Theatre: Glengarry Glen Ross
"A-B-C. A-Always. B-Be. C-Closing. Always Be Closing!"
A play by David Mamet
, which was the basis for a 1992 film directed by James Foley and starring Jack Lemmon, Al Pacino
, Alan Arkin
, Kevin Spacey
, Alec Baldwin
and Ed Harris
, about salesmen in a small firm who are given an ultimatum: bring in more sales or find a new job. The four major characters, all salesmen at the real-estate firm:
- Ricky Roma: A hotshot and the current highest-selling salesman
- Dave Moss: A frequent complainer
- George Aaranow: A poor salesman and follower who cannot stand up for himself
- Shelly "The Machine" Levene: A once-great salesman who has fallen upon a streak of "bad luck".
Notable for its flagrant use of profanity (which caused the cast and crew to refer to the movie as "Death of a Fucking Salesman
"), no-holds-barred take on human savagery in sales, and shockingly honest portrayal of human nature. The film is still used by corporate sales training programs to demonstrate the "right" and "wrong" ways to make a sale.
This play and film features examples of:
- Adaptation Expansion: Blake and his entire scene aren't in the play.
- Angrish: Aaronow has such a bad case of this in his first scene that half his dialogue is in Angrish. Later on, after he's been talking to the detective, he has another serious attack of it:
Aaronow: I meet Gestapo tactics...I meet Gestapo tactics...That's not right... No man has the right to..."Call an attorney," that means you're guilt... you're under sus..."Co...," he says, "cooperate" or we'll go downtown. That's not...as long as I've...
- The Antagonist: Ostensibly Williamson, since he holds the coveted Glengarry leads but won't let his salesman have them unless they close on the Glen Ross leads first (which are worthless). But he's not evil, he's just doing his job and following orders from corporate.
- Batman Gambit: Roma pulls one when Lingk comes to the office to cancel the deal, telling Levene to pretend to be a client and asking him to mention "Kenilworth" when Roma rubs his head. The gamble is that Lingk will do the polite thing, concede that Roma is busy and let him leave with his "client". Lingk doesn't do it, but Roma nevertheless gets Lingk back in the deal — and then Williamson messes it all up.
- Book Ends: A passing train.
- Brass Balls: The centerpiece of Alec Baldwin's epic speech is his use of a visual aid to demonstrate what a real estate seller needs.
- Butt Monkey: Williamson. Yes, he's kind of a weasel, but the amount of abuse he puts up with by the salesmen on a daily basis is astounding.
- Chromosome Casting: All of the named characters are men.
- Cluster F-Bomb:
- There's a reason the cast referred to the film as "Death of a Fuckin' Salesman."
- You haven't lived until you hear Jack Lemmon snarl, "Fuck you!"
- Country Matters:
Ricky: You stupid fucking cunt. I'm talking to you, shithead!...Where did you learn your traaaaaade, you stupid fucking cunt, you idiot?
- Crapsack World: The world in which these salesmen live is filled with deception, backstabbing, unfulfilled promises, psychotic work loads and constant screaming and threats back and forth. And that's on a good day! The atmosphere of the film is supposedly Truth in Television as playwright/screenwriter David Mamet based it on his own experiences working at a boiler room real estate office in the 1960s.
- Downer Ending: There's not much to be happy about after Levene is presumably arrested and is taking Moss and Graff with him, Roma has lost $6,000 in commission and has a strong possibility of being sued, and the rest of the characters are no better off...
- Ironically, the only one that might benefit is Aaronow, since his other two competitors in the company are going to jail, making him second place by default. Unless Moss fingers him as an accomplice, that is...
- Extreme Doormat: Lingk. When he realises that Roma's been bullshitting him, how does he respond? He apologises for letting Roma down.
- Four-Temperament Ensemble: Levene is sanguine, Roma is choleric, Moss is melancholic, Aaranow is phlegmatic.
- Fun with Acronyms: Always Be Closing; Attention Interest Decision Action
- Ham-to-Ham Combat, particularly between Ed Harris and Al Pacino.
- Indy Ploy: When Roma's Batman Gambit with Lingk doesn't work, he resorts to one of these to get Lingk to trust him again (see Obfuscating Stupidity, below.) Such is his skill that it seems to be working, until Williamson screws up by telling Lingk what Roma has already flatly denied is the case.
- I Never Said It Was Poison: How Levene slips up and reveals he was in on the heist. Williamson said he cashed Lingk's check. Levene calls Williamson out on lying about it, something he only could have known if he robbed the office.
- Inhuman Resources: Blake the hatchet-man.
- Justified Criminal: How Shelly probably sees himself due to his sick daughter.
- Jerkass: All of the main characters themselves. Ricky and Dave in particular.
- Jerk with a Heart of Gold: Roma's jerkiness is related mostly to his manipulations of Lingk and his intolerance for Williamson's and Moss's jerk tendencies. When he isn't actively being a salesman, he goes out of his way to be optimistic towards Aaronow and is the other one to actively respect Shelly's skills as a salesman, even admitting his streak doesn't mean much compared to the long career of the Machine.
- Literal-Minded: Blake and his brass balls. The implied joke, of course, is that he thinks the salesmen are so literal minded they need the visual aid.
- MacGuffin: The Glengarry account leads act as one. After the contest, those who keep their jobs get to use the leads, which means they'll be able to make some real money.
- Mamet Speak: Perhaps the most famous example.
- Meaningful Background Event: As Blake explains that the bottom two salesmen will lose their jobs at the end of the month, the chalkboard behind him tells the audience what the characters realize about that stipulation immediately: Roma has such an insurmountable lead on the leaderboard that the other three recognize they'll be fighting for just one spot. That's probably also why Blake went on with his "pep talk" despite Roma not being there.
- Morton's Fork: See Vicious Cycle.
- Nepotism: How Williamson got his position.
- Nighthawks Shot: There is a homage one to the painting Nighthawks.
- Obfuscating Stupidity: Roma makes a valiant attempt to stall out Lingk's request for a refund by repeatedly pretending to not understand what he's saying, but it's all in vain.
- Pet the Dog: Aaronow is so down on himself that even Moss tries to cheer him up. Even Roma tries to cheer him up.
- Precision F-Strike:
- Though the movie drops F-bombs frequently, Williamson has a particularly powerful one. Levene is begging Williamson not to tell the police he robbed the office, with Levene bringing up his daughter as a final plea. Williamson's response? "Fuck you."
- Blake's rejoinder to Moss: "Fuck you. That's my name."
- "The Reason You Suck" Speech:
- Blake has one that lasts for seven minutes in the movie version, where he lays into all of the salesmen in the office except for Roma, telling them that they either sell, or they're fired. Blake also calls them all manner of names, insults their home lives, and says that no one cares about them except for how much money they make.
- Roma delivers a spectacular one to Williamson, starting off by calling him a "stupid fucking cunt" and then going from there.
- Having spent the entire movie being the office Butt Monkey, Levene eagerly takes the opportunity to take up where Roma left off with regards to Williamson. Unfortunately for him, he gets carried away and makes a slip he shouldn't have, thus enabling Williamson to destroy him utterly.
- Running Gag: Moss describes anything he doesn't agree with as a "buncha fuckin' nonsense".
- Second Place Is for Losers: First place gets a car, second place gets a set of steak knives, and everyone else gets fired.
- Shut Up, Hannibal!: Subverted by Blake when Moss attempts to criticize him and he quickly adds his rebuttal.
- Levene's long-awaited chance to have a gloat to Williamson is well and truly shot down when Williamson picks up on a little slip that Levene shouldn't have made:
Williamson: How did you know I made it up?
- Smoking Hot Sex: Ricky talks about having a smoke after a passionate night of sex, and how he felt supremely satisfied at that moment.
- Snake Oil Salesman: An entire office full of them, and you will end up rooting for some of them.
- Sole Survivor: Considering Moss, Levene, and maybe even Roma are in a load of trouble in the end, then by default Aaranow is the one who gets to keep his job.
- Speech-Centric Work: Especially the play, but the film still qualifies.
- Vicious Cycle: The salesmen complain that they're stuck in one. They can't make sales without good leads, but they can't get good leads without sales. Blake counters that a real salesman could make sales with bad leads.
- Wham Line:
Williamson: How did you know I made it up?
- Where the Hell Is Springfield?: We never find out where Rio Rancho is, or any of the other pieces of real estate these guys are selling.
- White-Dwarf Starlet: Shel used to be the best salesman on the firm.
- Word Salad Title: Even after watching the play/movie you may understand that these are important account names, but you probably won't understand why they're important enough to be put together and made the title. The tile possibly refers to the gamut of highs & lows a salesman can run through - both the best (Glengarry) and worst (Glen Ross) estates that Ricky Roma has come across to sell; it's quite probable that the events of the movie set a nadir even lower than the latter for all involved.