"Write something, even if it's just a suicide note."
Gore Vidal (1925-2012) was a novelist, essayist, and playwright whose career spanned sixty years, beginning in the years immediately following World War II
and continuing into the early phase of the new millennium
. In the world of literature, he was best known for his breakthrough work The City and the Pillar
, the first post-war novel to feature a homosexual
protagonist who isn't bumped off
at the end of the story. A quarter-century later, Vidal began penning a series of historical novels based on the formulative years of the United States, including a third-person account of President Lincoln
which met with high accolades.
Best known by a later generation as procreator
of two dubious cinematic efforts, Myra Breckinridge
. Vidal tried disowning
the latter, but his lawyers moved too slowly and thus his screen credit remains. Nevertheless, he did appear in a fake trailer
for a Caligula
remake, so at least he was a good sport about it. Later in life, he accepted the odd acting role onstage and in film, most notably as the title character's Senate race opponent in Bob Roberts
, the space shuttle impresario in Gattaca
and a priest in Igby Goes Down
Vidal was politically active throughout The Fifties
, appearing on television as a spokesman for the "New Left" and sharing a panel with his ideological opposite
William F. Buckley Jr. This arrangement didn't last long, as their exchanges became increasingly heated
until Buckley threatened to punch him in the face on-air. Vidal was also an outspoken critic of monotheism, believing it to be the most dysfunctional of all belief systems.
Gore died at his home in California on 31 July 2012 at the age of 86 from complications of pneumonia. His death has largely been considered a loss to the literary and actual world.
Tropes in the works of Gore Vidal:
- Ambition Is Evil: A major subversion. Vidal believed that ambition was a natural and worthy quality and nobody, including heroes like George Washington, Abraham Lincoln and Franklin Roosevelt made it far without wanting to get there. That said, his works aren't blind celebrations of achievement, either, and he has himself described and spoken of his own political and artistic ambitions without any qualifications.
- Deconstruction: Vidal was himself highly critical of the academic study of Postmodernism and deconstruction, but his own works are highly subversive and corrective of received ideas of Christianity, American politics, and American history.
- Germans Love David Hasselhoff: The Left-handed Gun, an In Name Only rewrite of Vidal's television play about Billy the Kid. It did pretty well in France for its "bold experimentation" and deconstruction of the legendary gunfighter; but Vidal can't take credit for any of that, so he grouchily produced another movie, this time starring Val Kilmer.
- Gray and Gray Morality: Never set truck by conventional values and ideas of "good" and "evil".
- Realpolitik: A stated theme in his books, especially his book on Lincoln was to show how politics actually worked and what kind of person you have to be to last in the arena, even if you are a "good" politician.
- Silly Rabbit, Idealism Is for Kids!: His general tone as a writer, in his essays and novels, is to subvert and criticize America's self-perception of innocence and naivete and his insistence on grown up adult discourse.
- Word of Gay: Gore Vidal intended Messala in his screenplay of Ben Hur to be Ben Hur's spurned lover, thus explaining his hatred for him later on. Stephen Boyd (the actor who played Messala) was let in on the secret, but Charlton Heston was deliberately kept in the dark.
- In an interview with Larry Kramer, Vidal admitted that in Burr, he intended the relationship between Alexander Hamilton and George Washington to suggest the latter's attraction to the former.
Partial Bibliography & Related Tropes
- Julian (1964) - Has its own page.
- The Best Man (1964)
- Dark Horse Victory: In the play (and subsequent film) The Best Man, a bitterly contested fight for a party's Presidential nomination ends when one of the candidates withdraws and throws his support behind a previously-ignored third man.
- The Fettered: William Russell.
- Kingmaker Scenario: Inverted in the ending of The Best Man, in which two presidential candidates, (Henry Fonda and Cliff Robertson) are tied in their race for the nomination. Fonda's idealist, unwilling to falsely smear Robertson's crooked politico as a homosexual in order to win — yet also unwilling to let Robertson claim victory by twisting some facts related Fonda's medical history — throws his support to the dark horse candidate who has been mired in third place throughout the balloting, who goes on to win.
- Names to Run Away From Really Fast: Joe Cantwell.
- Realpolitik: The title of the play is ironic. Cantwell is implied to be the 'best man' because he's more devious, whereas Russell is a well-meaning schnook who can't hold onto power.
- And, in the end, the nomination — which is widely viewed as tantamount to the election itself — goes to some guy no one knows anything about at all.
- No Celebrities Were Harmed: Vidal always denied this, but most viewers tend to identify Cantwell as Richard Nixon, Russell as Adlai Stevenson, and Art Hockstader as Harry Truman. (According to Vidal, when he asked John F. Kennedy to read a draft of the script and offer technical advice, Kennedy was concerned that the womanizing Russell was based on him.)
- Sleazy Politician: A conversed trope. Hockstader is of the opinion that only someone willing to be utterly ruthless is truly qualified to handle the responsibilities of the presidency, while Russell counters that such a person can't be trusted to do what's right if it might be unpopular.
- To Be Lawful or Good
- Myra Breckinridge (1968)
- Gender Bender: Myra's true identity is that of a male film critic who underwent a sex change.
- Double Standard: Rape, Female on Male
- Refuge in Audacity
- Unusual Euphemism: Myron, the follow-up book Myra Breckinridge. In the original version of the book, Vidal replaces all the swear words with the names of Supreme Court Justices who had just voted in favour of some pro-censorship measure or other. So we have Burger = bugger, Father Hill = tit, Rehnquist = dick and so on (This was done to avert the book's censorship.)
- Kalki (1978)
- The Antichrist: Inverted; Giles, one of Kalki's chosen few, unwittingly dooms mankind when he tries to take control of the cult for himself. As the resident gynecologist, he intentionally paired Kalki with women who were genetically incompatible with him, which would cause a miscarriage. Giles, the lone remaining male in the group (and still virile, despite his earlier claims that he had a vasectomy), offers to impregnate Kalki's wife, effectively making him the father of the new human race. Instead, Kalki murders him for his treachery, leaving no heirs to rebuild civilization. Kalki later rationalizes this by explaining that Giles was the avatar of Ravana and his prophesied enemy. Giles is also emblematic of everything that's wrong with the age of "Kali": hence, his fetishistic love of material things, like Cuban cigars and fine wines, long after the human race has gone extinct.
- Armies Are Evil: The Americans know the potentially world-ending consequences of developing the Neutron Bomb, but they push forward anyway.
- Beauty Equals Goodness: Also implied by Giles' overall ugliness. Save for Teddy herself and Kalki's followers, everybody else in the book is depicted as diseased (cancer, coughing, drug addiction), unkempt, and intrinsically banal.
- Cargo Cult: Somewhere in Katmandu, a religion has sprouted up around an American expatriate who now goes by the moniker "Kalki" and claims to be the next and final incarnation of Vishnu.
- Crapsack World: A running theme throughout the book is entropy and overpopulation: No appliance ever works properly, the phone lines are always shorting out, the air is noxious with pollution, and legions of junkies prowl the streets at night. This takes place during The Seventies, when society seemed on the verge of cracking up.
- Chekhov's Boomerang: Paper lotuses are a recurring item during Teddy's travels. It turns out that Kalki's shell company is sinking his illicit proceeds into a Robin Hood-like scheme, awarding big sums of money to lucky winners via "lotus lotteries." Before long, the states are being flooded with paper lotuses, and Kalki's public profile skyrockets. The newest batch of lotuses contains a viral contagion, killing off the entire human population.
- Chekhov's Skill: Teddy's piloting.
- Chronic Backstabbing Disorder: Giles Lowell is the pitchman for Kalki's movement, which is the only reason anyone tolerates him. Kalki later discovers, albeit too late, that Giles has always been plotting to usurp him and steal Lakshmi for himself.
- Dark Messiah: The press isn't sure if Kalki is a crackpot like Jim Jones, a hippie burn-out, or a charlatan. It's implied by J.J. Kelly's story that his religious movement began as a hoax, but by the end he has become the mask and embraced his role as "destroyer of worlds." Teddy remains on the fence, not sure as to whether the world deserves to perish, and conflicted about her role as a "Perfect Master."
- Defector from Decadence: Following some journalistic digging, "Kalki" is found to be James J. Kelly, an Army veteran and field medic who helped conduct biological warfare in Vietnam. Shortly before his self-exile, he learned that a new type of a superweapon was being developed by the American and Soviet governments which would sharply increase the threat of even accidental self-annihilation. Kelly devises a scheme to kill off the humans while preserving the other species on earth.
- Despite The Plan: Kalki and his "Perfect Masters" intend to birth a new race above the ashes of an old one. Kalki is the only viable sperm donor in their small group, as Giles has undergone a vasectomy. ...Except he hasn't. Kalki cannot successfully impregnate any of the women on his own.
- Do Not Call Me Paul: Kalki and his wife have separated themselves from their old Anglo names.
- The End of the World as We Know It: Kalki announces to the world that the human race will be extinguished on April 3. No one, including the narrator, takes his threats very seriously, and a closer inspection reveals a shell company which makes its money through selling drugs. Kalki becomes a worldwide sensation as millions tune in to his interviews to either ridicule or worship him, but his true angle remains unclear . ...Because there is none. Kalki uses his publicity tour to distribute a virus throughout the world, ending all human life save for his followers.
- Fascinating Eyebrow: Deployed by Walter Cronkite at the end of his Kalki segment. It's mentioned that had Cronkite not reassuringly raised his eyebrow, there would have been panic in the streets.
- Four Is Death: In addition to himself and his wife, Kalki hand-picks three experts, known as Perfect Masters, to join him in the new human society; each is chosen for their knowledge and the fact that they are sterile. Teddy Ottinger will teach engineering, Geraldine O'Connor biology and genetics, and Dr. Giles Lowell medicine. Kalki's wife Lakshmi is herself a physicist, and Kalki is a chemist. Giles betrays the group and is murdered, bringing the total to four. The surviving members die childless, and Kalki finishes Teddy's memoir (and the novel) while preparing to bequeath Earth to the monkeys.
- How We Got Here: Teddy opens the book while sitting in the White House, reflecting on how she began her story unemployed and in debt. "Is this a success story?" The reason she has moved to 1600 Pennsylvania Ave is because her entire species is dead, and Kalki has made the mansion into his home. The "success" is darkly ironic, and Teddy dies before the book is completed.
- The Starscream: Giles/Ashok met and groomed J.J. Kelly as a medical student, a partnership which continued when Kelly adopted the "Kalki" persona and used Giles' base in New Orleans as a front for his drug empire. Giles' avarice gets the better of him and he tries to hijack the new human race.
- The Triads and the Tongs: Kalki made his fortune by getting into bed with Asian crime elements. Unfortunately, the up-and-coming Senator White is being funded by a rival syndicate, who are using White's "anti-drug" platform as a cover for having Kalki removed from the drug trade by force.
- Unwitting Pawn: Teddy, a celebrity novelist and washed-up test pilot, is mysteriously selected to cover the Kalki story by the editor of The Sun. There are also numerous spies both within and outside the cult, and starts to suspect that she was placed there as a government plant. Worse yet, she believes that Kalki might be aware of the conspiracies against his life and conspired to summon her to Katmandu as a double-agent. This turns out to be correct: Kalki needed a pilot to distributed his poison-laced lotteries across the globe.
- Your Days Are Numbered: Kalki seems unperturbed by the various threats on his life; CIA, DEA, Chinese gangsters, the South Koreans, any number of government would like to see Kalki dead. Kalki hires an actor to take a bullet for him, leaving him free to carry out his apocalypse on schedule.
- Creation (1981)
- Blue and Orange Morality: How the Buddha and Buddhism is dealt with in this book. A philosophy beyond all human earthly concerns.
- Crossover Cosmology: Vidal in his introduction noted that the Fourth Century BC had the likes of Zoroaster, Gautam Buddha, Vardhaman Mahavir, Confucius and Socrates existing as near-contemporaries but separated by great distances and that it was plausible for a single man who lived long to have met all these people in theory, though in practice the distances and modes of travel made such far reaching contact impossible. For Rule of Cool he enforced this trope to create a realistic version of this trope.
- Chronic Backstabbing Disorder: For Cyrus Spitama, the narrator of the book, who is highly biased, Greeks have this as a natural condition, noting that many of its former leaders first court Persia's support but later spit on its mercy.
- Closer to Earth: Confucius is shown this way, and indeed he defines his worldview in like manner. He's also shown to be a...
- Cool Teacher: Very cool indeed.
- Culture Clash: This is a running theme of the book, the fact that different cultures, even in the ancient world have different ways of grappling at the world and looking at the problems of creation. Cyrus Spitama, the grandson of Zoroaster despite his own religious beliefs, travels across the world and encounters different beliefs and ideas and notes similarities and points of difference.
- The Greatest History Never Told: The book takes a hard look at the places of history that most Hollywood History neglects, showing a more complex, connected picture of the Ancient World than you would otherwise believe.
- Persia, pre-Alexander is shown to be a vast multi-cultural Empire whose political support is courted by several Greek city states, including Athens and several deposed politicians and Greek Tyrants come to Persia when they retire or defeated, that it becomes almost a Running Gag.
- The book also describes the presence of democractic communities in Ancient India, in Vaishali.
- The book also examines different belief systems and presents a less Hollywood History version of it, with Buddhism and the Buddha shown to be indifferent to human suffering as a whole and which he affirms as an ideal to aspire to.
- Historical Hero Upgrade: From a Western perspective, Darius, Xerxes and Persian culture as a whole gets this. Shown to be decidedly more complex and interesting than more famous versions note would allow.
- In the Past, Everyone Will Be Famous: Cyrus Spitama grew up with Xerxes, Artemisia in the court of Darius and Atossa. He himself witnesses Zoroaster's death and is his grandson and heir. He later visits India and meets Vardhaman Mahavira, Gautama Buddha, King Bimbisara and King Ajatashatru. Then he visits China and meets Confucius. In Greece, he meets Pericles, Herodotus, Aspasia, Socrates and others and also Themistocles and Thucydides for good measure. Seen It All doesn't begin to define him.
- The Usurper: The book reveals Darius to be one. Taking the famous alternative theory that the false king Mardos was in fact the true king and the former killed him, and likely Cambyses, to become King. This in fact gives Xerxes, his son, much angst. It also subverts this greatly, since Darius is shown to be a very wise, good king indeed.
- Women Are Wiser: The book plays with this trope in many ways, with Cyrus' mother, Atossa, Darius' wife and Xerxes' mother and Aspasia all playing major, uncredited, behind-the-scenes roles in the many political struggles that define history.
- American Chronicles (aka Narratives of Empire) series (1973-2000)
- Achey Scars: Jess Smith's appendectomy scar. It aches whenever somebody is sniffing around his operations.
- Aluminum Christmas Trees: Holluwood caught negative reviews for inventing a female newspaper publisher in 1939; however, Vidal was quick to point out that Eleanor Patterson took control of a D.C. paper less than twenty years later.
- Antagonist in Mourning: Woodrow Wilson's nemesis, Henry Cabot Lodge, doesn't know what to do with himself once Wilson is deposed and living out his last days on S Street.
- Big Screwed-Up Family: The Sanfords.
- Bus Crash: Clay Overbury in The Golden Age.
- The Casanova: John Hay, Lincoln's aide and confidante, is a self-styled one. Aaron Burr in Burr is presented as another one, considered to have fathered more than a few illegitmate children, with future president Martin Van Buuren cited as one as per rumor, and the other one being the protagonist Charles Schuyler.
- Comically Missing the Point: The Senate Majority Leader, Henry Cabot Lodge, is shattered when he learns of Warren Harding's death. When asked if they were close, Lodge says of course not; he's upset that Calvin Coolidge is now President.
- Da Editor: Caroline Sanford and her brother, Blaise.
- Deadpan Snarker: When Eleanor Roosevelt returns from seeing the doctor, FDR wheels past and jokingly asks "What did he have to say about that big ass of yours?" Without pausing, Eleanor replies "I'm afraid you weren't mentioned."
- Depopulation Bomb: The flu epidemic of 1918. It sweeps the globe, bumps off more people in a year than the Black Plague did in its entire run, and leaves the survivors hobbled for roughly a year (thus truly ruining their health). Sen. Day catches the flu and is never, ever quite the same again. There is also a running theme of illness and decay in Hollywood and The Golden Age; the Presidents' fragile health renders each a sort of Dead Man Walking, marking time until their bodies inevitably shut down.
- Driven to Suicide: Burden, after Overbury throws him under the proverbial bus.
- Eagleland : A real Deconstruction of the same showing how the image was built and sustained over several different decades for political purpose. In Burr, Aaron Burr and Hamilton, while they were still friends discuss the new republic with Burr admitting that for all its aspirations, political life in America was the same as it was in the English Parliament and indeed in Ancient Rome, not really the break from the old that its Founders envisioned or made the public believe in.
- Evil Cripple: Wilson, to an extent. Rendered immobile by a stroke, bearded, baring his teeth in a manner Sen. Day describes as "lupine", the President is understandably less merciful than in his prime. Even in defeat, he still has enough influence to scuttle the Presidential ambitions of his son-in-law, William McAdoo, before McAdoo's campaign even starts.
- Fallen Hero: Warren Harding, the fallen President who might have been great.
- The Fisher King: Woodrow Wilson's White House is an ice palace, with padlocked fences and all activity carefully concentrated in a tiny upstairs study, and only Mrs. Wilson and the President's physician allowed in. Contrast with Harding, whose White House exudes warmth and is made open to the public. By the end of the novel, though, it becomes as haunted and empty as it was under his predecessor.
- Foregone Conclusion: Harding's inexorable rise to the Presidency is observed with awe by Hollywood's main characters. For a time, he seems to be just what the nation needs, making the abrupt collapse of his administration and Harding's sudden death all the more shocking.
- Any scene with Franklin D. Roosevelt. Nobody believes that this sickly naval clerk will amount to anything.
- General Failure: Aaron Burr regards George Washington as this, comparing his military record unfavorably to Horatio Clinton, Charles Lee and even Benedict Arnold.
- Historical Hero Upgrade: Gore Vidal doesn't believe in heroes or villains, with even Historical Domain bad guys like Aaron Burr revealed to be a more complex and likable figure than his notoriety would allow, showing the context of the actions that would define him and largely putting the entire generation of the founders into perspective.
- History Repeats: W.G. Harding's "Voyage of Understanding", a transcontinental tour to rally the people, reminds Burden of a similar trip made by Wilson to drum up support for the League, leaving Washington at the mercy of Lodge's associates. It is not meant as a flattering comparison.
- I Have No Son: Burden's father, a veteran of Chickamauga, disowned him for leaving the People's Party to run as a Democrat.
- Incest Is Relative: Peter and Enid in Washington D.C. The novel is a semi-biographical account of Vidal's early life, with Enid as an avatar of Nina Gore, his mother. So, yeah. Considering his vocal dislike of Freudian analyses, this might be Lampshade Hanging on the author's part.
- Lady Drunk: Enid.
- Luke, I Am Your Father: In Burr, Martin Van Buren is posited to be an illegitimate son of Aaron Burr. The last page of the novel unmasks the narrator, Charles Schuyler, as yet another of Burr's children.
- Madness Mantra: Day is torn between the political realities of Washington and stern admonitions from his late father, a populist who despised the federal government. The Senator frequently hears the words "the people" rattling in his brain, driving him up the wall.
- Most Writers Are Writers: Peter Sanford in Washington D.C, and The Golden Age.
- Not Evil, Just Misunderstood: The subject of Burr goes to great lengths to paint himself as this.
- Obfuscating Stupidity: Warren Harding surprises many of his so-called supporters by revealing himself to be a crafty politician. Internally, Burden wonders if Harding's image as a folksy, third-tier candidate was all an elaborate ruse.
- Old Media Are Evil: William Randolf Hearst and his numerous disciples, although their control over public opinion isn't evil so much as pragmatic. Later, the influence of the press gives away to a vastly more powerful medium: movies!
- Passive-Aggressive Kombat: The Roosevelts are blackbelts.
- Real Person Fic: The books loosely follow the Sanfords, a clan of Gumps who mix with Washington society. A secondary protagonist, James Burden Day, is introduced in Washington, D.C.
- Riddle for the Ages: Who killed Jess Smith? It's implied in the book that Smith was assassinated as part of a coverup of the Teapot Dome scandal.
- Sanity Slippage: Mary Todd Lincoln.
- Sibling Rivalry: Blaise keeps hoping (indeed, praying) for his sister to fail at something.
- Sleazy Politician: Clay Overbury in Washington D.C is portrayed as a Kennedy-esque charmer whose cutthroat true nature is mostly hidden.
- Stage Names: Movie mogul Caroline Sanford goes undercover as "Emma Traxler."
- Stealth Insult: In their one scene together, Theodore Roosevelt is busting FDR's balls for being a Desk Jockey. Franklin, trying not to grimace, agrees with him and laments, "We must serve where we can do the best for our our country, and not ourselves." (This subtle jab does not escape T.R.'s attention.)
- Straight Gay: Blaise Sanford is an in-universe example of this trope.
- Thanatos Gambit: In the novel Burr, it is strongly suggested (citing actual historical evidence) that Alexander Hamilton took pains to ensure that if he were killed in the duel, he would ruin Burr's political career in the process and disgrace him forever.
- Tragic Hero: Sen. James Burden Day.
- Verbal Tic: Jess Smith's "Whaddaya know?" He also can't stop whistling a folk tune, "My God, How the Money Rolls In", a hint to his role as Harding's bag-man.
- "Well Done, Son" Guy: Blaise Sanford prizes his protégé, Clay, over his own family. Burden's relationship with his father is noted to have been similarly testy.
- Yank the Dog's Chain: Burden's quest for the presidency. Teddy Roosevelt seems a shoe-in for the 1920 race, then abruptly dies. Wilson is slated to appoint Burden his VP for an unprecedented third term — until the League of Nations implodes on him. Finally, once the curtain closes on the Ohio Gang, no one is left standing but Coolidge, whom Burden will "inevitably" trounce in the '24 race.
- Yes-Man: Since little is known about John Wilkes Booth's co-conspirator David Herold, he's depicted in Lincoln as one of these. Up to Eleven with Jess Smith, another shadowy figure in hitory; here he is portrayed as a lumbering, slow-witted grocery clerk who somehow lucked out and befriended a future advisor to Warren Harding, himself an obscure newspaper man whose star was on the rise. In that sense, Jess is a tragic figure because he does what he's (implicitly) told to do, and scapegoated when his masters are caught with their hands in the till. The end of the novel strongly suggests he was assassinated as part of the cover-up, even though Jess' nature has been established as the sort unlikely to flip on his "friends."