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- Used hilariously and tragically in the French duology Jean de Florette and Manon des Sources. In the first film, the protagonist wants the titular Jean to sell him his land, and plays many tricks on him to pursuade him to do so. It doesn't help that Jean is the son of his childhood sweetheart Florette, who left him and married another man while he was away at war. In the end, he successfully drives the Jean to his death and takes the land. In the second film Jean's daughter, Manon, takes revenge for her father's death. It is only at the end of this film that the main character discovers that, contrary to what he thought, Jean was not Florette's son by her husband, but his own son, and that he has unwittingly caused the death of his only child and been in conflict with his granddaughter!
- Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull has Indy finding out that Mutt is his son.
- Inverted in The Mayor Of Casterbridge. The title character drunkenly sells his wife and infant daughter to another man. Two decades later, the other man dies and the wife returns to her original husband, bringing her daughter along with her. It is only upon the wife's death that the protagonist learns that the daughter is not the same child he gave up, but a different child fathered by the second husband.
- The Thorn Birds. Although in this case, Ralph adored Dane the moment he saw him (only after Dane's death does he admit that deep down, he probably knew all along), and instead harbors some resentment towards his mother Meggie, assuming that despite their passionate interlude (when Dane was conceived), she returned to her neglectful husband Luke.
- The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier and Clay: Tommy's parentage, while known to the reader, was unknown to Joe until Rosa and Sam revealed the truth.
- In Scrubs when Jordan becomes pregnant the first time she claims that the father was someone she had a one-night stand with, but is unclear which one. It is actually Dr. Cox's baby, but she doesn't tell him in order to hold their relationship together. Eventually it leaks to Dr. Cox that Jack is his son, at which point Dr. Cox is angry at Jordan for keeping it a secret from him.
- Inverted on Days of Our Lives. Craig is floored when wife Nancy confesses that she had a teenage daughter (Chloe) that she gave up for adoption. He asks her how she could hide the fact that "they" had a child together (they'd been childhood sweethearts but lost touch when he left for college, reuniting years later) and is devastated when she tells him the girl is her daughter, not his, meaning that she had cheated on him. After a rough start, the three are able to bond as a family. Until the girl becomes ill and needs a bone marrow transplant, at which point Nancy confesses that she's her Child by Rape. However, when the rapist's blood type doesn't match the girl's, Craig realizes that the young woman who he's grown to love as if she were his own daughter. . .is his daughter.
- On General Hospital, Alan and Monica spent several years believing that their son AJ was the result of Monica's affair, before finding out that he was Alan's son after all. Unfortunately, crucial bonding time had been lost between the two, resulting in years of AJ being The Unfavorite (to the son conceived during Alan's affair) and him being an alcoholic failure. Decades later, AJ (correctly) suspected that he was the father of Carly's unborn child, but she lied and told him that his brother Jason was, fearing that either AJ or her boyfriend Tony would take the child away from her. Years later, Jason's girlfriend Robin finally told AJ the truth.
- Scream Queens (2015): A DNA test proves that Weston Gardner is the father of Boone and Hester.
- My Name Is Earl: Joy believes that Li'l Chubby is Dodge's father, but she's afraid of him, because she witnessed him mistreating another woman who claimed to be pregnant with his child. Earl wants her to come forward to Chubby, because he can see that Dodge (and Earl Jr.) are suffering due to their living in Perpetual Poverty. Joy tells him to drop it, but he persists, and gets a Daddy DNA Test, against all odds (with a little help from Darnell). The test shows that Dodge is not Li'l Chubby's...but Earl's. It turns out, Earl and Joy conceived him at a Halloween party, and did not recognize each other afterwards. For the six years that they were married, Earl had been led to believe that Dodge's biological father was a stranger from a concert. In another Shocking Swerve, the test also shows that Earl Jr. is not Darnell's, as previously thought. It's never stated who his father actually is, due to the series being canceled, though Word of God says it was supposed to be a celebrity.
- In Love Never Dies, the Phantom realizes at the end of Act One that Gustave is his son, not Raoul's.
- At the end of Metal Gear Solid 4, in a Throw the Dog a Bone moment it's reveal that Rose's son is Raiden's (her marriage to Campbell was a sham to prevent the Patriots coming after the kid to get leverage over Raiden). He then hammers it in by doing the same moves Raiden does with a toy sword.
- A rare female version can be found in Umineko: When They Cry when it's confirmed in Ep 8 that Battler's biological mother isn't Asumu but Kyrie. A baby switch was made by Rudolf when Asumu's child was a stillbirth and he thought it would be easier since he and Asumu was married while Kyrie was a lover.