- The Rada of Belarusan Democratic Republic (BNR) is the supreme institution and the sole legitimate representation of the sovereign rights of the Belarusan people, expressed by the Legislative Act of the 25th of March, 1918, which was recorded in the Third Constitutional Charter of the BNR. The BNR Rada performs the functions of a National Legislature and of a Government-in-Exile.
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- In Mai-Otome, Garderobe is invaded midway through the series. Although it's the training ground for Otome, the elite warriors of the world, they don't have enough gathered at first, and then their abilities are cut off. The Headmistress, Natsuki, is one of only a handful to escape. She spends the next series of episodes taking refuge in nearby Aries and forming an alliance to mount a counterstrike.
- Amaterasu crew's justification to fight against Henrietta alliance in Starship Operators.
- In Code Geass one of the ministers of the former Japanese government claimed this. Of course, he was also a Chinese puppet...
- Sailor Moon: Although her kingdom consists of about 9 girls and a couple of cats, Sailor Moon is still their princess and they still treat her like one.
- This trope is evident in some fashion in Equestria: A History Revealed, in which Princess Celestia left the country for a couple of years, while the government she left behind was purged and forcibly made loyal to Nightmare Moon. Upon Celestia's return, she had to gain supporters and fight to reclaim her old nation in the Equestrian Civil War.
- In With Strings Attached, many Raleka fled Ketafa after the Idris started massacring them. They set up towns on the Rust Coast of Baravada, and some of them subsequently made the long pilgrimage to the Shining Coast in order to learn magic and combat skills with which to defeat the Idris back in Ketafa.
- Worldwar: War of Equals features several examples caused by the Race invasion:
- The Ukrainian government is evacuated to Chernihiv as soon as The Race makes landfall.
- Likewise, Barack Obama, his family, and other high ranking government officials relocate to a bunker in Manchester, New Hampshire.
- After Kuwait City is overrun, the Royal Family flees to Saudi Arabia.
- With Race forces making their way to Baghdad, the Iraqi government flees to Mosul.
- As the Race advances on Cairo, the Egyptian government evacuates to Alexandria.
- In the novel SS-GB, England is conquered by Nazi Germany. King George VI is held prisoner. By the end of the novel, George is killed and his daughter in Canada, Elizabeth II, became Queen. One of the reasons why British La Résistance members arrange his death is so Elizabeth can be a legitimate Government in Exile.
- The last book in the Westmark trilogy has the protagonists form a Government in Exile while still in the country. The text even says it isn't a government-in-exile, it's a government-in-pawnshop.
- In the Yashim Series, the hero's best friend is a Polish diplomat who is harbored by the Ottoman government as a Take That to Russia. The Polish diplomat is a one-man Government in Exile.
- In the later Honor Harrington books, the People's Navy in Exile make allusions to this, but they never fool anybody but themselves. And then they don't even fool themselves anymore once they realize that they have crossed the Moral Event Horizon by cutting a deal with the Mesans to act as hired guns in return for support.
- It happens twice in The Chronicles of Narnia: the title character of Prince Caspian, and King Tirian in The Last Battle.
- In It Can't Happen Here, Windrip places Trowbridge under house arrest after winning the presidential election and turning America into a fascist state. Trowbridge escapes to Canada, where he leads a resistance movement to oust the Windrip regime from power.
- Oswin, the White Prince and rightful heir in Terra Mirum Chronicles, is on the run after the Nightmare murders his mother and brainwashes his father.
- A Song of Ice and Fire:
- The Targaryens (Viserys, Daenarys, and Aegon... maybe) think of themselves as this. They are under the impression that the common folk pray desperately for their return, and that the current king is seen as an evil usurper. While they technically have a point about Robert Baratheon usurping their father's throne, they are both too young to remember that their father was a raving nutter that everyone hated. (Robert, for all his flaws, was sane, and maintained peace for seventeen years.) Although there are still isolated pockets of Targaryen loyalists, by and large they vastly overestimate how much the common people care about the succession.
- Also Jalabhar Xho, an exiled prince of the Summer Isles. He hangs out in King's Landing fighting in tournaments and occasionally asking for an army to conquer his homeland in his name.
- In 1784: Liberty The American Revolution ends with a British victory and George Washington is captured and executed. The surviving members of the Continental Congress and a few of the units of the Continental Army escape west and settle in what today would be Illinois. They have to decide whether they will continue the Revolution from this new location or instead form a new nation.
- The Star Wars Expanded Universe, specifically the pre-Disney Legends brand, has the Empire become this following the fall of Coruscant. Until the Legacy comics come about again the Empire is ruled from Bastion. When the Galactic Alliance is defeated, it returns to its roots as the Rebellion, though in both cases the factions are called the "*Insert name here* Remnant" rather than a government-in-exile. Of course, the Alliance itself was essentially the Republic's government in exile, especially given high-level Senators like Bail and Leia Organa and Mon Mothma making up the leadership.
- About midway through the New Jedi Order series, the Yuuzhan Vong capture Coruscant, shattering the New Republic. The remnants of the Republic's military and political leadership is scattered for a while, but eventually reorganize on Mon Calamari, which they use as their capital until retaking Coruscant at the end of the war (and even then, it takes years of undoing the Vong's Hostile Terraforming before the planet can be officially reinstated as the capital).
- In Harry Turtledove's Colonization series, France has been under the Reich's boot for two decades now. While the nation of France officially exists, it's ruled by a government-in-exile from the French islands in the Pacific and isn't really important to world politics. Later, the Race forces the Reich to relinquish control over France.
- This Immortal: Although it's partly a self-imposed exile, the Earth government actually resides on Taler and is voted upon mostly by the resident human population while Earth is pretty much left to its own devices. Though Radpol had a hand in making it rather unappealing for Earthgov to be on site.
- Babylon 5: the station harbored G'kar after Narn was retaken by the Centauri, in spite of demands he be turned over to the Centauri Republic.
- Battlestar Galactica (2003): The Colonial Government can be seen as this. They even keep the trappings of their government for quite some time.
- Game of Thrones:
- The Targaryens see themselves as this. They were the ruling house of the Seven Kingdoms for three centuries, before they were deposed during Robert's Rebellion and House Baratheon replaced them as the new royal house. The few surviving Targaryens fled into exile. Currently based in Essos, House Targaryen seeks to retake the Seven Kingdoms from House Lannister, who formally replaced House Baratheon as the royal House following the destruction of the Great Sept of Baelor.
- Stannis later sees himself as this as well. Following Robert's death and the revelation that Robert's heir, Joffrey is actually Queen Cersei's bastard son with her twin brother Jaime, Stannis declares himself the rightful king and begins a campaign to take the Iron Throne from the Lannisters. After amassing an army, Stannis attacks King's Landing and almost breaches the city, but is defeated by combined Lannister-Tyrell reinforcements and forced to retreat to Dragonstone. While planning his next move following the deaths of Joffrey and Robb Stark, Stannis travels North to the Wall to aid the Night's Watch against a wildling invasion and meets Jon Snow, attempting to acquire his help in retaking the North from House Bolton, who previously betrayed House Stark and murdered Robb.
- Merlin: This is essentially the case in the season 3 finale, when Morgana took over and Arthur, Gaius, Merlin and the knights escaped into hiding. Uther remained imprisoned, though, until the good guys returned to retake the castle and free him.
- Mission: Impossible: One Mission of the Week involved the jailbreak of a political prisoner from an apartheid regime in order to set up a Government in Exile with him in charge.
- Revolution: The first season finale reveals that the last US President has been running one out of Guantanamo Bay since the Blackout.
- In season 2 Monroe is hiding out in Texas and is quite insistent that sooner or later he will return and lead his nation once again. Ironically, to do so he allies himself with Miles and Rachel, the people who brought down his government in the first place.
- Star Trek: Deep Space Nine: "Ties of Blood and Water", follows the Gul Dukat enlisting the Dominion to overthrow a democratic Cardassian government and set himself up as military dictator. The exiled Cardassian Legate Tekeny Ghemor from "Second Skin" escapes to the station (where he's granted asylum) and Kira encourages him to use his freedom and popularity on the Cardassian homeworld to become the focal point for a government in exile. Ghemor admits that he likes the idea, but says its impossible to pull off because he's been diagnosed with a terminal illness and will be dead in a matter of weeks if not days.
- Suikoden V: The royal palace is captured in an attack by the Godwin faction of nobles, with the King and Queen dead and Princess Lymsleia installed as a puppet Queen. The Prince and a handful of his bodyguards manage to escape, taking refuge at first in the territory of the Barrows faction, who's rivaled with the Godwins. They eventually carve out their own section of territory under their control, recruiting cities and neighboring countries to their side one at a time until they can retake the capital.
- In Suikoden IV, this happens to the kingdom of Obel. When Kooluk's forces invade, Lino En Kuldes escapes on the rebellion's future headquarters and promotes your hero to head of the rebellion, and you set out to free the other islands.
- Medieval: Total War had something like this as a gameplay mechanic. Even after defeating a nation, it was a common occurrence for "loyalists" to rise up and try fighting back.
- Pretty much half the plot of the original Fire Emblem for the NES (as well as the remake, Fire Emblem: Shadow Dragon for the DS). Altea is betrayed by their ally, Gra and have the shit kicked out of them - the only member of the royal family not killed or captured is Prince Marth, who, along with a remnant military force (Jagen, Cain, Abel, etc.) and ministers (Madelleus) escape and take refuge in Talys, one of the few countries which is truly an ally of Altea.
- Likewise, the opening acts of The Sacred Stones play out very similarly.
- Warcraft II begins with Azeroth, having been conquered by the Orcs and its king slain, founding a government in exile in Lordaeron under Anduin Lothar as Regent.
- In World of Warcraft, Gilnas is this after being invaded by the Forsaken. The Night Elves help as many people as possible escape the small nation and offer them a home on Teldrasil (Which considering the Night Elves' well known Xenophobia is a big deal). Their king however only stays for a brief period of time before going to Stormwind, where he stands next to its king.
- A major gameplay mechanic in Hearts of Iron 3. Any country which is conquered can opt to form a Government in Exile rather than capitulate; the homeland surrenders and is occupied but the GIE gets to keep any overseas colonies and their garrisons, and gets some free unit production capability to represent the forces which fled even if it has no colonies. The For the Motherland expansion added the ability to funnel that production into equipping and supporting an Underground network, with the goal of amassing enough forces to launch a nation-wide uprising.
- This briefly occurs in Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2, with President Dugan and his administration seeking refuge in Canada after most of the country is taken by the Soviets.
- The Entente in Kaiserreich: Legacy of the Weltkrieg starts out with this as a major element — of its major members, Canada is under strong influence from the British exiles (Britain proper is under the control of the Syndicalist Union of Britain) and National France is an Algiers-centred colonial regime (with France proper under the control of the syndicalist Commune of France). Events during the course of the game can have other exile governments appear — Portugal can end up in the Azores, Angola or Mozambique, the German Empire can end up as a good chunk of Africa, the Dutch government can evacuate to the East Indies...
- Enigma: Rising Tide takes place in an Alternate History, where the RMS Lusitania was never sunk, the US never entered World War I, and, as a result, the Allies lost the war, resulting in Imperial Germany controlling most of Europe. With the British Isles occupied, some members of the British government have fled to Hong Kong, where they formed a government-in-exile and joined Imperial Japan as the League of Free Nations, a third world power in counterbalance to Germany and the US. Prime Minister Winston Churchill heads the government-in-exile with the singular goal of retaking the British Isles no matter the cost. This includes pitting Germany and the US against one another in a mutually-destructive war by sinking the convoy ship SS Samuel Wren, while masquerading as a German U-boat. The epilogue reveals that the effort succeeded, with the US dealing a devastating blow to the German fleet at Scapa Flow, in a manner eerily similar to the Real Life attack on Pearl Harbor.
- The Order of the Stick — the surviving residents and leaders of Azure City escaped on ships out to sea after Xykon's forces took over their homeland. Post-Time Skip finds them still trying to find a place to re-settle since the other Southern nations can't take in all the refugees. It finally takes a wizard to get them all to a suitably-inhabitable island to colonize. Meanwhile, the Azure City residents that were left behind form different factions of La Résistance and bicker amongst themselves.
- In Drowtales, the clans of Chel'el'sussoloth started out as this and believed in the Queen Sharess' promise to bring them back to the surface after war forced them underground, but by the time the main story begins it's persisted for a millennium and almost all of the original dark elves have been replaced by their children the drow, and the fact that they haven't adapted since then causes problems that become more and more evident as the series goes on and the office of the Val'Sharess, who supposedly speaks for Sharess, is shown to be either indifferent or powerless plus the real Val'Sharess has actually been dead for close to 30 years in the present time of the story after being removed in a coup pulled by her own daughters, with various Body Doubles and other trickery (somewhat) keeping up the illusion that she's alive.
- The Witches of Dathomir in The Gungan Council claims to be one of these. Yet, being composed of only Nightsisters and their allies, such a claim is contested by the rest of the galaxy.
- In The Legend of Korra, Prince Wu is technically the Earth King, but he's stuck in Republic City. Being unambitious, and not eager to meet his predecessor's fate, he spends his time living the life of the Idle Rich. Until, very last two episodes of Book and series with Wu regetting the thorne and rethinking to begin planning dissolved the Monarchy and Earth Kingdom into may elected-democratic nations to prevent any more tragic events with Earth Monarchy and Nation.
- Details from Wikipedia
- World War I forced Serbian government and military to exile on the Greek island of Corfu. After repelling the initial two offensives launched by Austria-Hungary in 1914, Serbia found itself facing three enemies in 1915: Austria-Hungary, German Reich and Bulgaria. The Serbian military was forced to retreat to Greece through the mountains of Albania. Despite suffering huge losses due to famine and typhus, they reached their destination. Serbia established a government in exile in Corfu, and, with allied help, managed to resupply and reorganize its troops and launch a succesful counter-offensive in 1918.
- World War II had Charles de Gaulle, who initially lead part of the Free French Forces. As he continued to organize more exiled forces under his command, and even began to gain control of French colonies previously under the control of Vichy France, he gradually became the de facto leader of the French Government in Exile.
- Several nations that were invaded by Germany in WWII had governments-in-exile, often headquartered in London.
- Poland's government-in-exile continued for 51 years until the fall of communism in 1990, when it disbanded after recognizing the legitimacy of the post-communist government led by Lech Walesa. The longest government-in-exile in modern times to have been disbanded, however, was that of Ukraine (1920-1992) established after the Soviet takeover.
- In contrast, the longest government-in-exile, the Rada of the Belarusian Democratic Republic, is still going strong in Canada since its inception in 1919 to the present day. Unlike Ukraine, it was unwilling to recognize Lukashenko's government after he seized power by decree. Interestingly, this Rada was never even meant to be a permanent government, much less one to last almost a century; it was a provisional parliament intended only to set the foundation for a constitutional convention.
- One contingency plan in the unlikely success of a German invasion during WWII would have had the Royal Family (or at least Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret - who, famously, would not leave without their mother, who would not leave without the King, who would never leave), along with some senior British politicians, setting up a government-in-exile in Canada. Presumably members of the governments-in-exile already in London would have likewise fled to Canada or the United States.
- It was once common practice for monarchs to harbor pretenders to a rival throne. The most famous of these to English speakers were the Jacobites.
- The Tibetan government in exile, residing currently in India.
- Queen Wilhelmina and the rest of the royal family fled the Netherlands in World War II as a symbol of resistance; they were welcomed back with uproarious joy afterward. (King Leopold II, in neighboring Belgium, had stayed and dealt with the invaders and was consequently forced to resign.) Her daughter Juliana went further afield, to Ottawa (where her daughter Margriet was born; the Canadian government temporarily declared the maternity ward of the hospital in which Juliana gave birth extraterritorial so she would gain citizenship from her mother alone). It also helped that Juliana's husband Bernhard, although a German, had wanted to stay and join La Résistance, and remained in London with his mother-in-law for much of the war, flying missions for the RAF and later taking command of the Dutch armed forces in the last days of the war.
- Though China would have you believe differently, Taiwan counts as this for them since they call themselves the Republic of China, left over from the Nationalist side of the civil war back in the 30s and 40s. Fortunately or unfortunately, depending on your point of viewnote , since they're just an island facing off against one of the world's largest countries there's very little chance that they'll actually be able to become the recognized government again.
- Ecclesiatical equivalent: in partibus bishops are Roman Catholic bishops whose dioceses were unavailable because of schismatics, heretics or non-Christians taking over the places, in partibus is the shorter form of in partibus infidelium, meaning "in the lands of the unbelievers."
- One exemple of such seat was the diocese of Bethlehem, whose bishop fled the Saladin on 1187 to the Hospital of Panthenor in the town of Clamecy in Burgundy and who remained there considerated and treated as a normal bishop until the revolution.
- The Greek Orthodox Church occasionaly awards to bishops sees in modern Turkey whose Greek population was expelled in 1923.