One day the war will be over. And I hope that the people that use this bridge in years to come will remember how it was built and who built it. Not a gang of slaves, but soldiers, British soldiers, Clipton, even in captivity!
— Colonel Nicholson
You and Colonel Nicholson, you're two of a kind, crazy with courage. For what? How to die like a gentleman... how to die by the rules - when the only important thing is how to live like a human being!
— Major Shears
The Bridge on the River Kwai is a 1957 World War II POW film about the construction of the bridges over the River Kwai, although it's heavily fictionalised. It's based on the French novel The Bridge over the River Kwai by Pierre Boulle, of Planet of the Apes fame.A British battalion is captured in Thailand and sent to a Japanese prison camp run by Colonel Saito. Notable among the prisoners is the battalion's commander, Lt. Colonel Nicholson, and Major Clipton, a medical officer.The prisoners of war are being forced to build the bridge over the River Kwai, which when finished is supposed to help Japanese expansion. Saito tries to demoralize the British troops, but fails because of Values Dissonance. Nicholson decides to keep everyone's morale up by making sure everyone does as good a job on the bridge as possible, making it the best bridge they can.Meanwhile, the British government is planning a covert mission to blow that bridge up, since its existence will help the Japanese. They draft an American, Shears, into their effort (he has two valid excuses which, together, the Brits had already used to get him transferred to them). Shears, along with Major Warden and Lieutenant Joyce, parachute into the jungle and find their way to the bridge. They secure dynamite, but things go wrong quickly.This film is either a true tragedy or the blackest of black comedy.It's best known for its theme tune, the pre-existing "Colonel Bogey March" (which is far better known to nearly every Brit - including those at the time - for a set of lyrics to the tune about the lack of genitalia of certain senior Nazis).note Director David Lean wanted the film to open with the soldiers singing the vulgar version, but producer Sam Spiegel objected. But the film itself is a classic; it earned its Oscars, including best actor for Alec Guinness, best director for David Lean, and best picture.
This movie contains examples of:
Adaptation Expansion: The entire Shears storyline was created for the film to provide more action and a part for a bankable American actor. It works.
Behind the Black: When the native girls are frolicking at the waterfall, one of them backs into a Japanese soldier. Even if she was unaware of him, the other girls, facing her, should certainly have seen him.
Billing Displacement: While Alec Guinness' Nicholson and Sessue Hayakawa's Saito are clearly the film's most important characters, Guinness is billed beneath William Holden (Shears) and Hayakawa is billed beneath both Holden and Jack Hawkins (Warden).
Book Ends: A shot of a hawk soaring in the air opens and closes the film.
Broken Tears: Colonel Saito, after giving in to Nicholson's demands that officers do not do hard labour.
Contemplate Our Navels: Nicholson takes a moment when the bridge is complete to reflect on his career as a military man.
Dead Person Impersonation: Shears is actually an enlisted seaman who switched uniforms with a dead officer to get better treatment. It doesn't work, as Saito treats all prisoners the same. Then, the British Army checks into "Commander Shears" after finding him and bringing him to Ceylon, and use this to blackmail him into "volunteering" for the commando raid.
Downer Ending: Though it does have a certain amount of irony to it. Joyce and Shears are intentionally killed by friendly fire so they won't be captured, while Nicholson is fatally wounded by Warden's mortar fire seconds after his My God, What Have I Done? moment and falls onto the detonator, blowing up the bridge he worked so hard to build.
Of course, the whole "father to his men" business is subverted when Nicholson drags sick men out of the hospital to work on the bridge.
Face Death with Dignity: Nicholson and the officers almost let the Japanese kill them rather than violate their ethics by working on the bridge. Clipton intervenes and manages to spare them from committing a rather Senseless Sacrifice.
Hollywood History: Among survivors of the construction of the Burma-Siam railway, there is often a lot of bitterness directed towards this film, as Real Life conditions were much worse, with 13,000 POWs and 100,000 civilians dying in its construction. The filmmakers felt depicting conditions as harsh as they actually were would be too depressing for filmgoers.
Also, there was really no way that the cast and walk-on soldiers could be expected to become as emaciated as the real Burma-Siam railworkers.
The whole notion that any Japanese POW commandant wouldn't just execute Nicholson and his officers if they didn't obey.
The actual◊ bridge is a steel truss bridge on concrete pillars, and was destroyed by a bombing run, not a commando raid. The round trusses are original; the angular trusses were constructed by the Japanese as war reparations.
In fairness, Boulle himself had served as a POW in Southeast Asia and based Nicholson on several French officers he'd served with. This doesn't explain, of course, why he made the book's characters British in the first place.
Knight Templar: Saito and Warden are too concerned with doing their job to the point of hurting their comrades, though Saito at least has the excuse that he would have to commit ritual suicide if he failed.
Know When to Fold 'Em: Averted. Nicholson refuses to compromise his obedience to the letter of the Geneva Conventions (the Hague Convention also applies) and this results in two negative outcomes. First, the rations are reduced for all the prisoners. Second, he insists on building a superior bridge because of his pride and the requirement that prisoners can be forced to work.
Justified, as Japan didn't sign the Geneva Convention until 1949, and their treatment of prisoners resulted in a revision to the conventions.
Les Collaborateurs / The Quisling: Col. Nicholson does not realize that he has become this until the end of the film. Maj. Clipton, on the other hand, knows that Nicholson could be perceived as aiding the enemy, but cannot persuade Nicholson of this.
Method Acting: When Nicholson is released from the Punishment Box and walks back to Saito's place, Alec Guinness imitated the way his son Matthew walked when he was recovering from polio.
Multinational Team: The demolition team is composed of one British, one Canadian, and one American officer, plus some help from the locals. Meanwhile the bridge building team is made up of British and Japanese officers, commanding British and Australian soldiers (Shears specifically mentions the Aussies in his first conversation with Nicholson).
No One Gets Left Behind: Shears does not leave Warden behind when the latter gets injured, which Warden would not do if their roles were reversed.
Not So Different: Nicholson and Saito come to realize that they are both similar with regards to being obsessed with following the rules of their respective codes regardless of the consequences they might have for others. During their standoff with each other, both state that the other is responsible for the stalemate and any damage arising from it is the fault of the other. And both ultimately resort to completing the bridge at all costs: Saito out of a sense of duty, Nicholson out of a misplaced sense of pride.
"This is just a game, this war. You and that Colonel Nicholson, you're two of a kind. Crazy with courage. For what? How to die like a gentleman. How to die by the rules when the only important thing is how to live like a human being. I'm not going to leave you here to die, Warden, because I don't care about your bridge and I don't care about your rules. If we go on, we go on together."
Punishment Box: The camp has a metal punishment box, or rather "punishment hut" as it's referred to in the film, that stands outside in the sun.
Reality Is Unrealistic: As has been noted, in Real Life conditions on the Burma railway were actually even worse than depicted in the film. Which isn't that hard to believe since the audience is only told that conditions are bad through exposition without actually being shown anything too graphic.
Seppuku: Saito nearly does this after losing face to Nicholson. He changes his mind—but he might just be waiting until after the completion of the bridge, and he seems to be preparing to commit seppuku the night before the bridge is destroyed.
Shoot the Dog: Nicholson insists on having his men build a better bridge than the Japanese would have built themselves as a way of preserving a sense of order and discipline among the troops, even though it amounts to collaborating with the enemy. In the film's climax, Warden kills Nicholson, a fellow Allied soldier, with mortar fire as he tries to save the mission to blow up the bridge... a mission which Nicholson then completes for him as he dies.
Smug Snake: Colonel Saito, at first; he proudly tells the prisoners that the camp has no fence to prevent escape because, if the soldiers don't kill them, the jungle will. When Nicholson wins their initial war of nerves, Saito becomes much more subdued, and it is Nicholson who takes up this role instead.
Staff of Authority: Colonel Nicholson is shown carrying a swagger stick in the early scene in the movie when he informs the Japanese commandant that according to the Geneva Conventions, officers cannot be required to perform manual labor. Colonel Saito snaps the stick in half in a fury, while informing him that he is not in command. After the scene where Colonel Saito gives the Colonel permission to assume command of the prisoners and get the bridge built his way, the stick reappears. After the bridge is completed, he drops it in the river while talking to Colonel Saito. Saito also carries a staff in a few scenes; another notable similarity he has with Nicholson.
Stiff Upper Lip: A major theme of the film. Lampshaded by Saito, who goes on a rant about how much he hates the British for their stubborn resolve.
Tokyo Rose: After the demolition team performs Percussive Maintenance on the radio and get it working, this kind of personality is heard on it, broadcasting from Radio Tokyo, urging the soldiers to give up the war and go home. The team promptly turns the radio off.
Where Is The Kaboom: Subverted in the ending; the detonator works just fine, the problem is that Colonel Nicholson betrays the Allied troops trying to blow up the bridge, causing them to be killed before they can activate it. After he finally realizes his treason he sets it off as he dies... although it's deliberately ambiguous as to whether Nicholson is trying to reach the detonator or just falls on it accidentally.