The "immersive sim" is a video game genre that existed in some form since The '90s
, when it was codified by Looking Glass Studios
and Ion Storm
Austin, but has experienced a major comeback in The New '10s
. Games in this genre aim to simulate a large believable lived-in 3D space wherein the players' avatar
exists as an active physical entity, unlike
in many other Simulation Game
subgenres, — hence the "immersive" part. To this end, the developers combine clever game systems
with advanced artificial intelligence
and afford the players maximum expression, while also refusing to hold their hand. Immersive sims commonly have following traits (although this list is neither normative, nor exhaustive):
- High levels of player intentionality and agency. Players are thrown into the virtual space and given goals to achieve and tools to use, but no predetermined paths to follow. Instead, they are expected to explore and to find the best way to reach their objectives with the tools and resources they have, relying on creativity and improvisation rather than on guessing the "correct" solution. To avoid overwhelming new players, the designers may offer some entry points and starting suggestions, but these are never rigid paths to be followed for the rest of the game/level.
- High systemicity. The game is governed by global rules, properties, and mechanics (such as the Physics Engine and NPC Scheduling) that work consistently throughout, with minimal use of systemic exceptions like Scripted Events, one-off animations, and cutscene setpieces. Immersive sims also tend to recycle previously introduced elements and obstacles in new and different contexts.
- Emergence. Interactions between various game subsystems facilitate emergent combinations thereof that the developers did not explicitly code into the game. Combined with high player agency, this also enables the Unexpectedly Realistic Gameplay characteristic of the genre.
- Consistency. As noted above, special cases and one-offs are generally few and far in-between: e.g. there are no Invisible Walls and no Story-Driven Invulnerability — but even if an important NPC bites the dust, there is no Game Over, either, and the simulation just carries on. In fact, player character's death is often the only explicit failure state.
- High reactivity. The game world reacts to the player's actions and observably evolves over time. Story Branching often occurs not via explicit (dialogue) choices, but through gameplay actions, including ones that may appear like Script Breaking at first.
Because the genre had historically evolved under the expectation that Virtual Reality
technology was just around the corner, games in it often feature Unbroken First-Person Perspective
and Diegetic Interfaces
to improve their Player and Protagonist Integration
, although this is not a requirement. Exposition
and World Building
tend to be handled through environmental storytelling, with Story Breadcrumbs
scattered throughout the game world to encourage exploration thereof, and Back Tracking
is a common activity — in this, the genre is similar to Environmental Narrative Gamesnote
. Many games in it also contain nods to the number 0451
(often as the first password the player uses), referencing the original System Shock
, where it was in fact taken from the keycode to Looking Glass Studio's offices during the development of System Shock. However, the keycode also doubles as a reference to Fahrenheit 451
The term "immersive simulation" was coined
in 2000 by Warren Spectornote
, the grandfather of the genre who had worked at both Looking Glass and Ion Storm. Because it is has been so obscure for many years, however, most games in this genre have traditionally been classified as First-Person Shooter
, Stealth-Based Game
, Survival Horror
, or Western RPG
instead. That said, many games in the Wide Open Sandbox
genres tend to incorporate elements of the immersive sim genre without going all the way into the Emergent Gameplay
territory. Examples of these include Bethesda
's Radiant AI
-based RPGs (The Elder Scrolls
onward, Fallout 3
et seq.) and the latest Hitman
The Trope Maker
is Ultima Underworld
(1992), and the Trope Codifiers
are System Shock
(1994) and Deus Ex
(2000). There are several earlier games featuring immersive sim elements, including The Portopia Serial Murder Case
(1983), Takeshi's Challenge
(1986), Sweet Home
(1989), and Ultima VI
(1990), but it was Looking Glass Studios that set the template for the immersive sim genre. The Portopia Serial Murder Case
could be considered an Ur-Example
, as it had most of the key immersive sim elements.
For more details on the genre, see Mark Brown's video
and The Other Wiki
on the topic.
The universally-acknowledged "Immersive Sim Canon" consists of:
- Arx Fatalis (2002, Arkane), intended as a Spiritual Successor to Ultima Underworld, is likewise set in a giant underground cavern populated by a simulated Fantasy Kitchen Sink of various creatures. The player character's task is to find a way to prevent the arrival of a God of Evil by manipulating the game systems to obtain a weapon strong enough to banish him. Notably, there is no dialogue system, and the player instead makes Story Branching choices, including different quest resolutions, exclusively through in-game actions.
- BioShock (2007, Irrational) sees the player trapped in an Underwater City of Rapture, once utopian, but now fallen to anarchy and civil war. It features the iconic splicers, Big Daddies. and Little Sisters. However, unlike earlier immersive sims, its exploreable areas are highly linear, there are less ways to interact with the world, and the game is heavily scripted, sparking some debate whether it shouldn't be classified as a first-person shooter instead.
- BioShock 2 (2010, 2K Marin) returns to Rapture, although a decade into the future and even more decrepit. Much like its predecessor, its status as an immersive sim is somewhat questionable.
- BioShock Infinite, on the other hand, is usually not considered part of the genre, due to its levels being even more linear and an even heavier emphasis on First-Person Shooter combat mechanics than the previous games. Its two-part DLC Burial at Sea, however, was a deliberate return both to Rapture and to the immersive sim mechanics of the previous two games (part two even includes a challenge "1998 Mode" as a throwback to the original Thief).
- Deus Ex (2000, Ion Storm Austin) is considered one of the two great Trope Codifiers of the genre (alongside System Shock), and the game Warren Spector is most proud of. Set in a Cyberpunk, Conspiracy Kitchen Sink future, the game follows the Thief model of distinct missions and simulated level hubs, but allows the player character JC Denton to navigate them in any way and sequence imaginable. It was also one of the earliest games to make action-based and stealth-based walkthroughs equally viable, gameplay-wise.
- Deus Ex: Invisible War (2003, Ion Storm Austin) improved upon the reactivity of the story and game world, but its levels were much smaller and simpler than those of its precessor, as a result of designing the game around the technical limitations of consoles. Another point of contention was the streamlining and simplification of many of the RPG elements of the previous game. Both contributed to the game's poor reception.
- Deus Ex: Human Revolution (2011, Eidos Montreal) had streamlined the first game's formula, albeit still allowing for emergent gameplay (such as hacking an automatic turret and hauling it to the next boss arena). It also features several Deadly Shadows-like hub levels from which the main story missions can be accessed.
- Deus Ex: Mankind Divided (2016, Eidos Montreal) improved upon the Human Revolution's immersive mechanics, particularly in its central hub level of the futuristic Prague, as well as added more options to tackle in-game challenges and affect different outcomes.
- The Dishonored series by Arkane Studios was one of the games that revived this genre for The New '10s, becoming a Gateway Series for players unfamiliar with it, as well as updating it to accommodate faster-paced playstyles. Unlike Thief, the Player Character may use both stealth, and open violence, or any combination thereof to assassinate (or to otherwise put out of commission) his marks, he can also use magical and technological tools to achieve his goals.
- Dishonored (2012, Arkane) is set in the plague-stricken city of Dunwall and with each level simulating the behavior of city guards, civilians, zombie-like weepers, and wildlife (e.g. rats). The Knife of Dunwall and Brigmore Witches DLC duology starring the assassin Daud follows the same model, at one point even simulating an all-out Mob War between two Dunwall gangs.
- Dishonored 2 (2016, Arkane) follows in the previous game's footsteps, albeit moving the bulk of the action to a different city, Karnaca.
- Dishonored: Death of the Outsider (2017, Arkane) is still set in Karnaca, but lets you play as Daud's apprentice Billie Lurk instead.
- Prey (2017, Arkane) strongly resembles System Shock in that it is set on an abandoned Talos I space station overrun by the alien Typhon. The station is one continuous interconnected zone, inhabited by a variety of Typhon creatures and a handful of human survivors, including the player character Morgan Yu. The Mooncrash DLC further experiments with the boundaries of the immersive sim genre by adding elements of Roguelike into the mix, like randomly generated settings, enemy placement, and objectives.
- System Shock (1994, Looking Glass) is often listed as one of the two great Trope Codifiers of the genre (alongside Deus Ex), being Looking Glass' first original project. Its setting, the Citadel space station, is a single multi-layer zone controlled by the malevolent AI with a god complex and populated by robots, cyborgs, and mutants it controls. Among other things, System Shock introduced to the genre and popularized the After the End settings (often involving epidemics and/or societal collapse, thus justifying even the most extreme styles of play) with few speaking NPCs, and Apocalyptic Logs as the main storytelling medium.
- System Shock 2 (1999, Irrational) is set some time after the first game on two docked spaceships, the Von Braun and the Rickenbacker, after both have been overrun by a mutagenic alien hive mind known as "the Many".
- System Shock 3 (TBA, OtherSide) is currently in development, with Warren Spector back at the helm, and promises to be true to its predecessors' principles.
- Thief: The Dark Project (1998, Looking Glass) is remembered primarily as one of the early success stories of the Stealth-Based Game, because of its heavy emphasis on avoiding detection,note but the sneaking itself was very much based in emergent problem-solving within a largely-unscripted game world (one particular innovation was the intricate simulation of light, shadows, and noise). It was also the first entry in the genre to ditch the "single interconnected world" model in favor of smaller sequential levels, each representing a location within a much larger (nameless) City.
- Thief II: The Metal Age (2000, Looking Glass) scaled down the fantasy elements of the first game, such as non-human monsters and maze-like dungeons, in favor of making the City appear and behave more like a realistic urban environment. It also expanded the protagonist Garret's toolset with new technological tools.
- Thief: Deadly Shadows (2004, Ion Storm Austin) introduced to the series a central hub level, consisting of several districts of the City, from which the plot mission locations are accessed and which are unlocked for exploration gradually as the story progresses. This has also closed the last immersion-breaking gap of the previous games, transforming their shopping screens between missions into a in-universe interaction.
- The 2014 reboot by Eidos Montreal, however, is not considered part of the genre anymore, for much the same reasons as BioShock Infinite: more linear level traversal with less exploration appeal; reliance of scripted events; reactive, rather than proactive AI; and a smaller, yet more specialized toolset for overcoming challenges. One change that is often cited to illustrate the difference between simulated and scripted worlds is that the rope arrows in the new Thief can only be attached to specific hotspots placed by the level designers, rather than to any wooden surface (including freely moveable wooden crates), like in the older games.
- Ultima Underworld: The Stygian Abyss (1992, Looking Glass) is usually named as the Trope Maker of the genre. A Spin-Off of the Ultima series, it put the recurring dungeon of the Stygian Abyss into the focus, simulating its massive and complex multi-level ecosystem in real time. The Avatar found himself thrown into the Abyss with an overarching task to free a kidnapped damsel from a powerful demon, but no obvious path towards it, requiring the players to try out different strategies and to improvise. Warren Spector's inspiration for this emergent approach to in-game problem solving came both from Dungeons & Dragons and from watching a playtester solve an Unwinnable by Mistake puzzle in Ultima VI by exploiting the fact that his animal companion Sherry the Mouse could squeeze under a locked door and open it from the other side. Lessons learned from UU influenced both Ultima Underworld II: Labyrinth of Worlds (1993, Looking Glass) and the now-legendary Ultima VII to a considerable degree.
- Underworld Ascendant (TBR, OtherSide) is a Kickstarted Spiritual Successor to Ultima Underworld (would be a sequel if not for trademark issues) developed by many of the same people. It will likewise simulate the Stygian Abyss as a massive underground ecosystem and society, and the developers are working on what they call the "Improvisation Engine" to make sure players always have several ways to reach their goals.
Other games featured on some Immersive Sim lists but not on others:
- Alien: Isolation (2014, Creative), while somewhat lower in Player Agency than most immersive simsnote , is often listed as one, owing to its extremely sophisticated, systemic AI.
- Firewatch (2016, Campo Santo) is an Adventure Game that borrows a lot of elements of the genre to immerse the player in its world, from an Unbroken First-Person Perspective and Diegetic Interface elements like the map and the compass, to real-time conversations and Story Breadcrumbs scattered all over the place and not walled-off by any artificial (non-diegetic) barriers.
- Pathologic (2005, Ice-Pick Lodge) is set in an unnamed steppe town ravaged by a mysterious epidemic, and the player steers one of three variously eccentric characters in an attempt to find a cure. Notably, the game runs in actual Real Time and always ends after 12 in-universe days, and it is entirely possible to miss the vast majority of the story events unless you know exactly when and where the next one will occur.
- The Portopia Serial Murder Case (1983, Chunsoft) was the first game to have most of the key immersive sim elements, making it an Ur-Example. It was a first-person adventure game with an open world, character AI, choices and consequences, non-linear game design, open-ended narrative told through notes and diaries, interactive environments, emergent gameplay, allowed multiple ways to achieve objectives, and lacked fail states.
- S.T.A.L.K.E.R. series (2007-2009, GSC Game World) is set in the vast Zone of Exclusion surrounding the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which, in this timeline, had spawned a large number of bizarre anomalies and mutants. The player character is a "stalker" (a professional Zone trespasser) and must navigate the simulated environment and ecosystem of the Zone to survive.
- Vampire: The Masquerade – Bloodlines (2004, Troika Games) is a Western RPG that, despite its numerous explicit ludic abstractions (it was based on a Tabletop RPG system, after all), manages to create a powerful sense of real space with its Gothic, vampire-run Los Angeles. One level in particular, the Ocean House, is often cited as a hallmark of immersive space design.