Alright, you primitive screwheads, listen up. See this? This... is my broomstick!
So our hero's weaponless and about to face a horde of mooks. He looks around for anything that he can use in a pinch. He grabs the only thing available- a mop from the supply closet- and goes to town, using it as one would a Simple Staff.
Note that the title need not be taken literally. Anything vaguely cylindrical and tall as the character wielded as an Improvised Weapon falls under this; broomsticks and mop handles are simply the most iconic. Theoretically, this can be Truth in Television.
Sub-Trope of Improvised Weapon. Removing the head is optional based on the Sliding Scale of Seriousness Versus Silliness.
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Anime & Manga
The fight between Setsuna and Asuna at the Tournament Arc of Mahou Sensei Negima! featured Setsuna wielding a push-broom against Asuna's Paper Fan of Doom, due to bladed weapons being verboten. Earlier in the arc, a minor character wielded a traditional broom as a magic weapon; unfortunately, she was up against Kotaro. Also, Setsuna and Asuna were in maid outfits for no adequately explored reason.
Actually the point was that they weren't as interesting, so Chao ordered them made cute.
Jennifer in Kyo Kara Maoh! uses a broom in place of a fencing foil in the second season.
In Kajko I Kokosz, a Polish comic, Kokosz once used a broom as a very effective weapon. However, a Magic Feather was involved so he immidiately started losing once it fell apart, even though the handle alone would have been harder.
Marvel Zombies and Thor. Once this alternate universe God started killing, he couldn't wield his hammer Mjolnir. He made do with a lump of cement on a metal pole.
In The Matrix Reloaded, Neo rips a metal post out of the ground (which is almost a case of Telephone Polearm) to use against the army of Smith clones in the Burly Brawl. The first shot has him using the block of concrete at the end as a hammer, but once that breaks he uses it as a quarterstaff.
Sarah Connor uses a mop handle during her asylum escape attempt in Terminator 2: Judgment Day, until she gets a nightstick to replace it.
In Machete, Machete uses a mop to fight his way past Booth's goons following the faked assassination attempt on the senator.
UHF's Stanley Spadowski is a simple man. All he wants to do is clean the floors, dig the prize out of the cereal box, and occasionally host an insanely popular kids variety show. But get between him and his mop, and you are asking for problems.
Nick teaches Kevin all about "hand-to-hand" combat using garden implements in Hobgoblins.
In one of the Tarma and Kethry short stories, Tarma defends herself against an armed drunk with a broomstick because she wanted to avoid doing permanent damage if possible. Unfortunately, the drunk ends up cracking his head against the fireplace and dying. Fortunately for them, the drunk in question was well known and highly unpopular.
Live Action TV
In the Doctor Who episode "The Vampires of Venice", Rory attempts to take on a swordsman armed only with a broom.
Ryotaro in Kamen Rider Den-O uses a nearby broom on a Monster of the Week when he's fighting for his life. The broom is quickly broken. Despite its short-lived appearance, the so-named "Rider Broom" remained in the fandom's memory throughout the year.
In Final Fantasy VII, one of Cid's weapons is actually a mop (well, more like a push broom...). Other characters have similar weapons, which are rather powerful but lack materia slots. The best examples being an umbrella for Aeris, and baseball bat with a nail in it for Cloud.
In Crisis Core, Zack fights a bunch of armed soldiers on the beach...wearing only a bathing suit and armed with an umbrella. He wins.
The Deck Brush is a recurring weapon in the Tales Series, and varies wildly in how effective it is.
The obscure arcade and Nintendo64 fighting game Mace: the Dark Age had a Hidden Character named Ned the Janitor. He was a reskin of Xiao Long and used a pushbroom in place of Xiao's quarterstaff.
In Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood, there is an achievement for killing someone using a broom. It is used the same way as a hammer. Brooms were first weaponisable back in Assassin's Creed II. Taken to absurd levels when you find out that it's possible to slit someone's throat using the broom, with the same sound effects of a regular bladed weapon.
The first Dungeon Siege starts with the hero having to do this with a pitchfork until he gets a real weapon from his enemies.
Lisa from Legend of Mana uses her father's broomstick as her weapon of choice. Partly justified in that she uses it as a staff, which mostly have magic-related specials. That doesn't stop her from cracking skulls with that thing.
In "Thy Dungeonman II", the titular Dungeonman gets only a mop as a weapon, being a janitor working in a dungeon.
In Homestuck, the nigh-omnipotent Doc Scratch uses a broom to smack around his "guest", a young girl. Later on, this same broom is used by Andrew Hussie himself to give Doc Scratch a senseless drubbing.
Done in Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, when the turtles are held captive on an alien prison asteroid. They find a broom closet and get replacements for all of their weapons from inside.
One episode of Jimmy Neutron uses this in a fight between Jimmy's mother and a robot duplicate of her: after pulling out the broom, mop, and rake, and having each one snapped in half by the robot, she reveals that she keeps a plasma rifle in her broom closet "for those tough, ground-in stains". (Considering her son's experiments, a wise precaution...)
In The Boondocks, Huey snaps the head of a broom off with a kick and uses the handle to subdue the theater security, but he doesn't fare as well against Uncle Ruckus's unforeseen nunchaku expertise.
Truth In Television
There actually are weapon forms for a boat oar in Shaolin Kenpo that exist for this very reason.
Actually trying this with a modern plastic broom handle, however, is more likely to get your enemy annoyed if you smack them with it: it's not heavy enough. Use it for blocking instead. An old-fashioned wooden one is another matter; swing one of those with enough force and you can easily send someone to the emergency room.
Leave a boy alone with a broom long enough, and this will be invoked.
Martial arts historians have suggested that nunchaku were originally designed as a tool to thresh rice and soybeans, which means at some point some Japanese peasant may have invoked this trope.
War flail. Enough said.
It's not unheard-of for martial artists who want to take a few lessons in the bo staff, but don't want to sink a lot of money into their first bo or are unsure if they will plan to continue, to use a broomstick instead of buying a bo. It's basically the same thing, but much cheaper.