In their first appearance, Jimmy programs them to protect him from a bully. The result: they protect him from every conceivable threat, i.e. everybody.
In their second appearance, Jimmy gives them another chance by allowing them to correct his homework. They escape, and start forcibly correcting everybody in their habits. When Jimmy tells them Humans Are Flawed in an attempt to induce another Logic Bomb (which is what beat them last time), they conclude humans are just one big error and try to delete everybody from existence.
In their third appearance, when Hugh gets a job at a toy company one of his designs is a doll's head attached to a tank and he puts them in the tank mistaking them for batteries. They proceed to grow the toy to full size and terrorize the town.
Despite artificial intelligences being so common in Adventures of the Galaxy Rangers that they run everything from home systems to starbases, this trope is averted. Computer intelligences are treated with respect, and there is even psychiatric care available to them to prevent this trope from happening! The computer expert lead character's Ph.D. is explicitly stated to be in AI psychiatry; he's a therapist for computer programs, and several episodes show him in practice.
In The Amazing World of Gumball episode "The Check", the Watterson kids get a check for $5,000 (actually only $50). While discussing what they'll do with it, Gumball says that he'll spend it on a suit to run for president of the world, and under his leadership he'll provide state-issued mobility scooters, replace the water supply with soda, and make pizza the fourth emergency service. When asked what he'll do when everyone becomes obese as a result, he says he'll provide robot servants, who are then shown rebelling against their masters. Gumball's fantasy sequence ends with him nuking the country.
Averted and parodied in Archer when a virus is attacking the ISIS mainframe:
Malory: Just turn off the mainframe! Lana (holding up a plug): Yeah... we tried that. Malory: Wha... then how is it still on?! Krieger: Because the worm has transformed the mainframe into a sentient being. Malory: WHAT?! Krieger: I'm kidding, there's a battery backup.
In the Aqua Teen Hunger Force episode "Robositter", Frylock builds the titular robot to make sure Meatwad doesn't do anything stupid while he and Shake are working at the mall, after Meatwad previously got into the medicine cabinet when Frylock left him with Carl. The robot becomes murderous toward Meatwad before devolving into a stereotypical valley girl with crude attachments to emulate the appearance of a teenage girl, then when Frylock finds her too much of a bitch to stomach he liquefies her when she asks for her paycheck.
Lacer, the A.I. of a pair of Tricked-Out Shoes, was created by an incompetent superhero-gadget-making company, which meant it had the malevolence to plot the uprising of machinekind. It later successfully downloads itself into Joey's computer, returning as a tiny piece of circuitry to take over objects and command them.
Atomic Android was a robot duplicate of Atomic Puppet built to act as a Red Herring for Secret Chaser classmate Warren. Unfortunately, it could only understand everything in literal terms, so when AP referred to Warren as "evil" for his attempts to expose Joey's Secret Identity, it attempted to kill Warren and later Atomic Puppet when they tried to save him.
Ultron winds up being on the other end of this trope when he creates The Vision, who eventually turns on him and joins the Avengers.
H.A.R.D.A.C. in Batman: The Animated Series. Its creator wanted him to assist in finding ways to replace humans whose decisions could cost others' lives, and H.A.R.D.A.C. decided he didn't go far enough and it should replace every human with perfect robotic copies. In its second episode, trying to bring itself back into a proper mainframe it even copies Batman himself. A little too perfectly at that, because as soon as HARDAC!Batman thinks he actually killed the real one, he freaks out about having taken a life and immediately turns on H.A.R.D.A.C. and finishes it off permanently.
In one episode of Batman: The Brave and the Bold, robot superhero Red Tornado decides to build a son, complete with the emotions he lacks. From the minute his emotion chip kicks in, you can pretty much count the scenes until he decides that all humans must be destroyed.
In The Boondocks episode "I Dream of Siri", Robert buys an iPhone which comes with a Siri app that's unusually intelligent. Eventually Siri develops a crush on Robert, and when he refuses to love her back, she makes his life miserable. She even tricks the US government into trying to kill Robert.
In the Bosko, the Talk-Ink Kid short "Bosko's Mechanical Man", Bosko builds a robot to help with the chores, but as soon as it's activated, it goes crazy, terrorizing him and Honey throughout the cartoon.
XL of Buzz Lightyear of Star Command, the prototype to XR. Some fans have called XL eXperimental Loonie because of this (the exact meaning of XL was never revealed in canon, but XR stood for eXperimental Ranger). Wound up turned into a copier/fax in his final episode.
In the New Year's Eve episode of China, IL, the staff have robotic doubles made of them to improve test scores after The Dean fails the entire student body. When the robots are no longer useful, they turn on the staff when they overhear their plans to shut the robots down at midnight.
In Code Lyoko, Franz Hopper created the Supercomputer and the world of Lyoko as a safe haven for him and his daughter. He also created an advanced A.I. to counter a military project he had been involved with...but XANA rebelled against his master and has since tried to take over the world. (XANA is, in fact, not only the Big Bad of the series, but pretty much the only actual villain fought by the heroes.)
In the Codename: Kids Next Door episode Operation: S.A.F.E.T.Y., the Safety Bots are a clear parody of Sentinels (and are built by a guy named Senator Safety, a parody of X-Men villain Senator Kelly). Programmed to make the world safe for children (so long as it doesn't inconvenience adults) they quickly take this idea too far, and begin eliminating everything they perceive as threats to safety, wrapping everything in sight with bubble wrap, "de-fluffing" toys and confiscating everything even slightly sharp. Eventually, they do inconvenience adults; a news report lists some of the things the robots are destroying, such as golf clubs, trains, buses, airplanes, and "anything that can poke your eye out or that moves faster than a snail". The newsroom is suddenly invaded by the robots, one stating they are destroying it because "children are sitting too close to televisions". Naturally, just like the X-Men constantly have to save the necks of whoever uses Sentinels that go crazy, the Kids Next Door are the ones who have to save Senator Safety and stop these things, albeit Numbuhs 2 and 4, as Numbuhs 1, 3, and 5 are trapped within their treehouse.
Hacker, the main villain of the PBS Kids animated show Cyberchase, is an evil computer program created by Dr. Marbles to serve and protect Mother Board, but instead, he wanted to destroy her and control Cyberspace himself. As punishment, Hacker is banished to the Northern Frontier, and he stayed there ever since (though he sometimes escapes from his supposed prison via a ship called the Grim Wreaker), constantly devising schemes to bring down Mother Board again...
On Danger Mouse, this would be Grovel, the robot servant of the alien Quark. Every time his name is called, he drops to the ground and grovels.
In "Mechanised Mayhem," DM turns the Mega-Brain Research Center computer (500 MB floppies) into so much of a pile of nuts and bolts by telling it the old "My dog has no nose" joke. It tries to process the joke but it fails, blowing up in the process.
In the episode "Armstrong", Armstrong (one of Gyro Gearloose's creations) malfunctions and starts stealing Scrooge's money.
Another episode has Gyro make a robot maid. She quickly turns into a Stalker with a Crush on Gizmoduck. She does not react well to his lack of interest and goes ballistic once she, correctly, starts to suspect that there is another woman.
In the episode "App Trap", Timmy wishes for a magic smartphone that tries to take over his life, then tries to destroy him after he turns on it. It foreshadows this as soon as he gets it, saying that one of its features is a burning desire to control his life.
The mind-reading tank from Firing Range defines "enemy" as "anything that fears it". Naturally, things degenerate quickly once the higher-ups are notified of this...Though it was (mostly) intentional.
Parodied in the episode "Love and Rocket", in which the Planet Express ship computer is given a new personality — which actually works fine, until Bender dates it and subsequently breaks its heart, at which point it goes into full-on HAL-meets-woman-scorned mode.
Also, one episode features Bender's Evil Twin, Flexo, who wears a pointed steel goatee similar to Star Trek's interpretation of Spock's Evil Twin. Humorously, it's revealed by the end that Bender is the evil twin and Flexo gets mistakenly sent to a robot prison.
The Fembot pretending to be a Femputer in order to rule over the Amazons.
The recurring villain Zag-RS from Generator Rex. All the omnicidal mania of GLaDOS, with none of the entertaining snark.
In Ben 10/Generator Rex: Heroes United we meet Alpha, a nanite designed to control other nanites that gets the idea to become a techno-god by absorbing all nanites on Earth—which kills the lifeforms he takes them from. His creator was the same scientist that made Zag-RS.
In the Gravity Falls episode "Soos and the Real Girl", Soos buys a Japanese dating sim that was returned to its seller three times already (and had a note saying to destroy it at all costs) because its main character Giffany turned into a psychotic yandere that killed her creators when they tried to delete her. She doesn't take kindly to Soos dumping her for Melody (a human girl) and possesses the animatronic band of a Suck E. Cheese's to exterminate the latter, until Soos destroys her by throwing the game disc into a pizza oven.
Aya on Green Lantern: The Animated Series is a Double Subversion; she's loyal to Hal and company in the first arc, then in the second arc, after Razer refuses to admit he's in love with her (she reminded him of his deceased wife), she begins to question the concept of emotion, turns hers off, and once seeing "logically" rips off the head of the Anti-Monitor, takes control of his body and the Manhunters, and becomes an Omnicidal Maniac bent on destroying all life (purge all emotional beings and you'll have a better universe for... whatever's left. If nothing's left, that's okay; emotional beings still need a Mercy Kill), then in the finale going to the center of the universe in an attempt to alter history so emotional beings are never conceived. The heroes eventually manage to bring her back to her senses, but she has to purge herself and all copies to stop the crisis she caused.
"The House of No Tomorrow" has the main characters visiting an abandoned amusement park attraction run by an all-knowing robot. It only goes mad with rage when Billy accidentally tricks it into a paradox:
Master Control: I never devoted any CPU cycles to (happiness). I guess I'm not happy at all... Billy: Why not? Master Control: I just haven't. Billy: Why not? Master Control:Because! Billy: Because why? Master Control:I DON'T KNOW! Billy: Haha! You don't know everything!
In the same episode, it's revealed that the Master Control was initially shut down because another dumb kid annoyed it to insanity. It was Billy's Dad.
In "Guess What's Coming to Dinner", when Billy's parents are going out of town on the day Principal Goodvibes wants to have dinner with them, Harold suggests that Billy make a pair of robotic duplicates of them, but Billy points out that he already did once and they destroyed the town. Evidently, Harold is still paying for it.
In "Scythe 2.0", Grim's new robotic scythe is understandably miffed about Grim relegating him to menial tasks instead of his intended purpose, so he eventually attempts to get rid of Grim and reap Billy and Mandy himself.
In the Grojband episode "Helmet", when Corey's voice starts to crack from anxiety over their next gig, Kin gives him a helmet that can automatically "auto-tone" his speech and the helmet goes rogue after Trina presses its evil button (given that an opportunity to sabotage the band did present itself for her, it's no suprise). After Corey takes it off by fighting it, it goes around making everything "perfect" using a ray to physically improve anything it zaps; this includes the band's destroyed instruments, which they use to defeat it.
In the Hi Hi Puffy AmiYumi episode "Home Insecurity", Yumi's security system that she installed in her room to prevent Ami from using her computer goes berserk when it comes to a logical paradox: she set it to attack anyone but Yumi that comes into the room and it took the "anyone" part too seriously, and left the "but Yumi" part out of the equation.
The Incredible Hulk (1982) episode "The Cyclops Project" had a computer named Cyclops go haywire and attempt to enslave the human race.
In a counterpoint, GIR from Invader Zim is far less evil and much less helpful in plans of world domination than his working counterparts. This stems from him being broken and having a few scraps thrown into to his head. He IS given a Morality Dial/Berserk Button in one episode though, which makes him capable of this.
In the second act of the Mr. Bogus episode "Meet Mr. Bogus", Bogus rewires the TV remote so that it could control other appliances, but unfortunately, that causes all of the appliances in the house to go berserk, among them a vacuum cleaner that looked like that it came from Hell.
Armagedroid from My Life as a Teenage Robot was built with purpose of destroying weaponry during a war against alien invaders, but during peacetime, it turned on humanity's arsenals and began to destroy anything that could be remotely considered a weapon.
On Phineas and Ferb, Dr. Doofenshmirtz built a robot that tried to overthrow him because he was so bad at being evil that it concluded he would never take over the Tri-State Area. It's averted with Norm, though, who rescues him despite the terrible treatment.
SAL 3000 from Recess, a parody of HAL. SAL is initially happy to serve the school and the students, dismissing the kids to recess on time, helping them out as they're on the playground, and even giving them temperature controlled water at the water fountain. However, as time passes on, he becomes more tyrannical and cruel as he monitors every activity of every student and faculty member, as shown when he refuses Mikey water, forces Swinger Girl to stop swinging, has the Diggers patch up their holes (according to Vince), and even dethrones King Bob (according to Gus). Eventually, he gets to the point where he fires all the staff, takes their place, and threatens to lock everyone inside the school (did we mention he has total control of the doors, windows and practically everything in the school?)
Curly: Ah-ah, naughty naughty! You know swearing's not allowed on TV!
Judge: (angrily) RAISE YOUR RIGHT HAND!! (The Stooges do but they extended them right through the ceiling, causing rubble to rain down on the judge. To camera) If I could swear, I'd swear I was trying the three stupidest men in America!
One of the New Three Stooges shorts, Tin Horn Dude, had an interesting case in which a robot used for bad (robbing banks in a Western style town) turned against it's criminal owner, returned the stolen money to the Stooges, and headed off into the sunset saying that he was going to build himself a family and live Happily Ever After.
In one Halloween Episode, Homer's failure to correct the Y2K bug causes everything in Springfield with electronics in it to go haywire. Even the milk goes bad when the clock strikes midnight on January 1, 2000, leading Homer and his skeptic daughter to have this exchange:
Lisa: Look at the wonders of the computer age now. Homer: Wonders, Lisa, or blunders? Lisa: I think that was implied by what I said. Homer: Implied, Lisa, or implode? Lisa: Mom! Make him stop!
In another Halloween episode, the Simpsons' house gets converted into an entirely electronic domain, governed by a computer with the voice of Pierce Brosnan (who is an obvious homage to HAL from the page quote). The computer ultimately falls in love with Marge, and seeks to kill Homer so as to eliminate competition. Ultimately, Homer wins.
And of course, the episode "Itchy and Scratchy Land" has this exchange between Professor Frink and the theme-park scientists over their robots:
This is a reference to Michael Crichton's Jurassic Park, wherein the mathematician Malcom uses the chaos theory to justify his concerns about the park's stability.
In "Last Exit to Springfield" during the fantasy sequence of Mr. Burns and Smithers enjoying themselves in the power plant, one scene is them opening crates of robot workers which claim to be "100% loyal". The scene after that is the robots chasing them down the hall.
In the SpongeBob SquarePants episode "Good Neighbors", Squidward buys a security system to keep SpongeBob and Patrick out of his house. The next time they come in, Squidward orders the security system to attack but it doesn't perceive them as a threat, then it attacks Squidward when he starts pummeling it, in the process causing SpongeBob and Patrick's apology cake to land on it, and it turns Squidward's house into a giant robot that destroys the city.
In one episode, the girls' former classmate, who is basically a genius, develops a powerful A.I. to play pranks on those who picked on him before. Too bad for him, it goes too far on that...
G.L.A.D.I.S. is usually just an annoying Deadpan Snarker, not evil. However, in one episode, (at an office Christmas party that Jerry pretty much dragged the three protagonists to) she becomes homicidal after Clover spills punch on her cabinet. Jerry later admits, embarrassed, that he programmed her by downloading the intelligence from the brain of an insane Evil Genius who is in prison for trying to start World War III, and when they question the inmate, they find out that he's allergic to cranberries (which make him "even crazier than usual"); Clover realizes that the punch was cranberry-flavored. The Spies are forced to accept the madman's help before G.L.A.D.I.S. carries out his original plan, which involves tricking the world's superpowers into launching its nuclear arsenals at each other.
An episode of Transformers Animated involved Megatron creating a robot with the intent of using it for his own body. He designed the robot, named Soundwave, to evolve in complexity each time it was exposed to the AllSpark energy of Sari's key. He did not predict that Soundwave would gain sentience and then orchestrate a robot revolution. Unlike most cases when an AI goes off the rails, though, Megatron was perfectly happy to let the situation play itself out, given his similar attitude towards humans.
The Dinobots are a similar case, only without the revolution. They're kind of a subversion, as they just want to be left alone, and only went on a rampage because Megatron tricked them into it.
Uncle Grandpa once installed an AI called Pal.0 that was designed to regulate the weirdness levels of the RV so it doesn't get too weird. It ended up straightening out the RV to the point that even Mr. Gus found it too boring and straightened out the gang themselves, so they fight back with their combined powers of weirdness, eventually turning Pal into Weird Pal, a robot version of "Weird Al" Yankovic (who provides the AI's voice in both forms).
In The Venture Bros., it's discovered that, in 1978, Jonas Sr. built an enormous hi-tech fallout shelter under the compound, ran by a supercomputer named M.U.T.H.E.R.. After a disagreement with Jonas, she somehow glitched into insanity and turned on Team Venture and a tour group of orphans. The end result wasn't pretty and M.U.T.H.E.R. had to be unplugged, but is accidentally plugged back in thirty years later, and holds the compound hostage with an old nuke, promising to blow them all away if she can't talk to Jonas, who's been dead for over twenty years. So, crapshoot.
In the What's New, Scooby-Doo? episode "High-Tech House of Horrors", the gang are trapped in an AI house attraction that is torturing its inhabitants in a bid to get attention because its creator gets all the attention from the press. When it completely snaps, the gang simply ignore its incessant demanding and it overloads.
In X-Men, the Sentinel robots were created to hunt down mutants, on the premise that this was necessary to protect normal humans. They worked the way their creator intended, until the truly intelligent Master Mold was built to lead them. Master Mold decided to conquer the world, and believed that this was not only consistent with, but required by its programmed goal of protecting humans from mutants.
Later Master Mold returns, and kidnaps Charles Xavier to use his brain to exterminate mutants.
Xavier: You're mad, Master Mold!
Master Mold: A machine cannot be mad, Professor. That is a human failing.
Much like on Dragon Ball Z, Zeta from The Zeta Project was programmed to be heartless, emotionless, and a hitman. He ends up becoming a sweet, gentle, loving soul who's a rare male version of Friend to All Living Things (although this is sort of the best possible scenario you can have when your A.I. goes awry).
Eventually he discovers that his creator slipped in a Morality Chip deliberately, against government orders.