When things are strange and complicated, people like to explain them by analogy. Sometimes, this analogy is over simplified; for instance, while atoms are usually described as a proton-neutron nucleus with electrons orbiting it like planets round a star, in reality they don't resemble the solar system at all. However, it is still useful because it gives the listeners a simple concept they can grasp, while a more accurate explanation would confuse them or simply go over their heads. Once they've learned the analogy, they can continue to more complex topics that will eventually lead to the truth of the situation — or to another, more complicated set of Lies to Children.
This is likely to backfire if the listener takes the analogy too literally.
The term was coined by Ian Stewart and Jack Cohen, and used in the book The Science of Discworld. Discworld books occasionally make an odd analogy, then, when taxed, say, "no, it's nothing like that, but it's a lie you can understand."
Truth in Television as the atom example above shows. Considering how much we don't understand of the universe, science itself is this to a degree. That said, only add general Real Life examples, please. (ex: "the atom looks like a solar system" analogy)
See also Phlebotinum Analogy. May pop up while giving The Talk. Compare Layman's Terms. We're pretty familiar with it here on TV Tropes, due to Reality Is Unrealistic.
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In Runaways, Gert lampshades the fact that their parents never told them they were supervillains by listing all of the things parents lie to their children about: Santa, The Easter Bunny, the Tooth Fairy and God.
Addams Family Values. One of the jokes has normal children telling the Addams kids about the stork—Wednesday responds by explaining where babies really come from.
In Miracle on 34th Street, Mrs. Walker tried to avoid this with her daughter, Susan, by telling her the truth about everything, in this case the reality about Santa Claus. The argument the movie makes is that kids can become bland and lack imagination if this is all they are taught.
In Ink, the soul of a little girl, Emma, is kidnapped, leaving her body in a coma. A Storyteller, captured while trying to rescue her, tries to explain what is happening and make the girl less afraid. "You still look like a little girl, but as soon as you came into this world, you started turning into a lioness." Emma replies, "You're full of it."
In The Science of Discworld series, Lies-To-Children are not only explained in the non-fiction portions, but also used in-character (Ponder's Lies-To-Wizards and Hex's Lies-To-People) in the fiction segments.
The Lies-to-Darwin, since telling him the actual truth would be far too much of a Mind Screw.
In Night Watch, A history monk explains an aspect of time travel to Vimes using a metaphor involving jumping off a mountain as opposed to climbing it. Another monk complains that this is incredibly inaccurate, but the first doesn't care so long as Vimes understands what he needs to.
In Hogfather, Death explains to Susan that telling children little lies about such "non-existent" beings as the Hogfather and the Tooth Fairy helps train them to believe in the "big lies"; abstract concepts such as justice and mercy.
In the Judy Blume book Starring Sally J. Freedman as Herself, Sally asks her mother how babies are made. Her mother mumbles something about how the husband plants a seed in the wife; ten-year-old Sally wants more details, so Mrs. Freedman buys her a book about it. Later on, her unmarried teenage neighbour gets pregnant and Sally asks how that's possible, since the book told her sex was something only married people did.
Merlin Athrawes in David Weber's Safehold series possesses enhanced abilities far beyond the human norm because he is a machine known as a PICA. However, the residents of the planet Safehold are trapped in anti-technology Medieval Stasis and lack the foundation to understand this. Merlin explains his capabilities by comparing them to those attributed to legendary heroes called seijin (Japanese for "holy men"). In particular, his access to high tech surveillance allowing Merlin to spy on just about anyone, anywhere, are explained as visions that allow him to see the present, but neither past nor future.
Great Lies To Tell Small Kids by Andy Riley is partly this, and partly just trolling your children or younger relations: "Wine makes Mummy clever!" "Slugs are snails that couldn't pay the mortgage".
In Poul Anderson's "Time Patrol", an instructor tells the recruits that they can get it because they come from industrialized eras; a Roman could not handle the idea of machines, and as for Babylonians, they have to be fed a line about a war between gods. When one recruit asks what they are being told, the answer is the truth but only as much as they can handle.
In Letters to His Son by British statesman Lord Chesterfield: "The good Protestant conviction, that The Pope is both Antichrist and the Whore of Babylon, is a more effectual preservative in this country against popery, than all the solid and unanswerable arguments of Chillingworth. [...] And that silly, sanguine notion, which is firmly entertained here, that one Englishman can beat three Frenchmen, encourages, and has sometimes enabled, one Englishman in reality to beat two." (letter 64)
In Little Star, Lennart convinces Theres to not leave the house by telling her that the world is full of "big people" who want to eat up the "little people" like her to the point that she is terrified of going outside.
Live Action TV
Occasionally used in Doctor Who as ways to reassure companions. For instance, in "The Eleventh Hour":
The Doctor: You know when grown-ups tell you "everything's gonna be fine" you know they're probably lying to make you feel better?
The Fourth Doctor's education of Leela is pretty much entirely made up of this, since due to her extremely primitive background and absence of any education even basic scientific principles seem like magic to her. It's bad enough when he's trying to explain to her what a robot is, so of course when he's trying to explain genuinely mindbending Sufficiently Advanced Technology like how the TARDIS is Bigger on the Inside, things quickly get absolutely nonsensical.
On Community, Troy finds out on his 20th birthday that he's actually turning 21 because his mother told him that everyone's ten for two years, because fifth grade is hard for everybody.
Troy: MOM, HOW MANY LIES HAVE I BEEN LIVING?!
This is a running gag with Calvin's Dad from Calvin and Hobbes, as the page quote illustrates, but always taking it so far from reality it can hardly count as helpful. He also explains the workings of a lightbulb and vacuum cleaner as "magic".
Calvin (turns lamp on and off): "Look, mom, magic!"
Calvin's mom: "That's not magic!"
Lampshaded in the strip the page quote comes from. After a Beat Panel we get Calvin commenting to Hobbes about how "The trees are really sneezing today". Calvin himself decided he didn't care to hear the true, complicated answer.
He hilariously lampshades the Trope and plays it straight in one strip where he tells Calvin that the reason he knows so much is because once you become a father, you get a book that explains everything in the world, which leads to this exchange:
Calvin: Can I see it?
Calvin: Why not?
Dad: It tells you what it's like to have a kid.
Dad: You aren't allowed to know that until it's too late not to have one.
Many branches of theology or religious philosophy, Christian or otherwise, would say that it is impossible to speak of the divine or transcendental in any other way than through analogies that will always be imperfect. Others would say even that is impossible and that it can only be "described" through negations, stating what the transcendental is not but never what it is. A common criticism is that this idea doesn't actually mean anything since none of the terms can be defined. For example: "The Tao that can be spoken of is not the true Tao".
Atheists view religion as such.
Metro 2033: A very sad example is shown in the first station, where you see a boy and a father talking with each other. The boy asks when his mother will return from some journey, and his father only replies, "Soon," and mentions if only she could see how much he has grown up. Given the nature of the setting, it's safe to say his mother is probably lying dead in a tunnel somewhere.
Another sad example in Fallout: New Vegas: Honest Hearts. Randall Clark, an old, weary survivor leaves gifts of food and medicine for a group of starving children, watching over them from a distance and keeping him safe. When they begin to regard him as an angel or a God-figure, he does not want to shatter their illusions and leave them worse off when he dies. Thus, he leaves one final gift, and a note saying that he must depart deep into the mountains, but that he will always be watching over them. He then becomes known by those childrens' descendants as "The Father in the Cave".
Dark Seed 2 uses one as an odd plot point. Years ago, when Mike had nightmares of monsters coming out of his closet, his mother pretended to lock it. It's not locked. It contains a portal to the Dark World. Yet Mike is incapable of opening it until someone reveals the deception to him. When confronted, his mother barely remembers it and can't believe he never figured it out.
Max and Zoey's dad from Paranatural. "You'd better be ready by eight o-clock, Zoey. In mayview, they send tardy kids to the mines." She does call him out on it, though.
In Homestuck, Jake English's grandmother tells him that she chose that last name because it was the name of her Evil Stepmother's ex-husband, on the basis that Jake was too young to understand that it was actually the name of a powerful demon that said Evil Stepmother feared and obeyed.
In Worm, Tattletale describes the supervillain Night's powers to Skitter this way.
Tattletale: Okay, well, imagine that this woman got powers that let her turn into something so wrong that she's got some sort of mental block that keeps her from transforming if anyone can see. Maybe because she's so ashamed of being seen like that. When nobody's looking, though, she's a monster. Lightning fast and all sharp.
Tattletale: Not even remotely close to the truth. But it's the best I can offer you. Don't take your eyes off her.
When Kyle on South Park learns the truth about the tooth fairy, he doesn't take it well.
Kyle: Dad, there is so a tooth fairy, huh?
Gerald What? Oh. Kyle, let's have a little talk.
Kyle: Oh my God! You did lie to me.
Gerald: No. Kyle, she's just make-believe. Like Peter Pan.
The main focus behind Butters in Sarcastaball. Butters is lead to believe that his sperm is the product of his most inner and pure emotions; leading him to spread it to others. To drink. The episode ends with Butters having an erection, being Butters he summons his dad for answers; his father tells him that it's a friend compass, it points towards his friends. Right now it points towards upwards, towards Jesus. ...Damn.
Another episode parodies the issues of what to tell kids about drugs as mentioned in the Real Life folder below. A corporation exists in that episode to set up a fake time-travel scenario where an actor playing a future version of the child shows up, claiming to have somehow traveled back in time. The "future" version of the child talks about how after trying drugs, he became a total loser. The episode also mentions anti-drug organizations exaggerating the connection between drug providers and terrorist organizations. In the end, Stan's parents decide that he's old enough to understand a more complicated explanation about drugs.
The Kablam series of shorts "Life With Loopy" often had plots revolving around the lies Loopy was told. For instance, she confronted Mother Nature after being told thunder is just her bowling.
Moral Orel Most of the stuff Orel is told could fall under this category (Children's Crusades being successful due to their innocence, etc.).
In The Spectacular Spider-Man, when Venom webs up Gwen to a Thankgiving parade balloon, a little boy notices and points it out to his mother. She's visibly shaken, but in an obvious attempt to keep her son calm, she says, "She's so lifelike!"
Talking to minors about sex is an awkward issue, because you don't really want them trying to do it at a young age, but you don't want to ignore the issue and wait for the wrong person to tell them, or worse, show them. Peoples' views and methods on telling minors about sex varies. In one specific case, J.K. Rowling was asked exactly what Aberforth had done with goats at a Harry Potter Q&A session:
Fan: In the Goblet of Fire, Dumbledore said his brother was prosecuted for practicing inappropriate charms [JKR buries her head, to laughter] on a goat; what were the inappropriate charms he was practicing on that goat?
JKR: How old are you?
JKR: I think that he was trying to make a goat that was easy to keep clean [laughter], curly horns. That's a joke that works on a couple of levels. I really like Aberforth and his goats. But you know, Aberforth having this strange fondness for goats, if you've read book seven, came in really useful to Harry, later on, because a goat, a stag, you know. If you're a stupid Death Eater, what's the difference. So, that is my answer to YOU.
Talking to minors about drugs; If you tell them the facts that drugs make you feel really good and that some are okay in moderation, they'd likely run off and do them instead of doing their schoolwork, but telling them that all drugs are evil and the same runs the risk of them sneakily trying one drug, surviving and enjoying it, then thinking that all drugs are fine and then doing a harder drug that ruins their lives/kills them. Peoples' views on telling minors about drugs varies a lot, but most choose to exaggerate the dangers for the sake of having a sober child, which to some is a Necessary Weasel. Not that this is an exaggeration to everyone; the view that all illegal drugs are ridiculously more dangerous than the legal ones (like alcohol) is still strongly present in culture, even though it's at best a lie-to-children.
Unfortunately it is also complicated by the fact that many drugs' side effects are only obvious in the long-term; while the deleterious effects of methamphetamine abuse and addiction to various opiates and sedatives are fairly obvious within the course of a relatively short period of time, long-term abuse of many drugs can cause brain damage, cancer, liver failure, kidney problems, heart attacks, strokes, and other medical problems... a decade or more down the line, and not in 100% of users. This not only makes it hard to gauge how bad a drug is for you in the now, but also means that long-term studies of those who regularly use a given drug are necessary to demonstrate problems - a difficult thing to study when many drugs are illegal. Tobacco and alcohol are the two drugs with the most well-studied long-term impacts, and both are known to cause severe health problems in a significant fraction of their regular users.
In moments of crisis (for example when someone dies or a natural disaster) adults tend to try to spare their kids from information that they perceive as potentially hurtful and tries to distract from or sugarcoat information. This of course usually serves to make the kid more anxious and less capable to cope with the situation. For this reason, local authorities maintain teams of Counselors and special advisers who are sent into primary schools where a traumatic event has recently taken place- part of their job being telling the teachers how to tell the kids what has happened. (They also deal with parents who try to insist that the teachers enforce this trope when it's impossible...)
There are various examples of this in education:
Early math classes. Expect sentences like "You can't take the square root of a negative," or "You can't subtract 5 from 3," or even that division comes after multiplication in order of operations, while in reality it is done with multiplication in the order they appear.note It's only a convention for writing down expressions, and has nothing to do with math. Heaven help you if you try to explain that distinction to young children. On the other hand, there's been a math equation that's caused controversy for its different outcomes depending on what method you decide to use.
History classes. Children are taught things like "The Roman Empire was destroyed in 476 A.D. by the barbarian invasion". In fact, the Roman Empire in its classic form perished almost two centuries before that date, and was in the process of collapse even longer for various economical and demographic reasons much more complex than a single invasion. In fact, the eastern half of the empire continued on for another thousand years, only ending with the fall of Constantinople in 1453. And a last remnant, the Despotate of Epirus, made it to 1479. The Holy Roman Empire, which claimed to be a successor, lasted until 1806, while the "Third Rome" of Tzarist Russia survived until 1917. Such was the impact of the Roman Empire on historical memory that nations were claiming to be Roman Empires millennia after the Empire fell.
Moving away from the Ancient side of history: everyone thinks George Washington Carver invented peanut butter. He didn't, but since peanut butter is the only derivative of that legume that the average person cares about, it's rarely corrected.
Physics classes, though these tend to be stated as simplifications.
There's also the "paintbox" system, in which red, yellow and blue are called the "primary colors". If we're not lucky enough to get a decent physics education by high school, we may take this to our graves. In fact, there are two separate forms of primary color: the colors of light and the colors of pigment. The primary colors of light are red, green and blue, while the primary colors of pigment are magenta, yellow and cyan. Which, granted, are KINDA red, yellow and blue, but not quite.
Newton's laws of motion. Despite the fact that Einstein's theory of relativity disproves them, they are still taught in high schools and lower-division college classes because they produce practically identical results as long as you're dealing with masses and velocities in a familiar range, as opposed to things as small as atoms or things moving hundreds of kilometers per second. In fact, Newton's laws are such an accurate approximation over this range that our measurements can't tell the difference between the Newtonian and Einsteinian answers. And many high school teachers either don't understand Einstein's mechanics themselves, or if they do, feel that their students won't. It's only when you extrapolate to extremes (size, mass, velocity, etc) that Newtonian physics start to break down and you start to observe Einsteinian rules. Indeed, in the real world, people use Newtonian mechanics vastly more often than they use relativity, just because they're much easier to calculate and give the same answers unless you're dealing with microscopic objects or things on a planetary scale - satellites are one of the few everyday objects that people deal with (thanks to satellite television and GPS) which actually have to take relativity into account.
Most visualizations of relativity, mostly because space is three-dimensional, and curving three-dimensional space is nowhere near as visually simple as curving a two-dimensional mat. Actual visualizations of relativity are possible, but are much more difficult to grok.
Like physics above, students learn several different models on how chemical reactions work, all inaccurate to various degrees but getting closer to the truth each time. Also like physics above, these models generally produce identical results as long as you're not getting too deep into the inner workings of a reaction.
The "Solar System-like atom" is still a common image and is generally presented to children when discussing atoms. And another thing about atoms—everyone is taught early on that atoms are the smallest things there are. That itself ignores protons, neutrons and electrons which are then said to be the smallest things there are. Then they tell you about quarks, which even escapes the realms of chemistry altogether.
Also regarding the "Solar System atom", it is known as the "Bohr atom" and was one of the earlier hypotheses when quantum physics was still being discovered. Unlike Newtonian mechanics, it's not an approximation that gives useful answers, but it's a heck of a good image. Bohr himself later insisted on the Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum physics which insists that what the maths says happens really happens and we shouldn't use equivalent mental models (like "many worlds") to make it easier to understand. That is, the man who invented the "solar system atom" later objected to idea of using it as a Lie to Children.
The mantle of the Earth flows under loads, has convection cells, and provides the buoyant force that the lithosphere (or crust) floats on. It is not liquid. It's a very hot, plastic solid called a rheid that can flow, but only on long time scales. It only melts into a liquid when the temperature and pressure are right. This is an understandable misconception because, first, kids are also taught that if it flows at all, it must be a liquid, and second, their only experience with the interior of the Earth is liquid lava shooting out of volcanoes.
In a lie-to-high-school-students, the convection cells in the mantle do bring hot material to the crust and cause things like hot plumes (like the one that created the Hawaiian Islands), but they don't account for the movement of the tectonic plates as they spread out, cool, and sink. Rather, the buildup of material at mid-oceanic ridges is pulled down by the Earth's gravity and pushes the plates away (ridge-push) and when a plate is subducted under another plate, it is literally sinking into the mantle and pulling the rest of the plate with it (slab-pull).
There are two types of cell,animals cells and plant cells. Animal cells have a nucleus, and a cell membrane and nothing else. Except there's actually either two or three cell types, and animal and plant cells both belong to the same type (eukaryotes), and there's a HELL of a lot more going on in both.
When learning immunology in high school, you'll be taught that there are Killer T cells and Helper B Cells. While largely true in that T cells are the ones involved in cell killing, there are two types of T cells; "killer" CD 8+ T cells and CD 4+ T helper cells.