One of the most famous, if not the most-famous work by Gilbert and Sullivan, The Mikado, or, the Town of Titipu opened in 1885. The story of its conception was dramatized in the 1999 film Topsy-Turvy.In a quite fictionalized version of Japan, Nanki-Poo, the son of the Mikado (the Emperor), wanders the streets as a Wandering Minstrel. Meanwhile, a hapless tailor named Ko-Ko has been saved from the chopping block and appointed High Executioner. Instructed to execute somebody before The Mikado returns, Ko-Ko happens upon Nanki-Poo, who is in love with the maiden Yum-Yum, and contemplating suicide because she's due to marry another. Seeing an opportunity, Ko-Ko decides to help Nanki-Poo have his death wish and to be with Yum-Yum. Hilarity Ensues.
This work provides examples of:
- Abhorrent Admirer: Katisha for Nanki-Poo
- Added Alliterative Appeal: Gilbert really enjoyed alliteration:To sit in solemn silence in a dull, dark dock
In a pestilential prison with a life-long lock
Awaiting the sensation of a short, sharp shock
From a cheap and chippy chopper on a big black block!
- Affably Evil: The Mikado, who is rather calm when he threatens to boil his son's supposed killers in oil."I'm not a bit angry."
- All There in the Script:
- Peep-Bo, the third of the "three little maids from school"; and Pish-Tush, who is not so much a character as a singing part.
- Anachronism Stew: Modern productions tend to be updated with current references, especially prevalent in "The List" song.
- Asshole Victim: In "I've Got a Little List", Ko-Ko, now the Lord High Executioner, explains that if he's going to execute anyone, it'll be people that no one will be sorry to be rid of, criminals or not. Since many of the examples listed won't make much sense to modern audiences (or may not be very fair by today's standards) the song's lyrics are often revised or updated to feature topical examples.
- As Long as It Sounds Foreign: It should go without saying that basically none of the characters have actual Japanese names.
- Even the name of the play is sort of an example of this. The word mikado is presented as meaning "emperor". In fact it means the general authority of the Emperor, a bit like how the British civil government is referred to as "Downing Street". It is not a title given to a person.
- Beauty Equals Goodness: Yum Yum: Beautiful=Good, Katisha: Ugly=Evil. However this trope is lampshaded and parodied as well. Yum Yum asks herself why she's the most beautiful woman in the whole world in one scene ("Can this be vanity? No!"). As for Katisha, although she is genuinely bloodthirsty and cruel, her loneliness makes her sympathetic ("Hearts do not break, they sting and ache...").
- Black Comedy
- Blue BloodPooh-Bah: I am, in point of fact, a particularly haughty and exclusive person, of pre-Adamite ancestral descent. You will understand this when I tell you that I can trace my ancestry back to a protoplasmic primordial atomic globule.
- Bowdlerise: A couple of N-word references are generally now re-written in "I've Got a Little List" and "My Object All Sublime."
- While in no way giving Sir William N-Word Privileges, he was referring not to actual people of African extraction, but to Minstrel Shows and Blackface actors (c.f. reference to "serenader" and "blacked-like...with walnut juice", respectively), a cheap gimmick that would likely have offended Gilbert, to whom stage acting was quite Serious Business, even if the lyrics were not. Still, use of the term is considered to be in bad taste these days, and there is no real objection to these minor alterations, provided they fit the rhyme and rhythm.
- Gilbert also permitted bowdlerising out the N-word in American versions, after being told that using the word was considered poor taste in America (which it was, but more for its association with Southern "white trash" than any racist implications).
- The Chew Toy: Ko-Ko.
- Christmas Cake: Katisha, a very old maid, pines for Nanki-Poo and for the title of "Daughter-in-Law Elect of the Mikado", and eventually Queen. From her behavior in the second act, it is clear that she would pattern her reign after the Queen of Hearts from Alice in Wonderland ("off with their heads!"), so the inhabitants of Titipu could heave a sigh of relief that she didn't get her wish.
- Cool and Unusual Punishment: "A More Humane Mikado" is made of this.
- Disproportionate Retribution: You can get the death penalty for flirting.
- Driven to Suicide: Nanki-Poo attempts to off himself when he thinks he can't marry Yum-Yum, but Ko-Ko has other ideas...
- Either/Or Title: As is typical of G&S operettas.
- Evil Sounds Deep:
- The Mikado and Katisha are a bass and a contralto, respectively.
- Pooh-Bah, likewise, is always cast as a bass or a baritone.
- Evolving Music:
- The titular list from "I've Got A Little List" often has the words updated to poke fun at current topical references, unless the director is a major traditionalist. Gilbert himself sanctioned some of this rewriting when he realized that "the lady novelist" on Ko-Ko's list wouldn't always be seen as "a singular anomaly" and let singers suggest their own alternatives. The most popular replacement? "The girl who's never kissed"! The prohibitionist is also a popular substitution.
- It's somewhat expected to couple this with some Self-Deprecation, as when one production added to the list "All people who write different words to Mr. Gilbert's songs..."
- Less frequently, the Mikado's song receives this treatment as well.
- Every Man Has His Price: Pooh-Bah would be insulted if you offered him a bribe, and mortified at the prospect of working for a salary. However, as a man of high moral principles, he is grateful for every such opportunity to practice self-abasement.
- Flanderization: When the Mikado was originally played by Richard Temple in 1885 he was a slightly sinister "suave and oily" reserved monarch with just the very lightest touch of the manical in the background. By the end of the 1920s, however, Darrell Fancourt had turned him into a maniacal tyrant complete with a flamboyant evil laugh. G and S fans are divided as to which was the better approach.
- The Fourth Wall Will Not Protect You - Played for Laughs: In Lord High Executioner's "I've Got a Little List" song, some versions will have him refer to members of the cast, and possibly the audience as well.
And apologetic statesmen of a compromising kind,
- Martyn Greene recounts that when he played Ko-Ko, even without changing the words he was often able to get a huge laugh by looking pointedly up at the seats of any visiting dignitaries (once including Winston Churchill!) at exactly the right moment:
Such as — What d'ye call him — Thing'em-bob, and likewise — Never-mind,
And 'St— 'st— 'st— and What's-his-name, and also You-know-who....
- Gallows Humor: Plenty. As a main character is the Lord High Executioner, and much of the plot revolves around an execution, quite a bit of it is literal gallows humor.
- Getting Crap Past the Radar: Satirising British society was tricky when (just as happens today) anything seriously cutting raised public controversy (The Sorcerer got a lot of complaints for mocking the church even mildly). Gilbert got around that by setting the story at least notionally in Japan. It just happens to be a Japan with a British political system, British nobility and a very British sense of etiquette...
- Grande Dame: Katisha.
- Guilt by Association Gag: Poo-Bah and Pitti-Sing get condemned to death for Nanki-Poo's supposed execution at the hands of Ko-Ko, simply because they happen to be hanging around.
- Have a Gay Old Time: Several.
- The "nigger serenader and the others of his race" in Ko-Ko's list song do not refer to a desire for genocide, but rather that if blackface minstrels and similar types of entertainers disappeared, the world would be a slightly better place. Actual performers of colour weren't a thing in middle-class circles until The Twenties.
- "Dicky-bird, why do you sit / Singing willow, tit-willow, tit-willow?" must have meant something else in the 19th century...
- Hollywood Medieval Japan: Kind of. Nothing in the script, except the title, bears any real resemblance to actual historical Japan. However costumes and decor were inspired by popular interest in Japanese art, but Word of Gilbert explains that it's a pretext for satire that's actually directed toward contemporary English institutions.
- Hope Spot: "There should be, of course...but there isn't."
- "I Am" Song: "If you want to know who we are" (The people of Titipu), "A wandering minstrel, I" (Nanki-Poo), "Behold the Lord High Executioner" (Ko-Ko), "Comes a train of little ladies" (The school girls), "Three little maids from school" (Yum-Yum, Pitti-Sing & Peep-Bo) and "Miya Sama" (The Mikado & Katisha). Yes, six of them, quite possibly a record.
- Inherently Funny Words:
- Insane Troll Logic: How the crisis is averted in the end.Ko-Ko: When Your Majesty says "Let a thing be done", it’s as good as done, practically it is done, because Your Majesty’s will is law. Your Majesty says "Kill a gentleman", and the gentleman is to be killed, consequently that gentleman is as good as dead, practically he is dead, and if he is dead, why not say so?
The Mikado: I see. [Dramatic Pause] Nothing could possibly be more...satisfactory!
- Cue the Dance Party Ending
- It Gets Easier: Parodied when Ko-Ko announces that he can't execute a human being just yet; he'd planned on starting with a guinea pig and killing progressively larger, more intelligent animals until he got there.
- Judge, Jury, and Executioner: Technically, Ko-Ko, although he's upstaged by Pooh-Bah who is the "Lord High Everything Else."
- King Incognito: Prince Nanki-Poo disguises himself as a minstrel to escape the advances of Lady Katisha, a much older woman who wants his hand in marriage.
- Lawful Stupid: The Mikado agrees with Ko-Ko, Pooh-Bah, and Pitti-Sing's explanation that the execution of his son Nanki-Poo was a complete accident, that nobody should have been expected to deduce his true identity through the disguise, and that they were, after all, carrying out the Mikado's orders that somebody be executed...but that the three of them should still be subjected to "something lingering with boiling oil in it" for the crime of murdering the Heir Apparent of Japan. He even regrets having to do so, stating that there is nothing that he could do about it.
- The Mikado actually says, "That's the slovenly way in which these Acts are always drawn. However, cheer up, it'll be all right. I'll have it altered next session. Now, let's see about your execution will after luncheon suit you? Can you wait till then?" (Implying that Japan has a Parliament, which is in keeping with all of Poo-Bah's British-style state titles.)
- Listing The Forms Of Degenerates: "I've Got A Little List", which lists all the kinds of people who can be executed without public protest, as does "A More Humane Mikado" in the next act.
- Local Reference:Ko-Ko: The fact is, he's gone abroad.
The Mikado: Gone abroad? His address!
- Knightsbridge was the site of a Japanese cultural exhibition around the time the operetta premiered (indeed, its popularity was an inspiration to Gilbert). The reference is often changed to something local to the production.
- List Song: Ko-Ko's "I've got a little list." The Mikado's song "A More Humane Mikado" also spends a lot of time listing people.
- The Long List:
- When they say Pooh-Bah is "Lord High Everything Else," they mean it.note
- The list in "I've Got a Little List" isn't really that little. This is sometimes parodied by having it reach the floor when unrolled.
- Loophole Abuse: Flirting was made a capital offense, but everyone tries to find a way around that. Notably, this explains how Ko-Ko became Lord High Executioner: He was promoted to the post after being sentenced to death, but since he can't cut off his own head, and since nobody else can be executed until he is, everyone is free to indulge in flirting!
- Losing Your Head: While Ko-Ko, Pitti-Sing and Pooh-Bah are describing the supposed execution of Nanki-Poo, Pooh-Bah gets carried away and claims that Nanki-Poo's severed head remained animate long enough to bow politely three times in farewell.
- Love Triangle: Ko-Ko, Yum-Yum and Nanki-Poo.
- Metaphorically True: This resolves the conflict at the end (with a heaping accompaniment of Insane Troll Logic) when the characters are able to convince the Mikado that, since his word is law, anyone who the Mikado says should be executed is "as good as dead," never mind that they're still alive.
- Most Writers Are Male: An item on Ko-Ko's list is "That singular anomaly, the lady novelist."
- In subsequent productions, this became "the prohibitionist" and "the scorching motorist".
- Nightmare Fetishist:
- Katisha sings a whole song about how awesome thunderstorms, tigers, earthquakes, and volcanoes are.Katisha: And you won't hate me because I'm just a little teeny weeny wee bit bloodthirsty, will you?
Ko-Ko: Hate you? Oh, Katisha! is there not beauty even in bloodthirstiness?
Katisha: My idea exactly!
- Many people during the opera express bloodthirsty glee at the prospect of executions (well, executions that are not their own.)
- Katisha sings a whole song about how awesome thunderstorms, tigers, earthquakes, and volcanoes are.
- Off with His Head!: Ko-Ko's job duties, although he never actually performs them. Discussed in several songs as well, including "I Am So Proud" and "The Criminal Cried."
- Opening Chorus: "If You Want To Know Who We Are." Doubles as an "I Am" Song for the chorus, explaining that they're gentlemen of Japan.
- Overly Long Gag: Pooh-Bah holds the note a ludicrously long time when wishing "long life" to Nanki-Poo upon his engagement to Yum-Yum (several productions have Nanki-Poo trying to walk out on him and Pooh-Bah stopping him). The payoff comes when he finishes the song:Long life to you —
Long life to you —
Long life to you — till then!
- Patter Song:
- "I've got a little list."
- Also, "A More Humane Mikado," which is actually more demanding in the patter. Indeed, Gilbert was seriously considering cutting out this song because it is essentially the same as "I've got a little list." He was talked out of doing it by the chorus (as a body) who argued that it was the Mikado's only solo.
- The second half of "I Am So Proud."
- The Pirates Who Don't Do Anything: Ko-Ko is the Lord High Executioner, but never executes anybody.
- Punny Name
- Rebel Prince: Nanki-Poo, who rejects life at the royal court in favor of wandering around disguised as a minstrel.
- Runaway Fiancé: the male version.
- Shout-Out to Shakespeare: Hamlet's reference to Claudius as a "king of shreds and patches" is borrowed:"A wand'ring minstrel I,
A thing of shreds and patches!"
"Friends, Shogun, Countrymen! Lend me your ears!""Nanki-Poo? Nanki-Poo? Wherefore art thou Nanki-poo?"
- In the recent Australian Opera production:
- Spurned into Suicide:
- Nanki-Poo prepares to off himself when he believes he will not be allowed to marry Yum-Yum. This gives Ko-Ko the idea for his deal.
- The title bird in "Tit-Willow." Ko-Ko sings the song to hint to Katisha that he may do the same if she rejects him.
- Stylistic Suck: To go with the very As Long as It Sounds Foreign names and various other elements in the play, many productions choose to do the same visually, and decidedly aim left of any sort of cultural accuracy with the costumes and sets.
- Subverted Rhyme Every Occasion: A meta-example. Gilbert explained that the reason he didn't include many of his trademark whimsical rhymes for actual Japanese words and titles, although he was tempted, was that he realized early on that "Samurais" rhymes with "Damn your eyes." And he couldn't very well include that in a Victorian production, "unless [Sullivan's] music had drowned the expression in the usual theatrical way—Tympani fortissimo, I think you call it."
- Tenor Boy: Nanki-Poo
- The Theme Park Version: Of Japanese culture. Of course, even the opening chorus cheerfully acknowledges that it is not intended to be realistic but is drawn from what can be seen "On many a vase and jar / On many a screen and fan."
- Tomboy and Girly Girl: In some productions of The Mikado Pitti-Sing is played as a tomboy to Yum-Yum's Girly Girl.
- This Is Reality: After Ko-Ko, Pooh-Bah, and Pitti-Sing are convicted of inadvertantly doing away with the heir to the throne, the Mikado remarks that he's sorry for them, but this is an unjust world and virtue is triumphant only in theatrical performances.
- Try to Fit THAT on a Business Card!: Pooh-Bah is: Master of the Rolls, Master of the Buckhounds, Groom of the Backstairs, First Lord of the Treasury, Solicitor, Lord Chamberlain, Attorney-General, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Privy Purse, Lord Chief Justice, Leader of the Opposition, Paymaster-General, Lord High Auditor, Archbishop of Titipu, First Commissioner of Police, Private Secretary, Groom of the Second Floor Front, Lord Mayor and Judge Ordinary. Indeed the only position in city government he does not hold is that of Lord High Executioner; his shorter title is Lord High Everything Else. Modern productions like to add some titles to introduce more contemporary humour. Examples would be Director of Homeland Security or Husband of Elizabeth Taylor.
- Translation: "Yes": In the children's book version of the story adapted by Gilbert, he explains that Yum-Yum's name supposedly translates as, "The full moon of delight which sheds her remarkable beams over a sea of infinite loveliness, thus indicating a glittering path by which she may be approached by those who are willing to brave the perils which necessarily await the daring adventurers who seek to reach her by those means." He goes on to explain that the Japanese language is remarkably compact.
- Unwanted Assistance: "Will you refrain from putting in your oar!?!"
- Wandering Minstrel: Nanki-Poo's disguise
- Lampshaded in the song "A Wand'ring Minstrel I."
- Wife Husbandry: Ko-Ko is Yum-Yum's guardian, and explains "I've educated her to be my wife; she's been taught to regard me as a wise and good man."
- Yellowface: Part of the originally intended joke is the performers - despite being in yellowface - are actually examples of stupid British aristocrats. At the time there was a huge craze for Japan culture in Britain so having the characters be Japanese was a bit of satire. Since the joke is no longer relevant and yellowface much less acceptable directors have chosen to go in different directions.
- One technique is to eschew makeup entirely and simply have them dressed is Japanese characters.
- Another direction is to reverse it; all the characters are obviously, excessively British (huge sideburns, thick accents) while still using faux-Japanese names and garb, thus rebuilding the joke that this is not some bizarre Eastern culture indulging in idiocy, but British upper-crust pretending to be so.
- Another that is gaining a bit of currency is to portray everyone as Anime characters, which preserves the intended satire on Western fascination with The Theme Park Version of Japanese culture.