A classic film by Stanley Kubrick starring Kirk Douglas in his most famous role, based on the 1951 novel by Howard Fast which was Inspired By history, and a rather brutal Deconstruction of the Sword And Sandal movies that preceded it by showing just what a Crapsack WorldThe Roman Republic was.Spartacus is a slave from the last years of the Roman Republic. He escapes and becomes the leader of a slave army that nobly fights the Romans under the evil Roman aristocrat, Marcus Licinius Crassus...This film was banned in some areas because of violence and sexual content. A re-release in 1967 cut a lot of the objectionable material, including a dialogue Crassus has with his servant about his liking both oysters and snails. It's especially noteworthy because the audio track for this scene was lost in the 1970s. When Spartacus was restored in 1991 the scene was recreated: Tony Curtis redubbed his lines at the age of 66. Laurence Olivier was dead, but his lines were dubbed by Anthony Hopkins.Definitely an Epic Movie. The filming went on for years - at the time a reporter asked Peter Ustinov's young daughter what he did for a living. She replied "Spartacus!" (Ustinov not only played Batiatus, the owner of the gladitorial school from which Spartacus begins his slave revolt, he completely re-wrote all of Charles Laughton's scenes in the film after the latter threatened to quit the film over his displeasure with the script — or the weather — or the time of day (Laughton was about as unpredictable and moody as they come). The credited screenwriter, Dalton Trumbo, failed to mention these re-writes when praise for the script, particularly the witty scenes between Ustinov and Laughton, began pouring in.For the Starz series see: Spartacus: Blood and Sand.
Anachronism Stew: This isn't as bad as the historical liberties mentioned in Very Loosely Based on a True Story below, but it is present. Varinia is said to be from Brittania. Not only was Britain not a part of the Roman Empire (and would not be for over a century after this time period), no Roman had ever been there, and would not until Julius Caesar landed there decades later.
As You Know: When Crassus, Glabrus, and their companions arrive at Batiatus's school, he greets them by reeling off their names and accomplishments (or the accomplishments of their family members, in the case of the women). Since his guests already know who they are and he obviously knows it, too, it would seem that this is the purpose of the introduction. In-story, he's just sucking up to some extremely wealthy and influential guests.
Eating the Eye Candy: The Roman ladies who pick Spartacus and the others out for their entertainment specifically ask that the slaves be scantily clad.
The Empire: Averted. The whole story takes place under the Roman Republic. Also played straight in the sense that while Rome was still a republic, it acted like an empire overseas, conquering other countries and taking home slaves.
It can be said that this is where a large part of the deconstruction of preceding Sword And Sandal movies where. Showing the Roman state as a crapsack realm of slavery tyrannical to other nations was standard fare (if usually not quite as... thoroughly shown in its brutality as in Spartacus) — but it was almost always the Roman Empire. What Spartacus did was, quite simply, to show that almost all that brutal tyranny you'd seen in previous movies (and details those movies couldn't show) in the Empire was there in the Republic as well, and not just aimed at Jews and Christians, either.
Evil Cannot Comprehend Good: Crassus is infuriated by his inability to understand how Spartacus commands such loyalty and love in his followers, when his own power just brings him more distrust and unpopularity.
Crassus:[mocking] What was he? Was he a god? Varinia: He wasn't a god. He was a simple man. A slave... I loved him. Crassus: He was an outlaw! A murderer! An enemy to everything fine and decent that Rome ever built! Damn you! You tell me — Why did you love him? Varinia: I can't tell you. I can't tell you things you can never understand. Crassus: But I want to understand. Don't you see? I must understand!
Kubrick Stare: This is the least Kubrickian of Stanley Kubrick's films—he was a hired gun here—but he still got this in. Spartacus gives one of these to the Roman ladies as they are picking out contestants.
More Hero Than Thou: When Crassus has Spartacus and Antoninus fight to the death at the end, Spartacus orders Antoninus to let Spartacus kill him quickly, thus leaving Spartacus for the slow death of crucifixion. Antoninus refuses, and fights Spartacus. Spartacus wins anyway.
Ms. Fanservice: Push-up bras and well-coiffed hair in ancient Rome for Jean Simmons.
The Mutiny: Spartacus's slave revolt starts out as an impromptu mutiny at the gladiator school.
Non-Action Guy: Antoninus, a slave with no combat ability or labor skills, he is instead "a singer of songs" and had worked mainly as a caretaker and tutor for his master's children. At first, the gladiator-soldiers mock him, but when Spartacus asks for one of his songs, they are all moved by the beauty and emotion it invokes, reminding them why it is worth fighting to be free.
Off Screen Moment Of Awesome: Spartacus's defeat of Glabrus; we only see its aftermath, with Glabrus's force already destroyed. Ditto the Battle of Metapontnum; we only see Spartacus's triumphant entry into the city.
Order Versus Chaos: How Crassus justifies his dictatorship, though it's obviously a front for his megalomania.
The Queen's Latin: A typical instance of this trope, with the Romans all played by Brits and the slaves all played by Americans, except for Jean Simmons, which is why Varinia is said to be from Britain.
Reasonable Authority Figure: Gracchus, with his plebeian sensibilities, is somewhat sympathetic towards the rebels, if only with the ultimate goal of upstaging Crassus.
Reality Subtext: The credited screenwriter, Dalton Trumbo, was blacklisted from Hollywood for refusing to name names during the Red Scare. There's even a line where Crassus proclaims "Lists of the disloyal are being compiled," making this explicit.
Not just the screenwriter. The writer of the original novel was also on the blacklist.
Screw the Rules, I Have Money!: How the visiting nobles get a fight to death arranged at the gladiator training camp. It's explicitly against their policy (because it would be terrible for morale). Backfires spectacularly when the gladiators start rioting in outrage after the fight, kicking off the slave revolt that makes up the main plot.
Sex Slave: Varinia and the other girls at the gladiator school are this. Besides doing the domestic chores, they are given to the gladiators as rewards.
The biggest difference being that Spartacus, instead of being a slave from birth sold into gladiator school, in reality was an ex Roman soldier (more precisely, an auxiliary, which was a non-citizen soldier) who was sold to a gladiator school after deserting the army.
Also Crassus, though as ruthless as most Roman higher-ups, was neither this psychotic nor was he in charge of Rome at this point. He didn't even become consul (a bit like prime minister, but more like chairman of the board) until after the war. Oh, and Spartacus' men were not crucified because they refused to hand him in, the Romans always planned to kill them all as a very clear example.
The movie prior to the I Am Spartacus speech is loosely based on true story and the moment that word is uttered (in the movie only, not in actual history books)... Spartacus died in the battle. Yeah, Anything after the speech never happened.
The entire character of Gracchus is made up. There were two brothers named Gracchus who were important figures in Roman history, but they were tribunes, not senators, and died more than 50 years before the Spartacus revolt.
Wag the Director: Kirk Douglas, as producer of the film, fired the original director, and brought in relative newcomer Stanley Kubrick. Guess who wore the pants on set?
Young Future Famous People: A twenty-year-old Julius Caesar has a few brief scenes in which he does almost nothing. In Real Life Caesar was an officer in the legions at this time though it is unknown if he directly participated in the Great Slave War (as the Romans called Spartacus' rebellion).