Adaptation Expansion: There's a lot of this, but for starters, contrary to the original concept's solid seven, the anime went out of its way to introduce a secret eighth kingdom on the Wonder Planet, known as the Ocean Kingdom, guarded by Princess Pearl.
All There in the Manual: The character fanbooks and BIRTHDAY's original webpage gives small details to the characters that aren't revealed in the show. For example, Fine and Rein are both eight years old, Bright received Ruby on his tenth birthday, and Shade received Regina (a desert lizard) at the age of five.
Almost Kiss: Rein and Eclipse nearly share one in the manga... only to be cockblocked by Milky!
Chekhov's Gunman: Naginyo, in the first series, proves to be a stock character who just shows up at random parts in Once an Episode just to sing random songs on his harp while charming the ladies. Then, 20 episodes later, it turns out he was a messenger sent by Princess Grace THE WHOLE TIME.
Contrived Coincidence: The Prominence in the earlier part of Season 1 seems to cause these whenever it's used.
For example, when Fine and Rein were trying to get some sugar for Lione when she spilled the last of hers (and getting a bag of salt when they ask Altezza), the twin princesses used the Prominence to try and conjure up some. Instead, it conjured a mound of soil. They are about to give up when a traveling sumo group arrived and decided to accept the soil. One of the just so happened to confuse sugar with salt and the three princesses traded the salt they received from Altezza to score the sugar Lione needed. How those events could possibly occur with that level of precision is anyone's guess barring A Wizard Did It (and that could very well be the case, given the Prominence's nature in this world).
Dancing Theme: The first opening theme, "Princess wa Akiramenai", had a little bit of dancing and the twin vocalists of the song, FLIP-FLAP, also did the same dance in a live-action music video version. Similarly, the first ending theme, "Oshare Fantasy", had a little dance sequence and there was a segment in one of the DVD extras that taught the dance.
Disappeared Dad: All the families in the Wonder Planet are nuclear families... except for the Moon Kingdom, where there is a queen, but not a king. In fact, we don't even know who and if Shade and Milky ever had a father...
Every Episode Ending: In the first series, after the episode preview, every episode ended with a "lucky item" segment where Fine and Rein tell the little girls watching the show which item to carry around for good luck.
Late-Arrival Spoiler: It's pretty obvious Eclipse is Prince Shade from the Moon Kingdom once Shade is formally introduced in the series. On the official website, Eclipse was listed in the section for characters with an unspecified region as a separate character than Prince Shade. Once The Reveal happened, Eclipse's profile explicitly states that he is Shade.
Loser Protagonist: The majority of the princesses win Princess Parties because of Fine and Rein's help, but the two have never won one. This was averted in the manga, where they win the final Princess Party.
Magic by Any Other Name: The Prominence. It is never called magic anywhere in the series. The cloest its ever come to being called that is courtesy of Altezza, and she only ever refers to it as Fine and Rein's "weird power".
Oddly Named Sequel: Futago Hime Gyu!, with "gyu" being a Japanese onomatopoeia for squeezing (often used for hand squeezing or tight hugs).
Official Couple: Fine/Shade, Rein/Bright, Altezza/Auler, Elizabeta/Fango, Calorie/Tauri, Milro/Pastel... and that's not even including the kings and queens! Even Milky and Nalro got some Ship Tease before they even learned how to speak!
Pimped-Out Dress: The base dresses that the princesses (aside from Fine and Rein) tend to wear most of the time. Fine and Rein get dolled up when going to most Princess Parties. Both of their dresses while transformed out-pimp all of these...and that's just the first series!
Power Trio/ˇThree Amigos!: Fine, Rein, and Poomo act as a trio throughout the series, although you can substitute Poomo for Lione if you want a more human counterpart. In the second half of the series, Altezza replaces Lione in the role. The trio formation becomes crucial to Gyu! to the point where the students must create teams of three, hence Team Gemini (Fine, Rein, Chiffon), Team Celeb (Elizabeta, Sasha, Carla), Team Jewel (Altezza, Sophie, Lemon), Team Samba (Lione, Calorie, Asuri), etc.
Put on a Bus: The writers of Gyu! use this trope immensely. The show introduces new princesses and princes while ignoring even the royal families of the Wonder Planet. In other words, if you're looking for anyone who is not Fine, Rein, Poomo, Chiffon, and Bibin, prepare to be massively disappointed. Even Auler doesn't show up as much as he should have. Alongside that, even the new princesses and princes are basically ignored after having one episode to themselves — Thomas gets this the worst, as shortly after his Heel-Face Turn, he disappears for about 20 episodes, and when he finally returns to the Academy, he is Demoted to Extra.
Rebellious Princess: Fine and Rein, to the point of being labeled the "most un-princesslike princesses in the history of the Wonder Planet".
Royal Blood: The main characters and many of the supporting characters are princesses and princes. Gyu! adds more.
Royals Who Actually Do Something: Princesses Fine and Rein, for starters. Prince Bright tries but ends up making things worse. Prince Shade after he was revealed to be Eclipse. Princess Lione during most of her appearances. Prince Tio makes every attempt to play it straight and ultimately succeeds. Princess Altezza when she joins the Fine and Rein in finding a way to free Bright from the Black Crystal's influence. In fact, every Prince and Princess does a lot more than their parents.
The Kings and Queens almost always subvert this. An exception is the Hot-Blooded King Wohl, who personally leads his troops in stopping whatever troubles his kingdom, even if he doesn't understand what the problem is.
Running Gag: The twins' "I hate it" dance, Tio trying (and failing) to help out, Poomo muttering about his situation, to name a few.
Sibling Team: Fine and Rein. Bright and Altezza to a far lesser extent.
Speak In Unison: Fine and Rein frequently do this. Justified since they're nigh-inseparable twins.
Spell My Name with an S: Rein's name was written as "Rain" in the first eyecatch of the series, but producer Junichi Sato decided to stick with calling her "Rein" because he didn't want her to be associated with the weather rain.
Milro has an interesting case since her name was spelled "Mirlo" in the first character fanbook, but "Milro" in episode 19 and in the second character fanbook. One has to wonder if "Mirlo" was a typo or if They Just Didn't Care about the proper romanization of her name. Last, some fansubs write her name out by her literal Japanese pronunciation, "Miruro", but it's not Word of God so it has less validity than her other names. The fansubs romanized Truth's name as "Toulouse" and Altezza's as "Altessa" before the character fanbook came out with the official romanizations. Some people still refer to the characters by their fansub names.
Sugar Bowl: The Wonder Planet is very cute and friendly.
Suspiciously Similar Substitute: In Gyu!, the vice principal of the Royal Wonder Academy resembles Chancellor Roman from the first series, from the character design to even his voice actors. The same treatment is given to Rarau and Yayan, the vice principal's assistants, who seem to be Expies of Rau and Yan, Roman's mooks, in the first series.
Swiss Army Tears: When Fine and Rein lose their hearts permanently after defeating the Black Crystal Planet, it takes Bright and Shade's Manly Tears to revive them.
Transformation Is a Free Action: On a number of times, Fine and Rein transform right when something bad is on the verge of happening. Said bad thing, if happening in real time, would've caused damage by the time they finished transforming...
Transformation Sequence: Several as the series goes on. The first one uses the Prominence. When that is stolen, the Fortulet princess sequence appears. When Bright's powers finally allow him to No Sell their powers, the girls gain the Eternal Solar form. Then Gyu! gives them the Universal and Grand Universal Princess forms, which requires Kyukyu and Pyupyu to initiate.
Wheel o' Feet: Something of a running gag. To give an idea of how often it happens, take a drink every time someone demonstrates this trope.
Wonder Twin Powers: Although Fine and Rein can use the Prominence and the Feather Mewgram by themselves, they need each other to transform and use their most powerful magic. This is also prevalent in Gyu!, where their twin angel mascots, Pyupyu and Kyukyu, are needed to help them transform.