These are what we call the 'YMMV items.' Things that some people find in this work. We call them 'your mileage might vary' because not everyone sees these things in the same way. This starts discussions in the trope lists, a thing we don't want. Please use the discussion page if you'd like to discuss any of these items.
Also, since he doesn't leave Airstrip One, we have no clue as to the state of the world - is Oceania real? Is it the entire world? Is there a Brotherhood after all? Nothing can be taken for granted, even the Info Dump book that pops up halfway through (especially the book, given that one of the Inner Party members claims credit for its authorship, and hands out copies).
It's a little bit of a stretch but we can't be exactly sure if Party even controls all of the British Isle. Could be half of it, just England or hell, maybe only London and its imminent surrounding. Which might explain whole "running out of resources" thing.
A common suggestion is that the 'scholarly' appendix on Newspeak is written in a manner that deliberately subverts this Downer Ending, given that it is written in the past tense...
When 1984 was to first be published in America, the publisher wished to remove the appendix, but Orwell refused to have it published without, saying that the book would have to be reworked if such a large chunk was to be cut out. This incident, along with a few hand-picked statements of Orwell around the time the book was written, form the basis for including the appendix into the work.
We explicitly never do learn if there's a Brotherhood or not. An alternate, admittedly optimistic interpretation would be that the Brotherhood did exist and that O'Brien was part of it, and that Winston and Julia's capture and death were in fact due to the latter's refusal to give up everything for the Brotherhood. Granted, that'd just make the Brotherhood no better than the Party.
The Ministries may actually be true to their names from a certain point of view. and using The Party's way of thinking. The Ministry of Truth can be justified with doublethink, you may be able to consider the rations you are given by the Ministry of Plenty to be "plenty" from Big Brother's logic, the Ministry of Peace is justified through "WAR IS PEACE" and the Ministry of Love is where you learn to love Big Brother.
The Ministry of Truth manufactures truth as defined by the party. The Ministry of Peace makes a state of internal peace in Oceania by depleting resources.
Fandom Berserk Button: Lots of people think this book depicts a society where you're under surveillance all the time. You aren't, not all of the time. You just don't know when you're being watched and when you aren't.
There's also the misconception that everyone is watched and under the government's heel. Only government officials are watched; the 80% of the population that is the Proles are essentially "free" (hence the slogan "Proles and animals are free").
Fan Wank: Much has been made of the Newspeak appendix being written in the past tense. Many think it points to the eventual fall of The Party, but Orwell never confirmed or denied it.
Genius Bonus: In the final scene when Winston is playing chess in the Chestnut Tree Café, he picks up a White knight from the board and contemplates a move. The arrangement of the pieces on the chess board suggests that he is considering the tactic of going around and hitting the opposing Black army from behind. Only minutes later, the telescreen announcer reports that the Oceanian forces had just defeated the Eurasian enemy in Africa by using the same tactic.
Also, Winston's ulcerated ankle is a metaphor for repressed sexual energy.
Mary Suetopia: A Straw Dystopia, where one of the members of State Sec even thinks that The Party will last forever, despite that in reality, there obviously would be corruption, revolts, sabotage and failures in surveillance system, inefficency and crises of economics, lack of professionals and social lifts which will lead to failures in the work of state... the list can go on.
Memetic Mutation/Fountain of Memes: Screw "The Cake Is a Lie", this is the work that informs modern life, with "Big Brother" and "Big Brother Is Watching You", "doublethink" "Unperson", "thought crime" and "thought police", and "Room101". While we're at it, there's the the war with Eastasia Eastasia is our ally. We were always at war with Eurasia. Really, the government in the novel communicates to the public almost entirely through memes.
Artefacts of the pre-Party times survive as memes too: "Oranges and lemons, say the bells of St. Clements..."
Misaimed Fandom: If you think Orwell was solely attacking Dirty Communists (or, worse, liberals), you've missed the point. Fascist totalitarian regimes and religious theocracies can grow from other movements as well. The reverse is true, as well.
There are those who believe the novel is an attack on socialism, ignoring the fact that Orwell was a committed socialist
Some people consider the character of Emmanuel Goldstein to be a symbol of rebellion against tyranny because of his status in the book as a boogeyman for the Party. However, it's likely Goldstein was based on Leon Trotsky, whom Orwell considered not much better than the Communists he rebelled against.
Mind Rape: Happens a lot, but mainly Room 101 is the best example.
Nightmare Fuel: Vicious propaganda, endless war and all, culminating in Winston's hideous Mind Rape at the hands of the Ministry of Love, with the last few lines deserving to be in its own category of terror.
Room 101 embodiesNightmare Fuel, as it takes the biggest fear a person has and exploits it fully.
Sci-Fi Ghetto: Many literature professors will get very angry if you call this "Science Fiction," even though it's set in the future, with a level of surveillance impossible at the book's writing central to the plot and tone and the climax clearly relying on some sort of ultra-sophisticated psychological profiling.
The otherworldly pyramid architecture of the Ministry buildings. While not necessarily containing an outright sci-fi element, their description evokes a futuristic, utopian feel.
In the final chapter, a sweet memory floats into Winston's mind from his childhood about a happy afternoon when he played Snakes and Ladders with his mother. It's a memory he would've treasured earlier, but now he pushes it out of his mind, declaring it to be false.
The fact that some elements in the book—including constant surveillance of citizens and disproportionately severe punishment for the slightest interest in rebellion—have become elements of some Real Life governments is horrifyingly depressing.
True Art Is Angsty: The book is considered one of the greatest ever written, and it's one of the most depressing ones you'll ever read.
The Woobie: Winston and Julia, especially in the movie.