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- In Full Metal Panic!, Sousuke has to make the decision of trading his hostage for either Kaname or Tessa. He picks Tessa, knowing that Kaname can protect herself just fine, and her Action Girl instincts means that she'll mess up the bad guys plans by reacting in a way they don't expect.
- In Read or Die, Yomiko trades Joker for Nenene... only to learn that Wendy hadn't captured Nenene at all. She had just asked the British Library's resident Master of Disguise to impersonate Nenene for the exchange so that they could get Joker back.
- James Bond is exchanged for Zhao in Die Another Day.
- Sergio Leone's A Fistful Of Dollars.
- In the John Woo movie A Better Tomorrow, an exchange between Big Bad Ah Shing (who the first protagonist, Sung Tse Ho, has captured) and Ho's little brother Sung Tse Kit (the other protagonist, who Shing's mooks have at gunpoint) sets off the final battle of the movie.
- In the John Wayne film Rio Bravo, the heroes captured the brother of a bandit leader before the start of the movie, and the plot is driven by the bandit's schemes to rescue his brother before the US Marshall arrives. One such plot involves kidnapping a sheriff's deputy and trading him for the brother. Unusually for this trope, we never get any indication of whether or not the villains intend to play fair, as it's the heroes that play dirty and go in with every intention of leaving with both prisoners.
- Bridge of Spies is based on the Abel/Powers exchange described under Truth in Television below.
- In Snow Day, Wayne is being held hostage by Snowplow Man. Meanwhile, the protagonists have Trudy, Snowplow Man's right-hand raven.
- In Mattimeo, the Redwallers capture General Ironbeak's three magpies, who are his only way of getting supplies, and trade them for the three Redwall hostages. Unfortunately, Ironbeak is smart enough to use the Prisoner Exchange as a cover while he sends his troops to steal as much food as they can from Redwall.
- In Les MisÚrables, Enjolras and Combeferre were about to suggest exchanging Javert for Jehan Prouvaire (who had been captured by the National Guard), but experienced something of a timing failure.
- in a more hostage for macguffin girl way, Farworld sees the dark circle kidnap Dew in order to trade her for Kyja, who is a 'guest' of the water elementals.
- There's a form of this in the X-Wing Series book Wedge's Gamble. There is an Imperial prison which Rogue Squadron can access, and a corrupt warden who will make deals. The prison has Rebels and scum of the galaxy, the latter group being the one that gives the warden more trouble. Said warden will let the Rogues retrieve some Rebels, but only if they also take some of that scum, too; namely members of Black Sun, a criminal empire which has dissolved. Little does he know that the Rogues are there for the scum so said scum can be recruited in a labyrinthine plot - the Rebels are just a nice bonus.
- The third Skulduggery Pleasant book has a scene on Dublin's Liffey Bridge, where the heroes have to trade Fletcher, the only person in the world who can open the gate for the Faceless Ones, to the Diablerie in exchange for Grand Mage Thurid Guild. Naturally, they all double-cross each other multiple times. The Diablerie has exactly one more double-cross than the heroes.
- When the Havenites and Manticorans discuss prisoner-of-war exchanges in the later Honor Harrington books, at least one character muses on what a fair exchange rate on prisoners would be, given that most battles had been stacked heavily in favor of the Manticorans' superior training and technology versus the Havenites' massive quantity of ships and troops.
- In A Song of Ice and Fire Catelyn suggests trading Jaime Lannister for her daughters, whom she supposes are being held hostage by the Lannisters. It doesn't go through.
- The Quest for Karla sees the Circus agreeing to exchange mole Bill Haydon for their remaining agents in the Soviet bloc that haven't been shot. However, it falls through when Haydon is killed, presumably by Jim Prideaux.
- Romance of the Three Kingdoms has several of these. The most infamous one is when Xiahou Shang is exchanged for Chen Shi at Mt. Ding Jun. While the exchange is taking place, Huang Zhong shoots Xiahou Shang in the back, which enrages Xiahou Yuan to the point of charging into battle. Which is exactly what Huang Zhong wanted.
- Once on Get Smart KAOS kidnapped the Chief, so Control captured one of KAOS's agents to try to make a deal. KAOS captured another - back and forth until the only non-prisoners were Max and Sigfried, who arranged an exchange. KAOS got the last laugh when, during the exchange which was two big busses full of prisoners, KAOS captured the Control bus driver.
- One of these takes place in Heroes Volume 2. Bob, the head of The Company, kidnaps Claire. Claire's father, HRG, kidnaps Bob's daughter Elle, and attempts to trade her to get his daughter back.
- On Lost, Jack suggests offering the captive "Henry" in exchange for Walt, who has been kidnapped by the Others. Unfortunately, the Others had a different plan.
- Happens in Raumschiff GameStar, with Darth Mopp being exchanged for Communications Officer Mikkl. Naturally, while both sides are negotiating the conditions, the prisoners escape on their own...
- Happens without incident in the mini-series V: The Final Battle, when the Big Bad Diana exchanges Donovan's son for one of her own men. Of course, Diana has no reason to stop the exchange because she's "converted" Donovan's son into becoming her spy.
- Sark is swapped in this way early in the third season of Alias. A third party messes it up, a gunfight breaks out, and the bad guys make off with both hostages.
- In The X-Files Mulder performs such a trade between Scully and an alien clone he believes is his sister Samantha. In this case, though, it's the good guys who aren't playing fair and have a sniper standing by to shoot the kidnapper once both hostages are clear.
- In the Doctor Who episode "Time and the Rani" the Doctor trades the Rani for his companion Mel in this way.
- Subverted in an early episode of The Sandbaggers. The hero's girlfriend has been captured in East Germany and everyone agrees to a trade. He has a sniper shoot her down when she's halfway across so that the trade cannot take place.
- An episode of Magnum, P.I. involved an exchange which traded an American POW from Vietnam for the man who killed Magnum's wife.
- Season 2 of the 2010 Nikita saw a hostage exchange between Team Nikita and Division. Thanks to Percy being half the exchange, Nikita, and the show's Gambit Pileup (there's four factions playing) tendencies, the whole thing goes to hell. Only Team Nikita comes out ahead.
- Happened at the end of the Mission: Impossible episode "The Exchange", where Jim blatantly ignored the 'disavow if caught or killed' policy of the IMF and arranged to exchange an enemy spy for a captured Cinnamon. After the villain got his man back, he hosed Jim and Cinnamon down with a machine gun. But Jim had the last laugh: He was wearing body armor, the coat he slipped around Cinnamon's shoulders during the exchange was also armored, and before exchanging prisoners, he had successfully broken the enemy agent and gotten him to spill the beans on his entire network, rendering him worthless.
- There is a complicated example in Robin of Sherwood. The Sheriff of Nottingham captures Much the Miller's Son, but at the same time the Sheriff's nephew Martin is kidnapped and held to ransom by another outlaw. Robin has to rescue Martin from the other outlaw and then exchange him for Much. The actual exchange goes pear-shaped when the Sheriff tries to have Robin and Much ambushed immediately afterwards, which disgusts Martin so much that he leaves again with Robin.
- In Inanna's Descent to the Netherworld, Inanna (later known as Ishtar) went to Irkalla to try and take over, but was defeated by her sister Ereshkigal. Meanwhile, above ground, nobody is having sex, plants are dying, etc. So Inanna arranges to be brought back to life, and Ereshkigal agrees to let her go...on one condition: that she find someone to take her place. Inanna searches for someone, but finds no one that she really wants to send to Irkalla. Then she sees her husband Dumuzi (Tammuz) lounging around under a tree instead of openly mourning for her. note This enrages Inanna because it makes her think he doesn't care about her, so in a fit of hurt and anger, she chooses him to go in her place. His sister begs her not to do that, saying Take Me Instead...and eventually Inanna regrets sending her husband down there. So an agreement is made: Dumuzi lives in Irkalla for six months, and his sister switches with him for the next six. While he's down there, nothing grows, but while he's with Inanna, everything is allowed to grow again.
- In Covert Action, this option is available to players that get captured. You can opt to wait a several hours to escape instead.
- Red Dead Redemption uses this. Norman Deek is being traded for the Ship Tease, and surprisingly enough, they don't want the prisoner back.
- Trading a hostage for one of your partners in crime is strongly encouraged in PAYDAY: The Heist.
- In Call of Juarez: The Cartel, the protagonists intend to exchange Juarez's son for Jessica Stone. Alvarez shoots both at the exchange.
- During Dm C Devil May Cry, Kat is taken prisoner by Mundus, and Dante eventually gets his hands on Lilith and her child, the latter of which is Mundus' heir. Dante arranges for an exchange between them to save Kat, and both Dante and Mundus' officers conduct the exchange in a professional manner. Vergil, however, had no such compunctions, and shoots Lilith and the baby dead midway through the exchange, turning the relationship sour in record time.
- A prisoner swap opens the Battle of Mt. Ding Jun in Dynasty Warriors 4, based on the same scene from Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Wei's Xiahou Shang is traded for Shu's Chen Shi. The two slowly walk towards each other across an open field while observed by generals from both sides, but the moment one passes the other, both break out into a run for their own lines. That appears to be the cue that the prisoner exchange is over, as arrows start flying from both sides immediately afterwards. This curtly concludes the cease fire and leads directly to the battle itself.
- We're Alive has a case where "both sides try to screw each other" when Saul tries to coax the Mallers into exchanging Lizzy by offering to kidnap and hand over Pegs. But when the exchange goes down the Tower folk are using Riley as a decoy and planning to ambush the Mallers, who are also using a decoy who they promptly shoot to cause confusion and planning an ambush, so they can attack the Tower while its best fighters are at the exchange.
- An episode of Avatar: The Last Airbender featured the attempt to make a trade of King Bumi for the Fire Nation governor's infant son. It did not go well.
- An episode of Codename: Kids Next Door had the main group exchange the Toilenator for a fellow operative. Said operative is Numbuh 13, a complete idiot and a Walking Disaster Area who contributes nothing to the episode's mission, but is unintentionally recaptured by the adults at the end of the episode. To their incredible regret.
- Subverted in American Dad!, where, back during the Cold War, Stan is being traded for a Soviet agent. As they pass each other, he takes the opportunity to extol the virtues of America, and all the things the Soviet is leaving behind. In response, the Soviet puts his arm around Stan and starts talking about Glorious Mother Russia, while leading him back to the Soviet side where he is promptly grabbed by the Soviets again, as the Americans can only Face Palm as they watch.
- At the end of the Simpsons episode "The Crepes of Wrath", Albanian child spy Adil Hoxha is exchanged for an American child spy.
- Sometimes happened during the Cold War between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. with captured spies, most famously across the Glienicke Bridge. For example, in 1962, KGB agent Rudolf Abel was swapped for American pilot Gary Powers Jr. (who had been captured after his U-2 spy plane was shot down over the USSR.
- The 2010 swap of ten Russian agents captured in the US for four people held in Russia.
- Done en masse during the days of Wooden Ships and Iron Men where there were regular truce ships going back and forth carrying prisoners. The two sides kept regular tabs on each other's debit and credit. Sometimes this would break down mid-war, for instance when one side decided that the enemy was running out of manpower and needed to be squeezed harder. Like other such customs, aspects of this hung on as late as World War II, though it was mostly disabled prisoners who were exchanged.
- This became a regular event during the wars between the Byzantine Empire and the Abbasid Caliphate in the 8th to 10th centuries. The parties would meet every few years to swap prisoners, often at the River Lamos.