volta (Heavy Prog)
- Mastodon (Progressive Metal)
- Men of Lake (Progressivo Italiano)
- The Moody Blues (Crossover Prog)
- Motoi Sakuraba; he was part of a few bands before doing video games (Symphonic Prog)
- Mountain (Crossover Prog)
- Muse (Prog-Related/New Prog)
- Nektar (Crossover Prog/Symphonic Prog)
- Neu! (Krautrock)
- The Nice; Keith Emerson's first group, before joining Emerson, Lake & Palmer (Symphonic Prog)
- Oceansize (Space Rock)
- Mike Oldfield (Eclectic Prog, most often crossing over with World Music or New Wave Music)
- Opeth (Progressive Metal)
- Orphaned Land (Progressive Metal)
- Pallas (Neo-Prog, later Progressive Metal)
- Pendragon (Neo-Prog)
- Pink Floyd (Space Rock according to progarchives; whether and exactly how Floyd counts as prog is a very controversial topic. Pink Floyd is the only prog band that most critics will admit to liking.)
- Porcupine Tree (Heavy Prog; but most of what you can say about Floyd can also be said - and has also been said, some of it by Steven Wilson himself - about Porcupine Tree; later became Progressive Metal)
- Premiata Forneria Marconi (Progressivo Italiano)
- Procol Harum (Crossover/Symphonic Prog)
- Quatermass (Progressive/Hard rock)
- Queen (Progressive Metal/Heavy Prog) that is, their early stuff.
- Queensr˙che (Progressive Metal)
- Radiohead (Crossover Prog, although they themselves have denied this)
- Renaissance (Symphonic Prog)
- Riverside (Progressive Metal)
- Roxy Music (Crossover Prog)
- Ruins (Zeuhl)
- Rush (Heavy Prog)
- Joe Satriani; (Well, some of his work, at least.) (Heavy Prog)
- Soft Machine (Canterbury Scene)
- Sound Horizon (Symphonic Prog. Usually.)
- Spocks Beard (Symphonic Prog)
- Styx, prior to 1975 or so (Crossover Prog)
- Super Furry Animals (Prog-Related/Space Rock)
- Status Quo (their early albums/Crossover Prog)
- Supertramp (Crossover Prog)
- Symphony X (Progressive Metal)
- Tangerine Dream (Progressive Electronic, also Krautrock)
- Tool (Progressive Metal)
- Transatlantic (Symphonic Prog)
- Trans-Siberian Orchestra (Crossover Prog)
- Triumvirat (Symphonic Prog)
- Twelfth Night (Neo-Prog)
- Underground Zero (Psychedelic Rock, Hawkwind-style)
- Univers Zero (Avant-Prog/Rock In Opposition)
- Uriah Heep (Heavy Prog)
- Steve Vai (Prog Related)
- Van Der Graaf Generator, even if they themselves dispute this (Eclectic Prog)
- Robert Wyatt (Canterbury Scene)
- Yes (Symphonic Prog)
- Frank Zappa has been described as such (Avant Prog)
Tropes frequently associated with progressive rock include:
- Concept Album: Developed somewhat in tandem with prog rock. The Mothers of Invention, Frank Zappa's band, were responsible for many of rock's early concept albums.
- Con Lang: Practically de rigeur in zeuhl. Examples include Magma, Ruins, and Koenjihyakkei.
- Dead Horse Genre: Critics, who usually believe in Three Chords and the Truth, have tended to hate the genre. A prominent exception is Allmusic, which has given several famous prog albums the maximum rating of five stars, as is the Italian writer Piero Scaruffi, who ranks prog albums as two of his top three albums ever made (three of three if you count Beefheart as prog). Pitchfork has been known to give prog records good reviews on occasion as well, but on the whole it much more frequently lambastes them.
- Epic Rocking: Naturally, given the song lengths. Often more focus on "epic" than rocking, obviously.
- The Jethro Tull albums Thick As a Brick and A Passion Play contained one song each, broken up by an interlude that allowed the listener to flip the record.
- Mike Oldfield has done this multiple times. His current record is Incantations, seventy-three minutes split over four sides, without interludes to let the listener to flip the record. As a result it works very well on CD
- Fandom Rivalry: With Punk Rock, dating back to The Seventies.
- Germans Love David Hasselhoff: The genre is popular in Eastern Europe.
- Genius Bonus/Viewers Are Geniuses: In addition to the fact that musicians are more likely to appreciate the musicianship there are often all sorts of bizarre subtexts to the lyrics that can't be easily picked up on.
- Also, frequent quotes/covers from the Classical and traditional repertoire that might not be familiar to a casual listener.
- Many references to obscure science fiction and fantasy works will go over the heads of most listeners.
- Heavy Mithril: While progressive rock bands aren't necessarily heavy, the use of references to science fiction and fantasy works are not only common, but expected. There's a reason that many progressive rock bands have entries on the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction .
- Instrumentals: Since most songs either featured long instrumental interludes or solos, this was the next logical step. Depending on the listener this is either the best or worst part of prog-rock. Either it shows the musician's true talent as an artist, or it's needless showboating.
- Neoclassical Punk Zydeco Rockabilly: It's not uncommon for prog bands to incorporate multiple genres in one song, and in many cases, to incorporate them well.
- Dixie Dregs in particular stand out for this.
- Never Live It Down: The Godley & Creme album Consequences caused one. It was a triple-disc Concept Album released in 1977; despite being pretty much the only one of its kind during prog's heyday, the phrase "triple-disc concept album" comes up fairly frequently in criticisms of the genre.
- In the popular imagination, prog rock is also 20-minute Mellotron solos.
- Purple Prose: Many bands such as Yes would write songs in a rather flowery fashion. But Tropes are Not Bad, not to mention that some bands were actually good at it.
- Rock Opera: Often goes hand-in-hand with the concept album.
- Song Style Shift: Very common, particularly with "chapter"-structured songs that many prog bands had. The main reason for these chapters was that they were perceived as separate songs for royalty purposes.
- Spiritual Successor: Post Rock and Math Rock. While both genres draw from Alternative Rock and Post Punk, they keep the weirdness of progressive rock, including the odd time signatures and unusual instrumentation.
- True Art: What prog musicians were aiming for, with varying degrees of success.
- Tall Poppy Syndrome: Why U.K. critics hated the genre so much.
- Uncommon Time: It would probably take less space to list progressive rock bands that don't use this trope than to list progressive rock bands that do use it. It's pretty much a requisite of the genre.
- Up to Eleven: Musicianship and complexity of songwriting for starters.