Literature: The Metamorphoses
"flavaque de viridi stillabant ilice mella." note The Metamorphoses
—Ovid, The Metamorphoses, Bk.I:112
, completed in 8 AD, is a Narrative Poem
by the Roman poet Publius Ovidius Naso, better known today as Ovid
. The fifteen books of the poem consist of many stories from Greek and Roman mythology
These stories range from the origin of the world from Chaos to the deification of Caesar and the celebration of Augustus's rule over Rome. Countless tales from mythology are told in between, including the stories of "Apollo and Daphne," "Orpheus and Eurydice," "Baucis and Philemon," "Daedalus and Icarus," et cetera.The Metamorphoses
has served as an enormous influence throughout the ages; today, it remains one of the best classical sources for many myths. Shakespeare
, notably, borrowed from or was inspired by various stories in the collection. Romeo and Juliet
parallels many aspects of "Pyramus and Thisbe", a myth which also appears as a play within a play
in A Midsummer Night's Dream
. In Act V of The Tempest
, one of Prospero's speeches is strikingly similar to a speech Medea makes in Book VII of The Metamorphoses
. Additionally, Titus Andronicus
bears various similarities to the story of Philomena, and Lavinia actually points out the passage to tell her father and uncle what had happened to her. (Incidentally, it also resembles the story of Io, although that resemblance is not pointed out specifically.)
is available online here
... (What, can't read the Latin? Kids these days
... A.S.Kline's English translation is available here.
Not to be confused with Franz Kafka
's The Metamorphosis
The Metamorphoses provides examples of:
- Action Girl: The huntress Atalanta, who shows up in a couple of stories.
- Adam and Eve Plot: The story of Deucalion and Pyrrha.
- All Love Is Unrequited: Apollo and Daphne, Narcissus and Echo, Arethusa and Alpheus, to name a few.
- All-Star Cast: The stories center on many well known figures and heroes. The Calydonian Boar Hunt in particular brings many of them together.
- A Load of Bull: The Minotaur.
- Angel Unaware: Philemon and Baucis give food and lodging to a disguised Jupiter and Mercury.
- Anthropomorphic Personification: A couple of the characters are personifications of abstract concepts, such as Sleep or Hunger.
- Author Tract: Possibly Pythagoras' hella long speech near the end of the poem.
- Baleful Polymorph: Many examples, inflicted upon mere mortals by the gods.
- Battle Couple: A non-human example: the centaurs Cyllarus and Hylonome fight side by side in the battle against the Lapiths.
- Be Careful What You Wish For: Midas.
- Bifauxnen: Apparently Iphis, considering that Ianthe (who ignores her true gender) can't wait for their wedding night...
- Bittersweet Ending: More often than not.
- The story of Orpheus and Eurydice is a good example. They finally meet again, but only in Hades after Orpheus too has been killed.
- Black Comedy: Icarus' death is written in a playful manner in the original Latin. In English, the humor has been Lost in Translation.
- Blind Seer: Tiresias.
- Break the Haughty: Niobe, oh so much. She boasts she's a better mother than the goddess Latona. Latona's children then go and kill all 14 of Niobe's children, causing her husband to commit suicide and Niobe herself turns to stone in her grief. See Hubris below.
- Brother-Sister Incest: A one-sided case with Byblis and her brother Caunus. While Byblis likes him, and admits her feelings, he is completely disgusted by her affection.
- Crossover Cosmology: The Egyptian gods appear a few times. Io is worshipped as Isis, according to the story, while the Olympians become the Egyptian gods while hiding from Typhoeus. Isis also plays an important role in the story of Iphis and Ianthe.
- Cruel and Unusual Death: Oh so many. There is a graphic depiction of a satyr being flayed alive for losing to Apollo in a music contest. Additionally, Actaeon is transformed into a stag and torn apart by his own dogs (See Does Not Like Men, below).
- Cute Monster Girl: The female centaur Hylonome. In contrast to the common depiction of centaurs as uncouth and savage, she is described as a beautiful creature (both her human and her horse parts) who bathes in the streams every day and wears flowers in her hair.
- Disproportionate Retribution: Juno, especially. For example, she sends a horrific plague upon the island of Aegina, killing hundreds. Why? Because the island is named after a woman who slept with Jupiter, king of the gods. See also the above example of the flaying.
- Does Not Like Men: Diana. She reacts poorly when Actaeon accidentally stumbles across the pool where she's bathing.
- Possibly Daphne too, or possibly she simply didn't like Apollo in particular.
- Double Standard: cross with Values Dissonance: Iphis goes on a long monolog about how wrong and unnatural is love between two women but the poem has also many relationships between men (Zeus and Ganymede, Apollo and Hyacinthus...) that are not treated the same way.
- Driven by Envy
- Exactly What It Says on the Tin
- Extra Eyes: Argus, though they don't help him once he falls asleep.
- First Love: Apollo's first love was Daphne, which was not caused by unwitting chance, but by the fierce wrath of Cupid...
- Friend to All Living Things: Orpheus.
- Food Chains: Proserpina in the Underworld.
- Gadgeteer Genius: Daedalus. Also his young nephew, Perdix/Talus, who gets tossed down the Acropolis and turned into a bird.
- Gender Bender: Mostly female-to-male transformations, though Tiresias went male-to-female and back again.
- The Gods And Juno: In later books, the text goes out of its way to show how affected the gods were by an event by mentioning that Juno herself is moved by it.
- Götterdämmerung: The beginning of the poem, with the deposing of the Titans.
- The Great Flood
- Groin Attack: How Adonis is killed.
- Happily Married: Baucis and Philemon.
- Hide Your Lesbians: Despite their love, Iphis can't be happy with Ianthe until she's finally turned into a boy. Mainly because of Values Dissonance.
- Hubris: There's a lot of that going on. Tempting Fate is not a good idea. See Break the Haughty above.
- I Want Grandkids: Said to Daphne by her father. Often.
- Jumping Off the Slippery Slope: Medea. Unlike in other versions of the story where she is a tragic figure, Ovid's version has her using her magic to kill random people for no reason, even before Jason ever wrongs her. No explanation is ever given for her actions.
- Jumping the Gender Barrier: Iphis for Ianthe.
- Kill It with Fire: Though not much is made of it, Jupiter seems to be uncomfortable with fire, apparently remembering a vague prophecy about how fire would one day be the end of him. He remembers this while Phaethon nearly burns Heaven and Earth while driving Apollo's chariot.
- Love at First Sight: Not that it's requited, mind you.
- Love Imbues Life: Galatea.
- Love Makes You Crazy
- Manipulative Bitch: Venus in the tale of Ceres and Proserpina. Pluto falling in love with Proserpina was her idea (with Cupid' help, of course), as doing so would a.) allow her power (love) to spread to the Underworld, thereby claiming it along with Earth and Sky as under her domain, and b.) doing so would prevent Proserpina from remaining a virgin, thus allowing her to defy Venus, as Minerva and Diana had done.
- May-December Romance: There's a generational gap between Pluto and Proserpina. One way to interpret this is Pluto appearing as like a middle-aged man, while Proserpina would be physically in her mid-to-late teens.
- Mayfly-December Romance: Venus and Adonis.
- Metamorphosis: Every single story has one, albeit sometimes one that's only tangential to the main point. Many of them are into birds and trees, often as escape or punishment (which is sometimes both).
- The Mourning After: Defied with Baucis and Philemon; their wish to die at the same time is granted by the gods.
- Mundane Made Awesome: Ovid uses language and style associated with epics to describe things like the appetizers in Roman peasants' dinner.
- Name's the Same: Cygnus is a pretty popular name, with at least three appearing; they also tend to be turned into swans. There are also at least two Scyllas.
- Offing the Offspring
- Our Werewolves Are Different: The gods punish Lycaon by transforming him into a wolf. He's said to retain some human traits, much like many werewolves in modern pop culture.
- Parental Incest: Myrrha (daughter) and Cinyras (father); entirely unintentional on the latter's behalf. When he learns the truth, he is clearly repulsed.
- Patriotic Fervor: Theoretically Book 15. In reality, probably quite Tongue In Cheek, seeing as this is Ovid (as he'll later be).
- Plot Hole: There are several, since it is based on conflicting mythology.
- Generally deliberate allusions, rather than accidental confusions. For example, the narrator directly calls the Argo the "first ship", despite the fact we'll already had several voyages in the narrative.
- Orpheus is the son of Apollo and a Muse, yet he is presented as mortal, while other god-children like Mars and Proserpina are shown to be immortal.
- The Power of Love
- Pride: A recurring theme; it usually spells the downfall of many a mortal. Can also cross over with Did You Just Flip Off Cthulhu?, such as in the case of Niobe and the Titaness Latona.
- Purple Prose: Well, poetry, but still.
- Pygmalion Plot: One of the stories told in the poem, and one of the few with a truly happy ending.
- Raised as the Opposite Gender: Iphis' mother raises her daughter as a boy on divine orders to avoid exposing her at birth.
- Romantic Two-Girl Friendship: Iphis and Ianthe, though the former doesn't dare to reveal her true sex and the latter thinks (s)he's her groom-to-be.
- Sacred Hospitality: Hospitality is extremely important, particularly in the Baucis and Philemon story. They get turned into trees for their trouble (it's actually rather sweet).
- Scylla and Charybdis: Faced by Aeneas at one point.
- Second-Hand Storytelling: The whole thing is a collection of earlier myths and folktales, which are occasionally told by characters in-story. If you're not paying close attention, it can get confusing...
- Separated by the Wall: Pyramus and Thisbe, who can only communicate through the literal wall separating their parents' properties.
- Smite Me, O Mighty Smiter: Myrrha, after she gets pregnant with her father's child. She gets turned into a myrrh tree, but still gives birth to a boy.
- Star-Crossed Lovers: Pyramus and Thisbe.
- Tag Team Suicide: Pyramus, thinking Thisbe has been killed by a lion, commits suicide. Thisbe discovers his body, and kills herself with the same sword he used.
- Talking the Monster to Death: Mercury tells the hundred-eyed monster Argos a story that causes Argos to fall asleep, upon which Mercury kills him.
- To Hell and Back: Orpheus and Eurydice.
- Trapped in Another World: Proserpina is abducted and brought to the Underworld.
- Voluntary Shapeshifting: Not very common (except when used by gods), but the daughter of Erysichthon has this ability.
- Werewolf Theme Naming: The name of King Lycaon, who is turned into a wolf by Zeus, already contains "lycos", the Greek word for 'wolf'.
- Wretched Hive: Thrace, having Mars as a patron deity, tends to be filled with rather unkind men, Orpheus being the exception.
- Wholesome Crossdresser: Since Iphis' father wanted a male heir so badly, her true sex was concealed and she was raised as a man.
- Woman Scorned: Juno and Medea are the most egregious examples.
- Word of Dante
- You Can't Fight Fate: With the Greek myths, which take up a good three-quarters of the poem. The Roman myths? Not so much.
- You Can't Go Home Again: This was the case for Aeneas in one of the many stories, who had escaped the recently destroyed Troy.