His followers called him Mahasamatman and said he was a god. He preferred to drop the Maha- and the -atman, however, and called himself Sam. He never claimed to be a god. But then he never claimed not to be a god. Circumstances being what they were, neither admission could be of any benefit.
Lord of Light is a 1967 Hugo Award-winning Science Fantasy novel by Roger Zelazny, which pushes the boundaries between Science Fiction and Fantasy.On a far-future Lost Colony, the original crew of the Colony Ship have all somehow gained psychic powers. Using these plus rigorous controls on technology, they have set themselves up as the Gods of Hindu Mythology, and absolute rulers of the world, with Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva at their head. One of the original crew—the man known as Sam—is not satisfied with this state of affairs, and decides to start a rebellion, taking the identity of Buddha.The novel is more-or-less Science Fiction, but relies heavily on Fantasy tropes. Zelazny's follow-up novel, Creatures of Light and Darkness, is almost exactly the opposite, a Fantasy (with Egyptian Gods) full of Science Fiction tropes. Though unrelated, the two works are often considered companion pieces. Lord of Light remains one of Zelazny's most popular and respected works. It also inspired a song by Hawkwind.Notably, concept art by Jack Kirby for a film adaption of the book was used by the CIA as cover when they needed to create a a pretense to evacuate Americans out of Iran during the Iran Hostage Crisis, as detailed in the Ben Affleck movie Argo.
Lord Of Light contains examples of:
Ancient Astronauts: And they're human astronauts, at that: the world was colonized by the crew and passengers of a starship, long enough ago that their offworld origins have been largely forgotten by the common people.
Back from the Dead: Sam. Twice—once when executed in Heaven after the battle in Hellwell, once when he is exiled to Nirvana (see above).
Bad Habits: Sam privately admits that he's merely posing as the Buddha, and doesn't believe the dogma he preaches.
Badass Boast: When his allies question his determination, Sam answers them with this:
"I shall tear these stars from out the heavens," he stated, "and hurl them in the faces of the gods, if this be necessary. I shall blaspheme in every Temple throughout the land. I shall take lives as a fisherman takes fish, by the net, if this be necessary. I shall mount me again up to the Celestial City, though every step be a flame or a naked sword and the way be guarded by tigers. One day will the gods look down from Heaven and see me upon the stair, bringing them the gift they fear most. That day will the new Yuga begin."
"There are only demigods and men upon the field," said Death. "They are still testing our strength. There are very few who remember the full power of Kalkin."
"The full power of Kalkin?" asked Sam. "That has never been released, oh Death. Not in all the ages of the world."
Baleful Polymorph: The gods' favorite means of punishing dissenters in their ranks is to transfer the minds of the offenders into the bodies of animals, instead of people.
Barehanded Blade Block: Yama does this to a telekinetically-driven sword, while armored, and is wounded anyway.
Beauty Equals Goodness: After his return from Nirvana, Sam gives a speech to this effect to his followers, commenting afterwards that it's very hard to get people stirred up about fighting evil when they are taught that bearing suffering is good for their karma, but that fighting for beauty is an easier sell.
For example, Yama fights Rild, a man who cannot be stabbed or cut. Yama eventually kills him by dragging him into the nearby stream and holding him under.
Cool and Unusual Punishment: "The curse of the Buddha", inflicted on Taraka as a punishment for possessing Sam. It's guilt - a human feeling, unfamiliar to the Rakasha, which Taraka contracted from Sam's mind.
Corrupt Church: When one goes to apply for reincarnation, how much money one has offered to the various temples is taken into account when determining how one reincarnates. Automated "pray-o-mats" are set up to receive these offerings.
Deader Than Dead: To forgo reincarnation, or be denied it, is to "die the real death".
Deal with the Devil: Sam cuts a deal with the Rakasha to get them on his side in his campaign against Heaven. Naturally, they attempt to renege.
Death Glare: Yama, being the god of death, can physically affect people with his, as well as just intimidating the hell out of them. He kills Indra, Taraka, and Mara with it.
Deface of the Moon: Sam once mentions the time when Agni burned the face of all three moons with his wand built by Yama.
Defector from Decadence: Sam, of course, as a deliberate in-universe Buddha Expy, and most of his allies qualify as well. Subverted with Yama. Sam tries to convince him that he's too good for "the crew of drunken body-changers", but ultimately, he's pushed over the edge only because he was ditched by Kali.
Sam seals his fate with the gods when he dares refer to Brahma by his birth name: Madeleine.
Averted with Jan Olvegg, who's gotten very tired with the whole deity business and prefers to use his original title as Captain of the Star of India. Also subverted with Nirriti the Black, who still calls himself Reverend Renfrew.
"Go away. This is not a place to be. If you do try to enter here, you will fail and also be cursed. If somehow you succeed, then do not complain that you entered unwarned, nor bother us with your deathbed prayers." Signed, "The Gods."
Duel to the Death: Yama vs Rild, among others. As you might expect, anyone who duels Yama tends to die horribly. Agni also challenges someone to a duel after they insult Kali, killing them horribly.
Even Evil Has Standards: The demonic Rakasha will betray humans at every opportunity, with the sole exception of gambling debts, which they will always honor. This is more because they love gambling and are afraid that people won't be willing to play if they cheat, but it's a standard nonetheless.
Fake Nationality: Invoked. A number of the original ship's crew would seem not to be actually Indian. They have names like Sam, Madeleine, Renfrew, and Jan Olvegg. Apparently the colonists they carried were mostly Indian.
Flashback Stares: The extended flashback scene that comprises the main body of the novel is indicated by the sentence "Sam stared ahead, remembering."
Gender Bender: The reincarnation machines can allow people to switch genders. Most don't, although Kali does when she becomes the new Brahma, and the Monarch of Thieves has switched genders with every incarnation for so long that no one can remember what gender he/she was originally.
Old Brahma had done it too.
Genius Bruiser: Yama is both the world's greatest swordsman and its greatest scientist.
A God Am I: The "gods" now honestly believe themselves to be divine.
Gone Horribly Right: The gods permitted Nirriti to take some technology and set up a home base so they could justify their oppressive practices by pointing at an external threat to their regime. But Nirriti quickly expanded his abilities beyond what the gods anticipated and rapidly became an actual threat, rather than just a bogeyman.
Guile Hero: Sam has potent powers at his disposal, but prefers to triumph through trickery.
I Have Many Names: He is Mahasamatman, Siddhartha, Buddha, Kalkin, Maitreya, Tathagatha, the Enlightened One, Binder of Demons, and Lord of Light. But he prefers to drop the "Maha-" and the "-atman" and be called Sam.
When she says she still loves Sam, he says that she probably never loved him, and only loves the days in which they fought together.
In Medias Res: Lord of Light begins with Sam’s return from Nirvana (“recovering from the peace which passeth understanding takes time”, p. 15) to which he is exiled after the Battle of Keenset at the end of chapter six.
Irony: In Hinduism Ganesha is an extremely nice minor god. In this book, Ganesha is the extremely Jerkass power behind the throne.
Longevity Treatment: The so-called "Gods" have mind-transfer technology that they use to reward or punish people. Be good, and you may end up with a bright, shiny new young body. Be bad, and you may end up with the old, worn-out body left by someone who was good. Of course, the Lords of Karma may claim to be a moral authority, but they are actually corrupt, helping the advancement of those who support the existing social order and diminishing those with opposing viewpoints.
Lost Colony: The setting. Earth is described as "lost Urath," although whether this means the book occurs After the End, or it simply means they can't get back to Earth, is left an open question.
Luke, You Are My Father / Your Son All Along / Disappeared Dad: a rather twisty example in Tak, whose original body was originally sired by Sam. Tak himself doubts that Sam knows this and in the end is proven right, and doubts that it makes any difference to either of them. When Sam is being executed for the first time, Tak decides that it does make a difference for him, and tries to save him at the last minute.
Meaningful Name: Sam's titular role is a reference to Buddha's enlightenment. It's also similar to Lucifer and his revolt against Heaven in Christian mythology.
Medieval Stasis: The gods keep the people of their realm permanently stuck in the Middle Ages, so as to keep them from eventually being able to challenge them. The gods who disagreed with this policy were called Accelerationists, and Sam is the only one left.
Mind Probe: The gods use these to determine which sins their subjects have committed, and therefore what bodies they are entitled to when they reincarnate. They also use them to weed out those of their own number who might break The Masquerade.
Nigh-Invulnerability: Kali treats various vital areas of her "holy executioners" with chemicals that make those areas impervious to harm.
The Nth Doctor: In-universe example: whenever a god dies before he or she can reincarnate, another god takes their place. If no gods are available, a demigod is promoted.
Power Armor: Nirriti wears a suit that "fights for him with the strength of many."
Pragmatic Villainy: The gods chose to exile Sam to Nirvana — meaning beam his mental pattern out into a "magnetic cloud" — because they couldn't kill him.
Psychic Powers: The true source of the gods' "Aspect" and "Attributes," honed over centuries of practice. Others also possess them. For example, a group of Buddhist monks at one point waylay Yama by collectively forcing him to sleep and have a symbolic dream.
Sealed Evil in a Can: When he and the rest of the First conquered the planet, Sam bound the Rakasha inside Hellwell, a specially-created cavern inside a mountain. After he decides to embark on a campaign against Heaven, he releases them to serve in his army.
Shock and Awe: Sam's power is the ability to redirect electrons, which has a surprising variety of uses, such as calling down lightning or controlling mechanical devices. It's very hard to zap him with an Energy Weapon, because he can turn it off with his mind. Also useful for controlling and binding the Rakasha - a race of Energy Beings.
Transsexual: The first Brahma was originally a woman named Madeleine, and used the advent of "reincarnation" as an opportunity to become male. He continually frets that the women in his harem may be able to sense that he is "naturally" female.
The Unfettered: Sam gets a speech where he explains he will do absolutely anything whatsoever to overthrow the yoke of the gods over the people of the planet. In the end he is even prepared to ally with the gods in order to achieve this goal.
Vibroweapon: The Bright Spear, which vibrates itself clean of gore.
Victory Is Boring: Kali/Brahma has this reaction after Sam's death, apparently, as she is willing to switch sides just to keep the conflict going.
Warrior Monk: Rild, both before and after his conversion to Buddhism.
The World Is Not Ready: The antagonists use this as a justification for keeping their vast technology restricted to a tiny portion of the population. The protagonist calls them on it by asking why they've been actively quashing the spontaneous invention of technology. (The excuse given is that people aren't actually inventing tech, they're just rediscovering or back-engineering it based on stories, and the antagonists want them to be original. Or something.)
Younger Than They Look: Yama's backstory. A Teen Genius, he caused an explosion which mortally wounded him and had to be transferred for the first time to the only body which was available: a middle-aged man.