Abdicate the Throne

Being the king sucks. Not only do you have to deal with Royal Brats, Royally Screwed Up family and Requisite Royal Regalia, you're practically a Living MacGuffin, even without Blood Magic coming into play. As such, there may come a time when you need not to be the king anymore, but don't want to die. In times like that, you can abdicate the throne. Retire, leave. Give the role to someone worthy and spend the rest of your days in peace.

So you hope, at least— some countries, fictional and otherwise, forbid abdication, or place very specific conditions on it. Or maybe there isn't an heir lined up, and it would just be terminally irresponsible to provoke the ensuing Succession Crisis. That forces a plot where the monarch must convince Parliament to change their minds about that particular law, or find a way to fulfill the preconditions. Or you could just run away...

Sister Trope to Offered the Crown, which is what happens when the king (or someone else) chooses his successor rather than leaving it to the default. Can sometimes happen when the Rightful King Returns and the current ruler wants to get out with his neck intact. May result in Vetinari Job Security if the abdication causes such turmoil that the people want their old king back.


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     Anime & Manga 
  • In Utawarerumono, the Oruyankuru gives his daughter, Urutorii, his title just before the final invasion.
  • In Naruto, the third Hokage retired to give the title over to the fourth. Unfortunately, the fourth's sudden Heroic Sacrifice forced him to take up the reins again.
  • In the anime of Fate/stay night, a flashback scene shows Saber (aka King Arthur) fighting with a knight who demands to know why she won't abdicate the throne. The credits identify the knight character as Mordred.
  • Part of Leonmichelle's plan in Dog Days. She's strictly speaking a regent anyway, but she plans to leave the throne early in an attempt to Screw Destiny. Things never really get that far, though.
  • The absolute first thing that Hikaru does after becoming ruler of Cephiro in the second season of Magic Knight Rayearth is abolish the monarchy. Since she had been present when the previous ruler had been Driven to Suicide by the emotional strain of having to continuously care for everyone and everything equally without caring for any single person or thing as an individual — including herself — or else the bits she doesn't care for will start falling apart, you can understand why.
  • In Ooku, Shogun Yoshimune steps down in favour of her daughter Ieshige. However, she remains in Edo Castle and becomes a shadow ruler whose policy suggestions are more often followed by senior councilors than the actual Shogun's.
    • Ieshige later does the same thing for her daughter Ieharu, but is far less influential in retirement.
    • Tokugawa Harusada passes herself over in the succesion and allows Ienari to ascend to the post of shogun in her place. She later explains that since she already has a child she's content to use Ienari as a breeder while she remains the power behind the scenes.
    • The Succession Crisis that threatened to brew during Ienari's reign ended when Ienari abdicated in favor of the son of his choice.
  • Prince Juda Haspirupi does this towards the end of Anatolia Story to finally bring an end to Queen Nakia's continuous attempts at getting her bloodline to rule the Hittite Empir. Also done as his way to finally call out his My Beloved Smother of a mom on all the shit she had pulled on Kail, the new King and Juda's half-brother, and his wife and The Protagonist Yuri.

    Comic Books 
  • Thorgal: One of the early stories has Thorgal helping a kid reclaim the throne. The kid is the rightful heir, his Evil Uncle killed his brother to get the throne. Along the way they enlist the help of a Viking army in exchange for treasure. After much fighting, they finally make it to the throne room... where the Evil Uncle abdicates in favor of his nephew, wishing him good luck with the intrigues and backstabbing that comes with it. The story would end there, except Uncle intends to leave with Thorgal's wife in his luggage... Asskicking ensues.
  • The Prince Valiant series started with Valiant and his father King Arguar of Thule being forced to flee by Sligon the Usurper. When they return to take back the throne years later, Sligon announce that he is tired of power and will exchange the kingdom for their little island in Britain. Some years after that, Valiant run into Sligon, who has grown old and dotty and has never regretted giving up the kingdom for a second.
  • The Sandman: A king decided that enough was enough, he was tired and fed up, so he closed his kingdom, gave away the key, and left. Later he opens a piano bar in Los Angeles. The king in question? Lucifer.
  • Warlord of Mars: John Carter is proclaimed the titular warlord for his heroic deeds, having united the warring races of Barsoom at great cost such as the death of his grandfather-in-law and his son, who previously ruled his city-state. When the original king Tardos Mors mysteriously returns to life, Carter willingly surrenders the crown to him, reasoning that a civil conflict could erupt between those who supported him against those who prefer Mors and being a veteran from the American Civil War, he'd rather avoid having another war being fought in his adoptive home.

    Fan Works 
  • The Elements of Friendship has this pop up at the end of Book 1: Zecora, having become Queen of Pundamilia after her mother Malkia's death, stands down in favor of a democracy she helps set up, and then emigrates to Equestria to live in Ponyville with her friends.
  • Fire Emblem Fates: Aftermath: Azura decides that she's not cut out for being the queen of Valla due to her aversion of socializing and lack of charisma, so she tells Corrin that he can have the throne.

    Films — Animated 
  • The Great Prince at the end of Bambi.
  • The Queen Ant at the end of A Bug's Life.
  • Prince Naveen at the end of The Princess and the Frog, who actually prefers to stay with Tiana in New Orleans, LA than become the next king of Maldonia. It then turns out that his younger brother was more suitable for becoming the next king.
  • Vanellope Von Schweetz in Wreck-It Ralph, once King Candy is removed from "Sugar Rush" and the game's original program is restored, discovers that she's actually a princess. She decides to set up a constitutional democracy instead.

    Films — Live-Action 
  • In Election, Tammy Meltzer basically calls the election a sham, and announces the first thing she will do if elected is dismantle student government so they don't have to sit through another meeting. She moves from people jeering at her before the speech, to thunderous applause of most of the student body.
  • In Johnny English, the villain, Pascal Sauvage, needs the Queen to abdicate. She initially refuses, but relents when one of her corgis is held at gunpoint. In fact, she abdicates her entire line, forcing the British government to look elsewhere for an eligible heir.
  • The Princess Diaries 2: Royal Engagement has Mia's grandmother stepping down from the throne so Mia can be queen now that she's 21 years old and graduated from college.
  • As an adaptation of King Lear, this naturally is what starts off the plot of Akira Kurosawa's epic Ran.
  • The main protagonist in Vikingdom is a Norse king who dies in combat and in his dying breath passes the crown to his younger brother. He is resurrected shortly after, but instead of reclaiming his throne back, he decided to live as a hermit in the wilds for the next decade.

  • In the Gone series, the leadership of Perdido Beach is like a game of musical chairs.
    • Caine waltzed in and took over, but left after the end of Gone. Sam then took over for Hunger, and then got tired of the responsibility and gave the leadership to the Town Council in Lies, run by Astrid. That turned out to be a disaster, so Sam returned as of Plague. Sam then left again for the Lake Tramonto settlement at the end, so Caine came back and became the absolute ruler of Perdido Beach. That works for a little while, but only until Light — Sam and Caine both leave to look for Gaia, so Edilio becomes the final Mayor of Perdido Beach, and actually maintains that position until the barrier comes down.
  • In The Wheel of Time, the Queen of Andor secretly abdicates her throne in favor of her daughter, Elaine, after being forced to abandon her nation. It contributes nothing to the plot (since everyone thinks she's dead anyway) — Elaine still has to deal with a Succession Crisis — but it adds a little bit of secret justice to the cause, from the reader's point of view, anyway.
  • In the Mage Winds trilogy of Heralds of Valdemar, Princess Elspeth abdicates her position as Heir in favor of her two younger half-siblings, reasoning that, as the first Herald-Mage in centuries and the only one currently trained to use magic, she will be obligated to take on duties that will be far too dangerous for the Heir.
  • Discworld
    • Tomjon in Wyrd Sisters probably holds the record for fastest abdication on record, when he abdicates after a grand total of about five minutes as king in favour of his half brother.
    • Pteppic does this at the end of Pyramids, giving the throne of Djelibeybi over to his half-sister Ptraci so he can go back to Ankh-Morpork.
    • Carrot pre-emptively abdicates his position as the rightful King of Ankh-Morpork, and has even gone as far as killing someone who attempted to put him on the throne in Men at Arms and the subsequent novels in the City Watch sub-series.
    • Cohen the Barbarian, who became Emperor Cohen in Interesting Times, does this shortly before The Last Hero.
      • It's a little ambiguous whether Cohen actually technically abdicated or just scarpered off. Given that his plans were to return the fire that was stolen from the gods (in the form of a large keg of the Discworld's equivalent of dynamite), bothering about formalities would have been rather overly pedantic.
  • The "Sheltered Aristocrat" called Chivalry does this at the beginning of Robin Hobb's Farseer trilogy, out of shame in having an illegitimate child.
  • The Forgotten Realms novel Cormyr includes the story of a Cormyrian king who was thoughtful and well-intentioned, but not strong enough to hold the throne. When he realized that even his own steward was plotting against him, he decided to screw tradition and abdicate in favor of his much more popular and better-suited sister.
  • In The Westmark Trilogy as soon as Mickle remembered that she was heir to the throne, she expressed a wish to abdicate. She doesn't actually abdicate until the end of the third book, because before then she didn't trust any individual with running the country; after the common citizens of the country spontaneously rose up to oust a usurper, she decided to abdicate in their favor and turn the kingdom into a republic.
  • Conan the Barbarian — In Robert E. Howard's "The Scarlet Citadel", Conan is offered freedom and gold if he will do this.
  • The Lord of the Rings:
    • In the Second Age, the Kings of Númenor normally abdicated in favor of their heir well before "laying down their lives" (ie: voluntarily dying). This is because as Númenóreans didn't get diseases and lived for hundreds of years, their sons would be old men by the time they died, so it became tradition to abdicate when their heir reached his full manhood. It is a sign of the kingdom's moral deterioration when they cease doing this.
    • 3,000 years after the fall of Númenor, their distant descendant Aragorn (who is the last heir of the royal house of Gondor, in turn descended from a cadet branch of the royal house of Númenor) restores this tradition as High King of Arnor and Gondor, abdicating the throne to his son Eldarion before voluntarily dying.
  • Occurs several times in the Xanth series. Good Magician Humphrey served as king for several decades before tiring of the job and abdicating to the Storm King. Magician Trent (the Storm King's successor) would later abdicate to his son-in-law, Dor.
  • In John C. Wright's Count To A Trillion, Menelaus realizes that this is one possible solution to Blackie's dilemma — but he won't do it.
  • When the emperor Gastern loses his mind in The Chronicles of Magravandias, he is forced into abdication. His son is preemptively forced to abdicate as well as everyone knows he will only be worse.
  • Abir gives up being queen at the second lottery in Dirge for Prester John as part of the new system of government she has put in place.
  • In A Song of Ice and Fire, Robert Baratheon confesses to his friend(and current Hand) Ned Stark that he would like to do this, cross the Narrow Sea to Essos, and live as a highly-paid sellsword(mercenary). What's stopping him? The thought of his son Joffrey as king, though it later turns out Joffrey isn't Robert's son Robert dies before finding out.
  • A Brother's Price has the queens of Queensland, aging, transferring more and more responsibility to their surviving daughters. They won't abdicate the throne until the princesses have married and produced at least one child, but are expected to do so when that happens.
  • Star Wars Expanded Universe:
    • Jedi Apprentice has The Mark of the Crown, in which a ruler is converting her planet from a monarchy to a democracy. She will abdicate in favor of whomever wins the election. It's not going as smoothly as planned, so she calls in some Jedi to help with the process.
    • In Starfighters of Adumar, the perator of Cartann is convinced to abdicate in favor of his son.
  • In Fiona Patton's Branion series, it is illegal for the sovereign to abdicate, since he is the avatar of a god and the avatar is automatically the secular ruler as well. One sovereign does abdicate, but he's an apostate who turned to a different religion, and the followers of the original religion regard this as shirking his duty. In another book, the Crown Prince offers to abdicate, knowing full well it would mean execution.
  • In the Mercedes Lackey Bardic Voices series, Kestrel was the rightful king of Birnam after his uncle deposed his father. It turned out that the father was taxing the people heavily and wasting it on personal luxuries while the uncle was ruling the kingdom wisely. Kestrel, knowing that he wasn't really competent to take it, publicly renounces all claim to the throne, and ensures it sticks by marrying the Gypsy Bard he is in love with.
  • In The Goblin Emperor, Lord Chavar and Sheveän try to force Maia to abdicate in favor of his nephew. It goes badly when Idra doesn't want the first thing to do with it.
  • In Warrior Cats, Pinestar, leader of ThunderClan, left the Clan to become a kittypet (house cat) near the end of his life. (This is also one of the motivations behind his son, Tigerstar's hatred of kittypets.)
  • The Stormlight Archive:
    • Words of Radiance: When King Elhokar goes on a rant about how he's a terrible king, he asks Kaladin what he should do. Kaladin bluntly tells him that he should abdicate in favor of his uncle Dalinar. Even in his drunk and self-pitying state, Elhokar finds that a step too far. Kaladin, it should be noted, was having an even worse day than Elhokar; normally he's not quite so blunt, and he later accepts that Elhokar is at least trying, and doesn't deserve to be assassinated by one of Kaladin's subordinates.
    • Oathbringer: Adolin spends much of the book worried about his place in the world, since his father is close to abdicating control of the princedom to him. This gets worse when Elhokar dies, and Adolin realizes that with his father removing himself from the line of succession and Elhokar's son too young, Adolin is going to end up as king. He has a discussion with Azure, a woman from another world who gave up her throne, and she says that sometimes the most responsible thing is to give up a responsibility that you know you can't handle. In the end, Adolin refuses the throne, and Elhokar's older sister Jasnah (who was originally skipped in the line of succession) becomes queen.
  • Young Wizards: In Wizards at War, King Nelaid of Wellakh abdicates his throne because he's had enough of The Chains of Commanding and being a target for assassination just for existing, even though his family work hard to protect the planet... so he gifts all of that to his 15-year-old son. Nice, Nelaid.
  • The final Wham Line of The Uncommon Reader that HM The Queen abdicated so that she could write a book.
    Queen Elizabeth (to her assembled cabinet): Why do you think you're all here?

    Live-Action TV 
  • The Doctor Who episode "The Beast Below" sets up an impossible choice for Queen Liz X: abdicate her throne in order to free the star-whale providing the ship with its propulsion and doom her citizens or forget what she has learned and continue her rule. Fortunately, Amy realizes that the whale will stay because it wants to help them so she forces the queen to hit the "abdicate" button, but nothing changes.
  • In a moment of panic, Prince Arthur from Merlin offers to give up the throne in order to save Guinevere from being burnt at the stake.
  • In the season six finale of Game of Thrones, Tommen falls into despair after the Great Sept of Baelor is destroyed in a wildfire explosion. He realizes that he had failed as a king. Once he is alone, he quietly removes his crown and leaves it behind for whoever is foolish enough to want it. Then he calmly walks out the window.
  • Edward VIII's real-life abdication of the throne of the United Kingdom underpins an episode of season 2 of The Crown & The Flame.

  • William Shakespeare
    • Both Richard II and Henry VI Part 3 have forced abdications.
    • The plot of King Lear is kicked off when the king decides to abdicate (in fact if not in name) and must decide how to divide the kingdom among his potential heirs. To a Jacobean audience this would be disturbing as many people considered the King the link between man and God, and the play shows the natural order being disrupted.
    • Likewise, when Henry VI is placed back on the throne, he does the same as Lear: abdicates de facto and gives the ruling of the state to two of his supporters.
  • Oedipus the King: Oedipus at the end of his play has to abdicate after discovering he murdered his father and married his mother. The resulting power vacuum this leaves results in war, the deaths of his sons, and the plot of Antigone.

    Tabletop Games 
  • In Rocket Age some Martian Principalities have ways of doing this without losing face, such as deliberately losing a duel to a "challenger".

    Video Games 
  • Some of the possible endings of Ogre Battle: March of the Black Queen have Tristan give up the throne in favor of the player character, because the people want hir (their liberator) to serve.
  • In the Quest for Glory series of games, the character Rakeesh is the rightful ruler of the land of Tarna, but gives up the throne to become a paladin.
  • Not quite a monarch, but in Fallout 3, depending on how you choose to complete it, a quest half way through the game where you return to Vault 101 can lead to the overseer giving his position up to his more reasonable daughter. Although this doesn't change the fact she still has to forbid you from returning to live in the vault, reluctantly.
  • Dragon Quest III, after returning his stolen crown to the King of Romaly, he declares you the new King and abdicates. Unfortunately, as King, you have no power to do anything or even leave the city limits to continue your quest. The only thing you can do is find the former King gambling in the casino and ask him to retake his throne. Pointless diversion from the game, or lesson about how having power doesn't make you important? You decide.
  • Xenogears: After former King Bart liberates Aveh from the ruthless dictator Shakahn, he decides to abdicate the throne in favor of a republic according to his late father's will.
  • In 10 Days with My Devil, Kakeru Kamui is the heir to the throne of the demon realm, and his younger brother Meguru is the Spare to the Throne. When their father the Demon King sentences Kakeru to death for meddling in the lives of humans, Meguru abdicates his claim on the throne, forcing the Demon King to spare Kakeru in order to avoid a Succession Crisis.
  • In Final Fantasy XIV, Nanamo Ul Namo, the sultana of Ul'dah, becomes disillusioned at the fact that she is essentially a ruler in name only, unable to help her people while the Monetarist factions prioritized profit over the well-being of their fellow citizens. To that end, she plans to abdicate the throne, dissolving the Royalists and Monetarists and paving the way for a democratic Ul'dah. Her plan, unfortunately, is halted by a Monetarist plot to assassinate her. While she survives the attempt, other pressing matters prevent her from abdicating the throne for some time.
  • At the end of Fire Emblem: Radiant Dawn, if Pelleas is still alive, he abdicates the Daein throne to Micaiah. Justified since 1. his claim to the throne, that he was the prior king Ashnard's long-lost orphan, was a lie (albeit one that he himself genuinely believed) and 2. despite his good intentions, he was... well, completely unfit to actually be the King, which nearly led to the complete annihilation of Daein and pretty much destroyed his life. Since Micaiah is much better cut for the job, Pelleas chooses to stay around but as one of her advisors, which fits him much better.
  • Fire Emblem Fates:
    • In the Birthright route, after Xander's death in the war, his half-sister Camilla is next in line for the throne. However, she chooses to abdicate and leave the throne to her younger brother Leo; it's implied that she feels she isn't cut to be the Queen, whereas Leo is.
    • Also happens in the Revelation path, since the Avatar's best friend Azura has the greater claim to the Vallite throne than the Avatar him/herself, being the true princess rather than the child of a usurper. She decides to pass the Kingdom over to them, though, unless the Male Avatar marries her; in that case, he gains the throne by marriage and they rule together.
  • In Dark Souls II and beyond, the First Flame that keeps the universe alive is referred to as a throne, both literally and metaphorically. Each time a hero rises up to become the Lord of the world, they must sacrifice themselves to that throne. Dark Souls 2 is a story of King Vendrick, who refused to take that throne, while Dark Souls 3 requires the player hunting down previous lords who have wandered away from their thrones. To the credit of the Lords of Cinder from 3, two of them (The Abyss Watchers and Yhorm the Giant) had gone mad due to the Abyss in the former case and the destruction of his homeland in the latter, while Aldrich is an evil Blob Monster dedicated to his Age of the Deep and Lorian and Lothric are loathe to go back due to how much it cost them the first time (Lothric lost his kingdom for naught and had to see his brother suffer for him, while Lorian sacrificed his mind and body taking the brunt of the Flame's might in Lothric's stead.)

    Web Comics 
  • A Magical Roommate: the rulers of Umbria abdicate the throne to their children when either the king or the queen dies, since it's a rule that the royalty may not rule without a companion.
  • Drowtales:
    • In Chapter 49, Vala'drielle decides to abdicate the leadership of the Kyorl'solenurn clan to Anahid. Played with in that the position was always rightfully Anahid's, but Valla'drielle had been appointed before Anahid could properly claim it by the Judicators, who at this point are almost all dead.
    • Quain'tana Val'Sarghress also expresses a desire to do this and go out adventuring in the world one last time before her body gets too old. She never gets the chance.
  • In Sailor Moon Cosmos Arc, after Usagi becomes Sailor Cosmos and ascends to godhood Endymion relinquishes his claim to the throne to take Helios's place as priest of Elysion, so Helios could be with Chibiusa.

    Web Original 

    Western Animation 
  • Prince Wally does it so that he can run for President on an early episode of Kim Possible. It is a big case of Prophecies Are Always Right. It has been foretold that his country's royal line will end at Prince Wally. Instead of being assassinated as the characters assume, he opts to abdicate after being impressed with American democracy.
  • Avatar: The Last Airbender:
    • A semi-example: on two occasions, Iroh has a chance to challenge his brother, Ozai, to be Fire Lord: right after their father's death (the audience knows for a fact that the father wanted Iroh to succeed him), and during the final battle at the end of the series. Both times he refuses: the first time most likely because he's still devastated by the death of his son, and later because he feels Ozai's son, Zuko, should be Fire Lord instead.
    • Played With again during the Grand Finale, when Ozai passes the title of Fire Lord to Azula; however, this is because he intends to conquer the entire world and give himself a new title, Phoenix King.
  • In The Legend of Korra (Sequel Series to the above), Zuko's daughter is Fire Lord, while Zuko, now an old man, abdicated to become a worldwide ambassador of peace instead.
    • Also, in the second season Tonraq apparently decides not to contest his niece and nephew's right to the Northern Water Tribe throne, despite now knowing that their father stole it. He is selected Chief of the Southern Tribe instead, but at least he's allowed to return to his homeland anytime he wants, and has done so once.
    • At the end of the the fourth season, Prince Wu abandons his claim to the Earth Kingdom throne, with the intent of letting it become a republic with elected leaders.
  • The Sylvester and Tweety Mysteries: Some lions wanted to depose their King because their food reserves (read: game) were running low. The King wouldn't mind abdicating except that it wasn't allowed. He had to die before a new King rose. He instead tricked Sylvester into switching places with him. (Which was posible thanks to Paper-Thin Disguise) The food was eventually found inside the cave of a lion who planned to usurp the throne but decided the current King wasn't all that bad when compared to Sylvester.
  • In the Teen Titans episode "Betrothed", it is revealed that Starfire is the crown princess of her planet, Tamaran, as she was in the comics. After agreeing to an arranged marriage (a Tamaranian custom, as she is quick to inform Robin of), finding out that her husband is a slimy, flatulent Eldritch Abomination, that the whole marriage was engineered by her criminal older sister, Blackfire, who seized the throne and agreed to trade Starfire to the blob people for a MacGuffin to boost her powers, and finally taking the throne back from Blackfire by force and banishing her from the planet, Starfire abdicates the throne and gives the crown to her male nanny, Galfore, "the hands that raised her when she was very small". Doubles as Crowning Moment of Heartwarming.

    Real Life 
  • Britain's Edward VIII abdicated in 1936, less than a year into his reign. He was determined to marry American divorcée Wallis Simpson and keep the throne. Not only did divorce carry great stigma at the time, but the King was supposed to be the head of the Church of England, who taught that marrying after divorce was wrong if the divorced partner was still alive. He didn't really fancy being King anyway and neither did the British public (he was known to have German sympathies). So that's OK.
    • This is probably why Britain is just about the only country where any talk of abdication is considered a bad thing. Elizabeth II is currently past 90, far older than everyone below, and has no intentions whatsoever of abdicating. We should also note that Elizabeth remembers Edward VIII's abdication, as she was not only alive at the time (she was 10) but made acutely aware of the fact that this was why she was Queen (her father was Edward's younger brother, who never expected or wanted to be king and quite possibly died before his time because of it), or at least why she was Queen in 1952 rather than, say, sometime in the 1970s. Most sources indicate that she was not entirely happy with the circumstances that led to her eventual accession.
    • Also compounding the issue of abdication in Britain is the fact that technically, the monarch cannot abdicate without the consent of Parliament--and of the parliaments or governments of about half of the other Commonwealth Realms—because of the old British and typical Commonwealth rule that parliament alone is permitted to decide the succession to the throne, and that includes who currently sits on it. It's unlikely that a monarch intending to abdicate would be denied, but the effort it would take to get all the necessary approvals would be very daunting.
  • Queen Christina of Sweden abdicated her throne to convert to Catholicism and go live in Italy.
  • Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands abdicated in favor of her daughter Juliana in 1948. Decades later (in 1980), Juliana did the same for her daughter Beatrix; who in turn stepped down in 2013 favor of her son Willem-Alexander. Considering Willem I's abdication in 1840 (like Edward VIII, there was a woman involved), far more post-Napoleonic Dutch monarchs have stepped down than died in office and this may safely be considered a tradition.
  • Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate during the early stages of the the Russian Revolutions, as the people blamed the tsarist government for their terrible living conditions. Not complying to abdicate would certainly result in his death. At the moment the choice was presented to him, he knew the reign of the tsars was over, as his son was too weak to rule and therefore unable to take over the throne. Nicholas chose to abdicate voluntarily, in hopes of surviving the revolution. Sadly, he and his family were killed during the later stages of the revolution.
    • Ivan the Terrible also pulled this once, but it was actually a Batman Gambit to get the non-boyars to acquiesce to his boyar-slaughtering Oprichnina.
  • Diocletian, the Eastern Roman Emperor. The resignation was the capstone of reforms aimed at making the transition of power more orderly. It didn't work, and the generation after him was plagued by civil war.
  • Charles V of Spain retired to a monastery when he was tired of being The Emperor-not to be a monk, for he continued to live in unmonastic luxury. Rather because the area also made a rather decent ad-hoc villa and perhaps because he liked the company of monks more then that of courtiers.
  • Lucius Cornelius Sulla, who as a dictator was king in all but name, "retired" after a while, but only after securing that his legislation wouldn't be challenged and making sure the majority of the Roman senate were chosen by himself. Caesar said that he was politically illiterate for doing so, but we know what happened to him when he showed no sign of giving up the post... This trope, in any case, was required of dictators in the Republic, and Cincinnatus earned fame and admiration for doing so earlier than required.
  • Pope Benedict XVI became the first Pope in almost 600 years to resign (the church does not refer to it as an "abdication", but many others do). And the first in 900 years to resign voluntarily rather than at the point of a sword.
  • Ottoman Emperor Murad II resigned in 1444 in favor of his 12 year old son Mehmed. A couple of years later the latter realized he was in over his head and sent a message spelling things out for his father:
    "If you are the Sultan, come and lead your armies. If I am the Sultan, I hereby order you to come and lead my armies."
    • Mehmed did prove himself eventually; he didn't earn the sobriquet "The Conqueror" for nothing, after all, having ended the Byzantine Empire in 1453 among other accomplishments.
  • Recently, Sheikh Hamad bin Jassem Al Thani of Qatar stepped down and turned the throne over to his son, Sheikh Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani.
  • 79 year old King Albert II of Belgium stepped down effective 21 July 2013 in favor of his eldest child Philippe/Filip/Philipp due to health reasons. In 1953 his father suspected collaborator King Leopold III abdicated in favor of Albert's elder brother Baudouin/Boudewijn/Balduin in order to avoid the outright abolition of the Belgian monarchy.
  • Dom Pedro I, the founding emperor of Brazil did it twice, in two different countries. He was originally the Portuguese Crown Prince who was left in charge of Brazil after the Napoleonic Wars (during which the Portuguese monarchy took refuge in its Brazilian colony). After reorganizing the country based on liberal principles, Pedro declared Brazil independent and made himself its constitutional monarch. This did not keep him from succeeding to the Portuguese throne in 1826, but, after a short while, he abdicated the Portuguese throne and passed it on to his daughter. He abdicated from the Brazilian throne, however, when his daughter in Portugal was overthrown by the reactionaries in 1831 and went to Portugal to lead liberal forces. He is known as "the Liberator" in both Portugal and Brazil, but his tendency to suddenly abdicate caused much confusion in politics of both countries, to say the least, and contributed to the reactionary rebellions in both countries.
  • His son Dom Pedro II was also forced to abdicate the Brazilian crown in a highly unusual situation: after implementing abolition of slavery he had lost the support of the rich and wealthy class, who began pushing for a Republican government to replace the Empire. Pedro II did not resist, as he himself grew tired of ruling for over 50 years (he was crowned as a 14-year old) and so the Republic was established in a practically bloodless coup, despite him having the full support of both the people and the recently freed slaves (who equated the monarchy with freedom for his role in the abolition) who did not wish to see him deposed.
  • Effective 19 June 2014, then-76-year-old King Juan Carlos of Spain officially handed the reins over to his son Felipe (VI).
  • Subverted with Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany. In the final stages of World War I, the German government were fearing revolution could break out, as the German people might be inspired by the Russian revolution against the tsar. Therefore, they made the announcement the Kaiser abdicated the throne, in favor of a new German republic. Unfortunately for Wilhelm, this happened without his permission. When he heard the news at his retreat in Belgium, he knew everything was lost. Fearing for his life as his home-country might hand him over to the allies to be tried, Wilhelm fled to the neutral Netherlands to live out the rest of his days there.note 
  • This happened repeatedly in Japanese history. Reigning emperors would rule for a few years, get tired of the endless rituals they were required to perform, and retire in favor of a son to live in luxury and actually wield more power than the current Emperor. Sometimes there would be three or four such retired Emperors around, all of them running their own schemes.
    • For much of Japanese history, the Emperor's "rule" was a fiction; Shoguns and other lords for centuries ruled large swaths of Japan (albeit in the Emperor's name) while the Emperor himself was more often seen as a religious leader and icon than a temporal ruler. Indeed, so much of the Emperor's time was spent on rituals that were, in honesty, so repetitive and boring that they didn't leave much time for actual rulership. Many times, an Emperor would abdicate in favor of a pubescent child who would go through the rituals because the adults told him to, who would then be allowed to abdicate himself sometime in his late teens or early twenties to a well earned retirement so that he could do something productive with his life.
      • After decades of consolidating power in Sengoku-era Japan, Ieyasu Tokugawa was officially appointed Shogun in 1603. After just two years he abdicated and passed on the shogunate to his son to ensure a peaceful transfer of power. Though he officially retired, Ieyasu still had power until his death in 1616.
    • The modern Japanese monarchy doesn't have any formal measures in place to deal with the possibility that the monarch might want to voluntarily step down. Emperor Akihito caused waves when he made a televised address containing blatant hints that he wished to abdicate in favor of his son. The Japanese government eventually passed a one-off bill that began the process of Akihito handing over responsibilities to Crown Prince Naruhito with the formal handover expected to occur in 2019.
  • Since being raised to a Grand Duchy, Luxembourg has like the Netherlands seen more monarchs retire than die 'in harness'note . Adolphe (having inherited in 1890 when he was well into his 70s) and Guillaume IV reigned for life, but since then? Marie-Adélaïde abdicated under a cloud after World War I when she was not quite 25 (1919), her kid sister Charlotte was pushing 70 when she quit 19 years after returning home with the exiled government after World War II (1964), and the latter's son Jean handed things over to his son Henri in 2000 at the age of 79.