Fair for Its Day: One of the earliest WWII films to depict Japanese characters with any degree of sympathy.
Fridge Horror: After the bridge is destroyed, Warden and the female bearers start back for home. Major Clipton is left to mutter, "Madness!" in horror of what has just happened. Clipton and the wounded and sick British prisoners are stranded in the middle of the jungle, with no feasible way to get to civilization. The body count will likely go up quite a bit in the next few days.
Homegrown Hero: Shears (who is the only one to escape and return to destroy the titular bridge) happens to be the only American soldier in the otherwise British-dominated POW camp. Needless to say, he used to be British in the original book.
Jerkass Woobie: Shears. Yes, life in a prison camp ruled by a despot has hardened him and has made him contemptuous of by-the-book soldiers following orders like Nicholson and Warden, but he turned down a soldier who wanted to come with him and he’s opportunist enough to try to worm his way out of any terrible situation however he can.
What An Idiot: Yes, the Geneva Convention does permit that enlisted POWs can be compelled to work, but only work in specific industries that do not help the enemy's war effort, otherwise they are exempted. Such exemptions include public works projects that are military in nature, which the bridge definitely fits. Colonel Nicholson should really have realized that. (Of course this could very well be Artistic License.) In fairness, they do mention that the bridge will serve some non-military purposes such as transporting their wounded, but it really should qualify.
Considering the number of war crimes committed by the Imperial Japanese Army at this time, one might forgive the Colonel for being less willing to refuse the work since he probably had a good idea of the 'punishment' that might fall upon the troops under his command.