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- In Crest of the Stars, the Humankind Empire Abh and the Alliance both practice largely differing methods for this trope. Needless to say, the results aren't pretty.
- In The Familiar of Zero, Romalia also utilizes a different sort of hegemony over Halkagenia, a continent that consists of five independent nations (Albion, Gallia, Germania, Romalia, and Tristain). Romalia is relatively weak militarily, and it often remains neutral (such as when Albion declared war on Tristain), but the Romalian Emperor, by exerting control over the church, can nonetheless override the other rulers' decisions.
- In Kuromukuro, Efidolg is a multiracial, overarching interstellar empire that uses coercion, Mind Control, and cloning to control the planets it conquers. There are no single species that can be called "Efidolg", rather it uses all the races it controls in its ranks, with some twisted chivalry and something akin Klingon Promotion being hinted as a social advancement mechanism.
- In the Star Wars Expanded Universe, when Jagged Fel becomes Emperor of the Imperial Remnants he launches the "Victory Without War" campaign expanding through an "Imperial Mission" that provides aid to planets ruined by the most recent galactic war. It continues until his grandson's reign when the Sith pull a coup. It then resumes when his great-granddaughter restores the Empire.
- The Shi'ar Empire in X-Men is said to expand through "shotgun weddings", using the threat of force to turn others into allies rather than actual force to subjugate them.
- In Child of the Storm, Asgard is this in respect to the Nine Realms, albeit with a light touch since they don't actually want or need anything from the rest of the universe. As a result, they only really get involved if someone's mucking around with one of the other Realms, or one of the other Realms is mucking around with another (Jotunheim screwing with Earth led to the Asgard-Frost Giant Wars), with a general policy best summed of 'don't make us come down there (because we can kick the crap out of you and you know it)'. This attitude hasn't been entirely consistent over time, with some periods, like Bor's rule, where Asgard largely ignored various realms, and others hinted at when it ruled a much more conventional (and huge) empire. Under Odin, however, Asgard tends to keep a gimlet eye on the affairs of the Nine Realms and make a statement where required. This is pretty much the only reason that the likes of the Kree, the Skrulls, the Shi'ar and other would-be powers have left Earth alone.
- Evangelion 303: In this doujin this is like Seele sees USA: an unrestrained imperial war machine and an overbearing international police organization that rules over the world like the only and unchallenged superpower. The Black Project Evangelion is started to prevent its plan to finish with what they call "the American Empire" once and for all.
- In the Harry Potter fanfic King Of Kings Ruling Over Rulers, the magical Roman Empire is one of these, possessing sovereignty over the vast majority of the wizarding world, excluding the small quantity of territories that are controlled by the International Confederation of Wizards.
- This has been Equestria's modus operandi for several centuries in RainbowDoubleDash's Lunaverse. After she'd secured what she felt she needed in the way of resources, defensive borders, etc, Princess Luna switched to extending power via her exarchies. These are a number of realms (currently there are six), that owe fealty to Luna in some way or other but are otherwise self-governing, providing Equestria with strategic depth and additional ponypower and resources without the need to actually go to the trouble of running these regions.
- The Star Empire of Manticore in the later Honor Harrington novels is apparently heading in this direction, having acquired a certain taste for expansionism and imperialism, but still remaining The Good Kingdom / The Republic good guys they started as. At the same time, Solarian League, despite quite obviously cracking at the seams, is still it big time.
- The Anderman Empire was always this. Gustav Anderman I's first conquest, Kuanyin, was overjoyed to have him, because they were in the midst of a worldwide crop failure and he was rich enough from his merc days to hire a cadre of scientists to cure the blight that was causing it.
- The Culture engages in covert social engineering missions on other planets and civilizations to help them see the benefits of joining the Culture.
- Ankh-Morpork on the Discworld is one of these. It used to be the more traditional type of Empire, but this way was more sustainable. The city-state only directly controls a small portion of land, but its economic influence throughout the continent is almost limitless, and its production is so great no one dares invade for fear of being deprived of the very tools needed for invasion. It's also the center of all information trade, giving unequaled political clout in the region.
- The Foundation was supposed to create one following the fall of the Galactic Empire by using their preserved knowledge of advanced technology as leverage against the neighboring systems.
- The first book is all about creating and maintaining such an empire. Leaving aside a temporary and extremely unlikely setback, the main reason why it is less prominent in later books is that it is so successful a policy (well, policies — the Foundation goes through several variations of 'use their superior technology and science as leverage') that by the last shown period, the Foundation proper has grown from a single world to over a tenth of the Milky Way.
- The Currents of Space in the prequel Empire series reveals that the Trantorian Empire (the polity that became the Galactic Empire) had elements of this. Evidently, once you grow large and powerful enough to be able to buy out a planet and arrange the evacuation of the entire human population thereof, soft-power methods for expanding influence come with the package.
- While the One World Order in Ender's Game is called The Hegemony, it is more in the vein of a necessary evil: there's a Bug War happening and someone needs to take control. At the end of the Ender's Shadow series, Peter Wiggin replaces it with the Free People of Earth, which governments opt into voluntarily and are only allowed to opt into voluntarily. It works, at least for a while (supposedly it collapsed somehow and was replaced with the Starways Congress of the later Ender books).
- The Tamul Empire from The Tamuli by David Eddings is one of these. They conquer other countries by usually only needing the threaten war as they have one of the finest fighting forces in the world in the shape of the Atans, a people who through centuries of selective breeding are the biggest, strongest and most skilled soldiers ever. They then exercise authority through the existing power structures, don't interfere with the existing culture, religion customs or social order, impose minimal extra taxes and the only real rule they enforce is banning war between provinces. Not for nothing are they known in universe as "history's finest imperialists" (despite their empire being more-or-less accidental — the Tamuli didn't set out to conquer the continent, the Atans swearing themselves to them just meant that all those relatively minor squabbles that neighbouring nations have tended to end up with Atans in the the neighbour's capital and the Tamuli having another province in their empire). They don't even punish revolutionaries — if revolutionaries appear in a province they take this as a clear indication that something has gone seriously wrong in the local governance and will usually offer the job to the revolutionaries — who will discover that this is a poisoned chalice as no-one likes the provincial government!
- The titular empire in Malazan Book of the Fallen was formed mostly by way of military conquest, but its constituent states have all mostly realized that remaining in the Empire means not constantly feuding with neighbors. In Assail, a character lampshades the fact that from the perspective of the common people, the Malazan Empire is no more corrupt than the old regimes and it offers the poor opportunities they never had before. The empire is mostly a meritocracy and thus a peasant from a backwater community like him can rise up in its ranks as far as his talent and luck will allow him.
- The Instrumentality of Mankind in the eponymous series by Cordwainer Smith. However, the Instrumentality is very, very unusual. In fact, trying to give an encyclopedic explanation of how it governs, its structure, its people's, history or even its policies wouldn't explain it with any justice.
- This is how the current iteration of the Fjordell Empire in Elantris works. Centuries ago, Fjorden was a traditional empire, but it was unable to hold onto its military conquests and eventually fell apart. Fjorden's current rulers dedicated to expanding their power through cultural and religious dominance instead, and are successful enough that, despite being small when looked at on a map, their nation has gained effective control over more than half of the continent of Opelon. Having their emperor also be the head of the Derethi church helps, since it means that people who convert to Shu-Dereth are technically answerable to the Fjordell government regardless of national affiliation.
- The Norgolian Empire in Cannon Fodder. While definitely an empire and definitely expansionist, they're pretty fair to their own citizens.
- The Empire of the Star from the Eldraeverse prefers to operate in various versions of this way, having noticed long ago that conquering people who don't want to be - and keeping them conquered afterwards - is expensive and problematic, whereas if you can make them want to join up, the whole conquering thing becomes somewhat superfluous, expansion-wise.
- The Cartorran Empire in The Witchlands has mostly expanded through marriages, alliances, and enticing vassals with treaties of protection. They've only begun to turn into conquerors very recently, as there are simply no more countries willing to ally with them left.
- In Andromeda the Vedran Empire was the more traditional type until non-Vedran species began to vastly outnumber the founders and it evolved into the Systems Commonwealth. When it contacted humanity thousands of years after becoming a constitutional monarchy, we joined voluntarily.
- Star Trek:
- Eddington accuses the Federation of being this in Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, even going so far as to compare them to the Borg.
- This a major concern of T'Kuvma's in Star Trek: Discovery. He fears that peaceful coexistence with the Federation will lead to the eradication of the Klingons' warrior culture, and starts a war to unify the rest of his race against this threat.
- The Dominion is a more sinister take on this; to start with, the Founders are very restrictive and totalitarian, and genetically engineer client species to roles in society (also brainwashing them into considering the Founders gods). They use the Vorta as the "carrot", diplomats who promise untold riches and prosperity to races who join the Dominion willingly. If that doesn't work, they send in the Jem'Hadar to force them to join or die.
- The Klingon Empire seems to operate this way, especially in the TNG era. Personal freedoms are fairly pervasive and military conquest was rare, and overall Klingons default to problematic allies. This briefly changed during the latter half of Gowron's reign, but appeared to be back on track by the end of Deep Space 9.
- The Third Imperium of Traveller is halfway between one of these and The Empire. It doesn't care much how member planets run things and only gets involved when interstellar trade is disrupted.
- The Sylean Federation as well, which provided the resources for it to be evolved into the Third Imperium under Emperor Cleon I.
- The First Imperium initially expanded through economic domination, but the Second was a straight-up military conquest.
- The Hiver Federation acts like this towards minor races, manipulating them towards space travel and then joining them.
- The Empire of Abel in Anima: Beyond Fantasy is fueled by this trope, especially before it broke up, letting each nation (which were all those human in the world of Gaïa) under its control to have its own governments, etc.
- Unlike its far future counterpart, The Empire in Warhammer is ruled by a genuinely benevolent Emperor. While there are times when bandits and rebellious lords have to get put down, the armies generally spend their time protecting the Empire from invasion by external forces. Life there is far from nice, but it beats the Hell out of everywhere else in the setting, as you can generally find some sort of job, a place to live, and something vaguely resembling food. Just stay away from the sewers and avoid anyone with physical deformities or unfamiliar iconography.
- After all it is basically a fantasy version of the Holy Roman Empire.
- The New Commonality of Humankind in Mindjammer incorporates the scattered Lost Colonies through a variety of means. Some few worlds are all too happy to join when recontacted, but most resist assimilation in some way. They emplace Mindscape instances enabling access to the Commonality's collective memory, send SCI Force teams to destabilize hostile governments, allow Corporacies to establish branches on world, eventually the planet either joins the Commonality or declares war and gets curbstomped.
- The Realm in Exalted technically only consists of the Blessed Isle. The rest of its domains are client states which have their own governments, laws and cultures but have to pay tribute to the Realm, recognise the Immaculate Faith as the only true religion, and keep a Dragon-Blooded satrap as "advisor" to the official ruler.
- Currently the Padishah Empire of Kelesh in Pathfinder is in a period of seeing this as an ideal, focusing on commerce, clandestine intelligence activities and portraying Keleshites in a benevolent light. Even during their more militaristic expansionary periods (which some groups in the Empire wish to return to, including the most showcased region of the empire, the satrapy of Qadira — mostly because Qadira wants another go at their arch-enemy of Taldor) some elements of this was present, with the Empire being flexible about incorporating cultures and traditions, and fond of establishing autonomous satrapies.
- GURPS features an example character from an alternate world who's backstory briefly mentions a hegemony founded by Alexander the Great.
- In The Elder Scrolls, the Third Cyrodiilic Empire (ruled by the Septim dynasty) is one of these. While initially forged by the iron fists of the Imperial Legions (with an assist from the Dwemer-crafted Numidium) under the leadership of Tiber Septim, it quickly shifted to a (mostly) benevolent force of good, espousing generally liberal values like religious and racial tolerance while establishing strong diplomatic and mercantile ties between the provinces. Throughout the first four games in the main series, the Septim empire is in dire straights facing numerous threats (both internal and external, supernatural and mundane) and is only held together through the massive schemes of Emperor Uriel Septim VII. By the time of Skyrim, it has completely descended into a Vestigial Empire status, with the few remaining provinces in a very fragile state.
- The New California Republic in the Fallout series is a borderline case. They can and have annexed regions by military force, but they prefer to expand through peaceful settlement and through inviting existing frontier settlements to join them. By the time of Fallout: New Vegas, it is engaged in a three-way (four-way if you go down the Wild Card path) power struggle over control of New Vegas, a very advanced, prosperous, and independent settlement.
- The concept of a Cultural or Diplomatic Victory in 4X games such as Civilization and Galactic Civilizations is often supposed to represent this.
- Economic Victories are usually a less pure version of this — you might not dominate culturally, but your economy is so strong and influential that anyone trying to attack you would find their economy crippled and their industries failing.
- Civilization VI altered its victory mechanics so this is clearly the case. Either your culture is so influention every other nation has more people visiting yours that vacationing domestically, or your nation contains the holy city of a religion that dominates every other nation on the planet. Either way, your rivals cannot move against you without a massive backlash from their citizens, handing you the victory.
- Paradox Interactive titles such as the Europa Universalis series include mechanics for expanding through peaceful vassalization and annexation.
- Victoria: An Empire Under the Sun also has the "sphere of influence" mechanic, where countries are integrated into the domestic market and are more willing to accept (or in fact unable to refuse) diplomatic offers, while still nominally sovereign. In exchange, you have to protect them from rebellion and outside aggression.
- Stellaris has three different types of "subject empire" and players can also form The Federation with other empires, or be opposed by them.
- In Sword of the Stars 2 the Morrigi see themselves as self-appointed protectors of the "younger races", as such their Confederation incorporates many more species than most of the other factions and players of any faction can annex minor races peacefully.
- In Tears to Tiara 2 The Empire was originally one a long time ago. But especially since it changed its name to The Holy Empire it has become The Empire. After Hamil and the Canaanites rebel and forms The Alliance to take on The Holy Empire, he wants to recreate the old Hegemonic Empire centered around Hispania.
- In the Mass Effect universe, one of the political powers is the Batarian Hegemony, but since the other information on the Batarians suggests they are a Fantasy Counterpart Culture to either North Korea or Soviet Russia, it seems likely that their official title is a People's Republic of Tyranny situation. The Asari Republics, on the other hand, play this trope straight; they are the cultural and economic superpower in the galaxy, they are the founders and most powerful member of the Citadel Council, their extremely long lives means they are quite willing to be patient and wait for their culture to become omnipresent on its own rather than force the issue, and the codex explicitly compares their early governments to ancient Mediterranean city-states.
- In Thedas from the Dragon Age games, Orlais definitely qualifies. Filling the power vacuum the collapsing Tevinter Imperium left, Orlais can and will expand through military conquest, but most of their power is derived from their advanced and sophisticated culture, its prosperous economy, the fact that the dominant religion, the Andrastian Chantry, is based in the Imperial capital, Val Royeaux, and the immense, Machiavellian schemes of its nobles and diplomats. It's a Fantasy Counterpart Culture of France during the Ancien Regime, specifically the reign of the Sun King, Louis XIV, with more than a little influence from the Holy Roman Empire, the two biggest hegemonic empires for much of European history.
- The Sassanid Empire in Total War: Attila functions this way. Its mechanics encourage the creation and maintenance of independent Puppet States called satrapies instead of conquering and annexing territories directly. The more satrapies the Sassanids get, the more powerful your smaller core regions get, as your satraps come to your limited aid in war and provide bonuses in return for you not controlling them directly. This model is similar to the methods used by the real-life (Sassanid) Persian Empire at the time (see Real Life below).
- Girl Genius: Baron Wulfenbach's empire acts a lot like this. Being a part of the Wulfenbach empire means agreeing to the Pax Transylvania (summarized neatly as "don't make me come over there"), which means "no wars", "no going Mad Scientist on your subjects (in a way that will permanently harm them)", "no discrimination against constructs" and "turn over all piece of Other technology you find", and beyond that any town, city or domain in the empire is ruled independently. Some level of taxation also seems to be involved, but on the other hand the Baron also builds public projects in return.
- Most of the Archailects that rule the Sephirotic Empires of Orion's Arm prefer to expand by memetic engineering than messier forms of warfare. But the Solar Dominion is one of the more notable, being an Empire ruled by a God-Emperor that has stood for over 8,000 years with its celebration of personal identity and potential.
- The name of the Para Imperium universe stems from the fact that the Federation of Parahuman Species is more of a Hereditary Republic that built an empire through control of interstellar travel and communications, and immortality-inducing nanotechnology.
- The earliest example would be the Delian League of city-states c.477 B.C., making this one Older Than Feudalism. The League was even the Trope Namer, since the position of leadership within the league was referred to as "hegemon". This hegemon, to nobody's surprise, was Athens, to the point where the League was often called the Athenian Empire.
- The Romans were masters at this, and many client states/vassals had already been so 'romanized' that when the Romans actually moved in to annex them, the people didn't notice (or realize they were, until then, technically still independent).
- They were so good that the one time it backfired, which resulted in the Social War (as Rome's federates were called socii in Latin), it was because they refused to annex their Italian vassals: the socii had the duty to provide half the legions for any given campaign, but obtained little of the profits and had no say in the external politics, and when the Senate redistributed public land while refusing to grant them Roman citizenship they finally revolted. The Romans managed to win militarily, but quickly passed a law that made all the loyalist Italian communities into Romans and another that allowed people from the excluded communities to obtain Roman citizenship on an individual basis.
- Augustus reputedly wanted and worked hard at making Rome this, thinking of it as a more practical and cheaper option than holding northern Europe by force.
- The predilection among many countries today to have imitations of Greco-Roman culture such as "democracy", "senates", and so forth is an example of this. Even the European nations that weren't actually part of the Empire were still affected by it, and that got passed on to their colonies, which became entirely new nations.
- Rome's enemy Carthage had their own hegemonic empire in Spain and the African coast from Anfa (modern day Casablanca) to Oea (now Tripoli), and the three main campaigns of their second and most decisive conflict (Italy, Spain and Africa) were effectively attempts at breaking each other's hegemony: Hannibal's Italian campaign had an initial limited success but ultimately failed note , while Rome's Spanish and African campaigns successfully destroyed Carthage's empire.
- The Spanish Empire, being the first of the overseas empires founded during the Age of Exploration, was closer to this in regards to its treatment of the Kingdoms of America rather than the colonial mentality that eventually became the norm for all the European countries, examples of such were the alliances with the local nobility of the conquered territories to help mantain their Viceroyalties, as well as the act of passing laws that made it explicit that all the natives were equal in right as their Spanish counterparts in the lands they lived (with the exception of the Caribean natives due to their infamy as cannibals).
- The United States of America counts as a contemporary example. Its many interventions in Latin America and the Middle East often result in regime changes of supposedly hostile or opposing leaders (particularly those who nationalize their industries); assassinations of rival world leaders; assisted coups that put the armed forces in power; installing of pro-US dictatorships; and establishing puppet states to service American companies. Many countries in the world utilize the dollar, many American corporations have turned multinational, many American products have turned international (ala McDonalds in Japan, of all things), English is the third most spoken language in the world, and even NATO is often seen as a mere extension of US military might as opposed to an international coalition.
- The United States is often seen as the successor of the English in this regard and differs from the British Empire for the fact that it has so far avoided direct colonization, favoring control over the markets instead. The British Empire initially sought to be a hegemonic empire at the outset but gradually became a military empire upon seeing the competition from other would-be colonial powers (France, Spain, Portugal, Netherlands, Russia, Germany) and the political instability that happened to coincide upon their arrival in a new land. When trouble arose, Britain relied on its vast and powerful Navy, which was essentially unchallenged from the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 to the Battle of Jutland just over a century later, and unsurpassed until WWII (when it was surpassed... by their allies, the Americans), small, highly trained, efficient and highly mobile armies and its economic influence. The spread of English as the language of power and money (something which can partially be attributed to the US), the retention of Greenwich Mean Time and the resultant system of time zones and the widespread nature of British culture is a testament to this.
- The United States was founded with this in mind. After the Revolutionary War, the individual colonies were seen as individual nations that banded together to become an alliance of nations with one entity (The United States Government) being the regulator of all international and inter-state issues. The thought of the United States as a national identity did not gain mainstream support until the fallout of the Civil War (General Robert E. Lee was asked to fight for the Union by Abraham Lincoln the very day Virginia seceded, and Lee sided with his country, which he believed was Virginia; he would have fought for the Union if Lincoln had asked a day earlier). Vestiges of this mentality still exist to this day with the concept of State's Rights (the 10th Amendment to the Constitution explicitly says that if the Constitution does not explicitly reserve a power for itself, than that power is ceded to the State). It's quite common for states to have unique personalities, attitudes, priorities, and interests that are not shared by their neighbors.
- Third-world countries that were part of European colonial empires qualified as well. For example, much of The Raj consisted of "princely states" led by native rulers (with titles like nawab, nizam, sultan, raja, maharaja, etc.) who became voluntary vassals of The British Empire in exchange for protection and cementation of their local authority.
- Feudal Japan, as the vassal states were held together more out of reverence for the Emperor than by any direct control.
- The Republic of Venice.
- The Dutch in the seventeenth century.
- The Holy Roman Empire during most of its reign, owing to the difficulty in getting most of the elector princes and other lords to back many serious military campaigns after the Crusades.
- Vladimir Putin's policy towards the former Soviet republics is essentially creating one of these as a replacement for the USSR. To date it's more or less successful in Central Asia where most of its leaders are happy to support Moscow along with Armenia, Belarus and Moldova. Surprisingly many Balkan and Central European states such as Serbia, Macedonia, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and Greece are happy to support Russia.
- The response from the West has been positively frigid, particularly from the US (which is worried) and Britain (which has had a bone or two to pick with the Kremlin following the Litvenenko assassination). Germany and France, on the other hand, seem to want to avoid another Cold War and are more ambivalent.
- Another aspect of Putin's foreign policy is his warm relationship with several right wing populist politicians, some of which are arguably financed with Russian money and/or extolled in Russian media outlets like RT and Sputnik News. It's telling that when Marine Le Pen of the French National Front proposed a dog whistle ban on double citizenship for French people the only nationality she explicitly exempted was Russian and French.
- The Achaemenid/First Persian Empire founded by Cyrus the Great could be considered the Trope Maker. The Empire was highly decentralised and ruled through viceroys called satraps who governed their administrative units, satrapies, in the name of the Persian emperor. Satraps enjoyed almost total freedom to rule their territories as they pleased and were allowed some degree of private armies, their only responsibility towards the crown was the levying of certain taxes and keeping internal peace and banditry down. Satraps would often belong to the native culture of their region, and have Persian advisers to keep a smooth connection between the local rule and the Emperor's court. The Persians also avoided imposing their own religion or culture on subjects, barring that as followers of Zoroastrianism they banned slavery.
- Australia, in regards to its immediate neighbors. New Zealand often toes whatever line Australia happens to follow; Papua New Guinea used to be a colony (and is often seen as a puppet) of Australia; Malaysia is too weak to do much; and most refugees in Southeast Asia head over to Australia for better opportunities than in their own countries. Indonesia, the fourth most populated nation and the largest archipelago in the world, is more or less The Rival to Australia, but most of its major parties are corrupt and civil services aren't really helpful to those who don't have the money for it (and there are a lot who don't have the money for it). Its military is roughly on par with Australia and it has a much larger population than Australia, but otherwise, there aren't really any other true opponents to Canberra in its immediate vicinity, so many people (in Canberra, of course) consider Australia to be something of a Rising Empire.
- Contrary to popular belief, the Aztecs ran one of these, ruling through client kings, and demanding tribute, rather than obeisance, from those states they had defeated in battle. They rarely left their own governors in place, and didn't tamper with local religions, relying instead on a combination of cultural hegemony and military superiority to ensure continued compliance with the empire's dictates.
- Imperial China operated on this principle for centuries. In dynastic Chinese political theory, the Emperor was the 'Son of Heaven' and thus the legitimate sovereign of the entire world; even states that weren't directly under Chinese control were expected to recognize this fact. It only really fell apart when the rising power of the industrial West coincided with a period of relative weakness for China; unsurprisingly, the imperialist Western powers (who were used to thinking of themselves as the best people on the planet) weren't too happy to kow-tow to the monarch of some (in their view) backwards nation. A few humiliating (for the Chinese) wars later, it was getting rather difficult to keep pretending that China was the grandest place on earth; this ultimately led to the downfall of last imperial dynasty, and to the founding of Republic of China, which would eventually be conquered (on the mainland) by the People's Republic of China.
- And even before that, in China's pre-imperial feudal period, the Zhou Dynasty resembled this for about 600 of its 800 years in power: the king had little real power outside the immediate demesne of the capital, but was nevertheless recognized by the various feudal power-holders as their nominal overlord. During what is often translated as the Period of the Five Hegemons, some lords rose in power sufficiently to informally dominate the other states, without attempting to directly claim the title of overlord. Eventually, though, one of them became powerful enough to conquer the rest of China; this was Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor, and whose short-lived Qin Dynasty is actually the root of our word 'China'.
- Some have accused Germany of being this inside the European Union. Whether this is actually true depends a lot on whom you are talking to. The phrase about Germany being "too big for Europe and too small for the world" relates to the problem of Germany being (in theory) able to dominate most European countries economically and (at least in the past) militarily but unable to do really go toe to toe with major empires outside of Europe. Interestingly, some European leaders have actually called for Germany to act more like this, making them in essence voluntary vassals.
- The 7th century saw the emergence of the Islamic Empire, also referred to as the Caliphate. The first Caliphate, Rashidun Caliphate, expanded from the Arabian Peninsula and swiftly conquered the Sasanian Empire of Persia and much of the Byzantine Roman Empire. Its successor state, the Umayyad Caliphate, expanded across North Africa and into the Iberian Peninsula. By the beginning of the 8th century, the Umayyad Caliphate had become the largest empire in history, it would not be surpassed in size until the establishment of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century.