- Shock: Characters tend to do this when they are reunited with a lost loved one or something they care about deeply. When Stepford Smilers and other characters that have fragile facades do this, it's a sign that their mask is about to break. This type of laughter is usually followed by crying.
- Relief: Characters often laugh for relief when a monster avoids them or when lengthy suffering is put to an end. People living in a deserted island tend to do this when they find food and shelter or when they can finally get off the island. This type of laughter is also sometimes followed by crying, for different reasons.
- Anxiety: Characters sometimes laugh nervously in response to an upcoming disaster or horrifying event. This often causes other characters to look back at them as if something was wrong with them. Characters also laugh nervously in response to something sorrowful that happened, like a death of a another character, and may or may not break down crying afterward.
- Fear: People tend to laugh in fear when cornered by a monster or in an Oh, Crap! situation, while pleading the monster, person or event to stop. This horrified laughter is the least prone to crying afterward. If characters do cry, however, it's Tears of Fear. Timid characters and cowards are the ones who tend to laugh in horror. They often tend to scream afterward.
- Irony: Characters can laugh at some revelation or something a person says when it strikes the one laughing as bitterly ironic or Entertainingly Wrong. Usually, the irony is only apparent (or even understandable) to the one laughing, and is also tied to some kind of personal trauma, regret, or desire. Notably, while laughing at irony can be genuinely mirthful, it can also be completely mirthless, depending on the specific circumstances. This type of laughter is one of the most likely to lead to Laughing Mad.
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Anime and Manga
- Jim suffers a bout of nervous laughter, in the midst of a panic attack, during Outlaw Star's 14th episode. Seen at 4:20 here.
- Tenchi Muyo!: In episode seven, Ryoko and Ayeka join forces to try to win Tenchi's favor by eliminating the competition including each other. They start by tricking Mihoshi into returning to Galaxy Police headquarters, then attempt to seal Washuu in her lab. One by one, however, their plans backfire, which ultimately lands them in the lake outside. And at the exact moment when it seemed things couldn't get worse, Mihoshi returns. The two share a laugh as the last of their schemes quite literally blows up in their faces.
- During the latter half of The Big O's second season, Angel confesses her feelings for Roger, but he fails to reciprocate. When she asks why, he hesitates, then finally answers that he isn't sure himself; which stuns Angel. Then it hits her. Roger apparently held feelings for R. Dorothy The realization is so jarring for her, it results in bitter laughter. This marks the beginning of her downward spiral for the remainder of the series as her life falls apart.
- Higurashi: When They Cry most of the character's laughter is induced by disease-related paranoia.
- Attack on Titan: The anime adaptation changes Annie's reaction to being outed as the Female Titan to this (from a Slasher Smile in the manga), combined with a Luminescent Blush. It's as creepy as it sounds. The author of the manga later said that the laughing was a mixture of relief and anxiety over being outed and no longer having to pretend.
Films — Animated
- Jafar does this uncontrollably in Disney's Aladdin, until Iago snaps him out of it.
- In Storks, Tulip realizes pretty quickly that Junior laughs when he's uncomfortable which only causes Junior to laugh louder and more uncomfortably..
- In Batman Beyond: Return of the Joker, a brainwashed Tim Drake breaks into hysterical laughter after he kills the Joker, then it transitions to sobbing.
Films — Live-Action
- Luke, Leia, and Han break out into this in Star Wars: A New Hope after R2-D2 manages to shut down the garbage compactor that was about to crush them. They're so raucous that C-3PO first thinks they've actually been crushed.
- Poltergeist: After the family searches for Carol Anne in her bedroom they find a small body lying motionless under a bed sheet. Whith much trepidation they pull the sheet only to find it's the creepy clown doll and not their little girl. The mother, Diane, who was on the verge hysterics breaks into laughter, out of a mixture of both nervousness and relief.
- In Disney's version of Sleepy Hollow, Ichabod Crane is getting petrified at every sound in the forest - when he finally sees that cattails in the wind are making noises like hoofbeats he starts laughing in frightened relief with a bit of Laughing Mad thrown in.
- In The Avengers, Hiddleston's performance includes Loki doing the nervous laughter variant of this whenever flustered or wrongfooted - he usually uses it to play off Thor's attempts to reach out to him, but he also does it to pretend he isn't afraid of something.
- In Off, Archer (disguised as Troy) tells Deitrich that he knows so much about Archer because he "sleeps with his life". This leads to Dietrich and his goons to laugh and then Archer joins in (ironically).
- Samuel Beckett spends over a page of his novel Watt describing various types of mirthless laughter:
Of all the laughs that strictly speaking are not laughs, but modes of ululation, only three I think need detain us, I mean the bitter, the hollow and the mirthless. They correspond to successive...how shall I say successive...suc...successive excoriations of the understanding, and the passage from the one to the other is the passage from the lesser to the greater, from the lower to the higher, from the outer to the inner, from the gross to the fine, from the matter to the form. The laugh that now is mirthless once was hollow, the laugh that once was hollow once was bitter. And the laugh that once was bitter? Eyewater, Mr. Watt, eyewater. But do not let us waste our time with that. . . . The bitter, the hollow and — "Haw! Haw!" — the mirthless. The bitter laugh laughs at that which is not good, it is the ethical laugh. The hollow laugh laughs at that which is not true, it is the intellectual laugh. Not good! Not true! Well well. But the mirthless laugh is the dianoetic laugh, down the snout — Haw! — so. It is the laugh of laughs, the risus purus, the laugh laughing at the laugh, the beholding, the saluting of the highest joke, in a word the laugh that laughs — silence please — at that which is unhappy.
- In the Planet of the Apes novel, Ulysse has this reaction when he definitely realizes the situation he is in (naked, in a cage with animal-like humans, and commanded by armed sapient apes). His laughter also could be the horror version but the shock in being in this position is what most likely caused it.
- Sherlock Holmes: a guy who'd had his thumb ripped off that night gets it bandaged up by Watson, and only when it's done does all the stress come back and start laughing. As Watson puts it, "all my medical instincts rose up against that laugh".
- Happens once or twice in Animorphs, when characters laugh at a joke more than normal after an adventure because it's "relief laughter. We're-still-alive-laughter".
- In the second book of The Dark Elf Trilogy, Dinin breaks into laughter once he realizes that not only is their family under attack and likely about to be wiped out, but also, his sister has just killed his mother to take over power.
- In The Belgariad, Mandorallen is stricken by fear for the first time in his life after an encounter with a Wacky Wayside Tribe. Unable to deal with this unfamiliar emotion, which he mistakes for cowardice, he asks his companions for advice on the matter. When someone notes that some people control their fear by laughing at it, he takes the suggestion rather too literally and develops a habit of charging into combat while laughing maniacally.
- Rand Al'Thor of The Wheel of Time series does this increasingly as sanity depletes. When pressed, he maintains that he does it to keep from crying, while other characters point out that it would be better for him if he did the latter.
- Fistandantilus is explicitly described as laughing like this in the Kingpriest Trilogy- one character explicitly notes that he'd never imagined a laugh could be so utterly devoid of mirth. In this case, Fistandantilus laughs as a calculated expression of contempt for his dupes and to keep them off-guard, rather than for any of the above reasons. On those occasions he actually does find something funny, it's usually more of an Evil Laugh.
- Laughing from relief or anxiety often crops up in the Discworld novels, usually in the context of someone making a lame joke, and the narration noting that it wasn't funny, but the tension was such that people would laugh at anything. Of particular note is the joke Sacharissa makes in The Truth after the print shop's been smashed up; the dwarfs laugh, but Sacharissa herself keeps laughing, and William realises that "this was the sort of laughter you died of".
- Harry Potter
- In Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, when people are telling Harry Potter about Sirius Black's supposed crime of having killed a streetful of mugggles, they make sure to point out the fact that he stood there laughing afterwards as further proof of just how off-the-rails he is. As we learn by the end of the book, it was actually Sirius's friend Peter Pettigrew who killed all those people, then used his animagus power to transform into a rat and flee the scene, leaving Sirius to take the blame. Author J.K. Rowling has clarified in interviews that Black's laughter was this type of laughter, evoked by the sheer insanity of the situation.
- In Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix Neville gives a nervous laugh when Hermione makes a joke under her breath in the Department of Mysteries that is fueled by fear and nervousness since they're six students breaking in and expecting to have to fight a group of Death Eaters.
Live Action TV
- Our Miss Brooks: Happens to Miss Brooks out of stress in "Hobby Show".
- In Star Trek: The Next Generation, in the backstory, mere days after he graduated from Starfleet Academy, a young Ensign Picard is in a bar fight with a pair of aliens twice his size and ends up stabbed in the back through the heart. His response is to look down at the blade sticking out of his chest and laugh as he collapses to the ground. Its unclear whether this was out of shock or if he found some humor in it, but, observing the event again from the future, the stoic Captain Picard is only embarrassed by the recklessness of his youth. It gets revisited in "Tapestry" and this time Present-Picard in Young-Picard's body is laughing from relief because he knows history is back on course.
- Abed in Community does this on occasion but mostly because he doesn't know the proper way to laugh in certain situations.
- In Degrassi, Craig bursts into inapropriate laughter at his abusive fathers funeral.
- In the first season ender of Buffy the Vampire Slayer, she walks in on Giles and Angel discussing an ancient prophecy that foretells her facing the Master and dying - they're only alerted to her presence as she starts laughing.
- Kitty on That '70s Show does this a great deal.
- The final episode of Breaking Bad has Jesse Pinkman laughing brokenly, but relieved, while driving off towards freedom.
- And an even more chilling example happens in the earlier episode "Crawl Space" when Walt, realizing that he now has no way of escaping his situation, completely snaps and starts laughing until he goes catatonic.
- In Battlestar Galactica (2003), Colonel Fisk of the Battlestar Pegasus is on the CIC of the Galactica as part of an ulterior plot by Admiral Cain to assassinate Commander Adama and his command staff. He bursts out laughing after Cain noticeably does not give him the codeword to carry out the job, and Colonel Tigh saying that he looks like he could use a drink.
- Mentioned in As Time Goes By when Judy tells her mother Jean that she's envious of how Jean has her life together. Jean's reply is "You've heard of a hollow laugh? If I knew how to do one, I'd do it."
- This is often a reaction of chefs at times who are in Hell's Kitchen. Unfortunately, Chef Ramsay doesn't quite seem to understand the concept and will chew them out for not taking things seriously. Either that, or he understands perfectly well and is being purposely obtuse as a means of upping the show's drama. Not that anything like that ever happens on the show.
Van: I'm not laughing at Chef Ramsay. I laugh when I'm nervous. I laugh when I'm happy.
- Tidus and Yuna's fake-laughter scene in Final Fantasy X. They're practicing laughing as a way to de-stress when things get too sad or scary and then they laugh for real over how silly they sounded trying to practice laughter. At least, Tidus does. It's never made entirely clear whether Yuna, given her situation, was actually capable of genuine laughter at that point.
- Firion's pre-battle quote when fighting Kefka in Dissidia: Final Fantasy has him remark that he has "never heard a sadder laugh." Also, after Terra defeats Kefka for the final time during the game's story mode, he goes off on a nihilistic rant about the pointlessness of cherishing existence in the face of inevitable destruction before he lets out a sobbing laugh and explodes.
- In the Meet the Medic video of Team Fortress 2, the Heavy does this as the Medic prepares the Mega-Baboon heart transplant. It's even subtitled on Youtube as "Worried Laughter".
- Some Undertale fans theorize that the First Child's laughter at King Asgore getting sick from poisonous buttercups in a pie they and Asriel made for him was this instead of a case of Evil Has a Bad Sense of Humor. It's really up to fan speculation whether it was Critical Research Failure (confusing "buttercups" for "cups of butter") or them trying to play The Usurper by poisoning Asgore to take the throne and delighting in his sickness while passing it as "laughing it off".
- DiZ/ Ansem the Wise does this twice in Kingdom Hearts II, first when Riku, having embraced the power of darkness to defeat Roxas, introduces himself as "Ansem" while physically looking like "Ansem, the Seeker of Darkness", unaware he's addressing the real Ansem, and again at the end when his Kingdom Hearts Encoder starts to break down and it fully hits him just how stupid the plan really was.
- Pearl from Steven Universe has laughed out of nervousness at least once.
- Peridot also did this once she realized she wouldn't be able to escape from the Cluster.
- The Running Gag of an episode from The Tom and Jerry Show, where Robin Ho-Ho tries to get his Merry Men to laugh and they respond with just "ha ha ha...ho ho ho...hee hee hee."