"I think the best explanation for Ken Levine's career is that there's some kind of matronly school teacher standing behind him repeatedly going, 'Now do it again, but properly this time.'"An author makes a big hit. Then he proceeds to write more stories with essentially the same plot as their first hit. Compare Spiritual Successor, which is more angled toward sequels than rehashing. See also Expy, Strictly Formula, Recycled Premise, and Recycled Script. Also see Better by a Different Name and its more vitriolic sibling They Copied It, So It Sucks, both of which are about people thinking a creator has done this to someone else's work.
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Anime And Manga
- Digimon. Every incarnation has a group of kids (except Savers) getting Trapped in Another World (except Zero Two, Tamers and Savers), where strange beings called Digital Monsters live. They find out they're supposed to save that world from evil monsters and that the events taking place there have some kind of connection to the real world.
- Summer Wars is almost a Shot-for-Shot Remake of Digimon Adventure: Our War Game at times, albeit with a lot of Adaptation Expansion. The two films were both directed by Mamoru Hosoda.
- The Dragon Ball Z movies recycle the plot of whatever arc they are placed in the timeline and sometimes they don't even bother making the villains anything more than expies (Janemba to Buu etc). For example, Bojack Unbound is just a recycled Cell Games with Gohan beating Bojack in the exact same way he defeated Cell (going SSJ 2 and receiving moral support from the afterlife by Goku), Fusion Reborn is about the Made of Evil demon Janemba (instead of Majin Buu) being clobbered by the fusion Gogeta (instead of Vegetto). Even Garlick Jr. is just King Piccolo + Raditz...
Films — Live-Action
- Escape from L.A. is an act-for-act rehash of its prequel, Escape from New York.
- Snake Plissken is arrested for past crimes and offered a choice between entering the isolated prison to rescue a VIP, or facing execution.
- Snake accepts the job and is given an Exact Time to Failure in the form of an injection that will kill him if he doesn't complete his mission in time.
- Snake is provided a high-tech, stealth way to enter the prison, complete with fancy 3D rendered entry.
- Snake finds that the VIP's tracking device has been compromised and he must seek help to find the VIP.
- Snake encounters a sympathetic female character who's down on her luck and wants Snake to protect her and help her escape the prison. She is killed soon after their meeting in a pointless death to show how bleak the world within the prison is.
- Snake learns that the person who can help him is A) Someone he knew from his criminal days who B) screwed him over, and who C) insists on going by a different name or identity.
- Snake is captured by the Big Bad while attempting to rescue the VIP and is forced to engage in a Blood Sport game for his life.
- Snake wins the game against all odds, and manages to escape with his posse, who are all killed before he makes it out of the prison.
- Snake successfully rescues the VIP, only to double-cross the Big Bad at the last moment via a Stolen MacGuffin Reveal.
- The Twilight Samurai and The Hidden Blade are both about a poor, extremely humble samurai who just wants to live a simple life. At the same time as he falls in love, he gets dragged into the violent world of politics against his will due to a rare technique of swordsmanship he possesses. Ultimately he uses his technique to escape from his predicament and gets married. Both films are written and directed by Yoji Yamada.
- Writer/director Kurt Wimmer admitted to rehashing many of the same concepts in Ultraviolet from his previous film Equilibrium. Both are about a superhuman killing machine in a future dystopia who goes against a quasi-religious, fascist government that is built around fighting something (emotion/virus) that the hero possesses. The hero fights other superhuman enforcers in a number of Curb-Stomp Battles to reach the #2 man, who turns out to A: have the same prohibited thing as the hero, B: be the real leader of the government, and C: be the toughest opponent of all.
- Two films written and produced by John Hughes and directed by Howard Deutch in the late '80s, Pretty in Pink and Some Kind of Wonderful, have essentially the same plot but with most of the genders reversed. A poor teenager (Andie/Keith) has an unrequited crush on a rich classmate (Blaine/Amanda), unaware that her/his quirky platonic best friend (Duckie/Watts) is deeply in love with her/him and facing retribution from said rich kid's evil friend/boyfriend (Steff/Hardy). The difference is that, because the test audience didn't like the ending, in Pretty in Pink Andie ended up with Blaine; Hughes wrote Some Kind of Wonderful because he was upset at the Executive Meddling.
- Roger Corman's The Little Shop of Horrors is essentially Corman's A Bucket of Blood for botanists instead of artists. It's also a case of Same Score Different Names; Corman commissioned the score for both movies, and a later movie, The Wasp Woman, from the same guy. The composer, in the finest traditions of simply not caring, just handed over the score he wrote for A Bucket of Blood every time.
- Tyler Perry receives a lot of criticism for this — just look at his page quote. His movies usually have a black woman in an abusive relationiship (or who was in one) who is a single mom. She will meet a nice working class man, and hate him at first because of that, but they will grow to like each other. Meanwhile, somebody will have a problem with their baby mama, somebody will be on drugs, Madea will discipline some children and there will be some incest involved. But at the end, there will be a church scene where everyone finds Jesus and all is well. His first movie, Diary of a Mad Black Woman, actually received decent reviews, but his later movies have been poorly received by critics but made quite a bit of money.
- In Singin' in the Rain, Cosmo suggests to Don Lockwood that they take the film they'd already celebrated, and simply slap a new name on it. It reminds Lockwood of something Kathy had said just earlier.
- Tarzan and Jungle Jim are the same story: a white Nature Hero lives in the jungle. It wasn't helped by the fact that Johnny Weissmuller starred in both of them.
- A lot of cinephiles say this about Howard Hawks's films Rio Bravo, El Dorado and Rio Lobo, all of which had John Wayne playing the lead.
- Julian Comstock and Spin.
- Dan Brown. Except for the settings and MacGuffins of each story, they're all the same. The Da Vinci Code, Angels & Demons, Digital Fortress, Deception Point — all written by the same exact formula to a hundred details of specificity.
- Agatha Christie sometimes did this in short stories.
- The plot of "The Market Basing Mystery" (1923) was used to create its novella length Distaff Counterpart "Murder in the Mews" (1937).
- The short story "The Plymouth Express" (1923) was expanded and reworked into the novel The Mystery of the Blue Train (1928) with a change of killer and motive. (Ironically, both the short story and the novel were adapted into episodes in Agatha Christie's Poirot.)
- "The Submarine Plans" (1924) was expanded to create "The Incredible Theft" (1937).
- The plot of "The Kidnapped Prime Minister" (1924) was reused in "The Girdle of Hippolyta" (1939), with the victim changed from a male politician to a young schoolgirl and a corresponding change of motive.
- The central plot device of the Harley Quin short story "The Sign in the Sky" (1925) is also the key device in the Hercule Poirot novel Taken at the Flood (1948).
- The plot of the Miss Marple short story "The Blue Geranium" (1929) was reused in the Hercule Poirot short story "The Lernaean Hydra" (1939).
- "The Mystery of the Baghdad Chest" (1932) was expanded to create "The Mystery of the Spanish Chest" (1960).
- The Hercule Poirot short story "Yellow Iris" (1937) was expanded, reworked, and reused as the Colonel Race novel Sparkling Cyanide (1945) with a change of killer and motive.
- The plot of the Miss Marple novel The Moving Finger (1942) was reused in the Hercule Poirot novel The Clocks (1963) by replacing the letter with a telephone call and changing the victim from a maid to an office worker. The anonymous letter plot was replaced with a mystery / espionage plot for The Clocks.
- In Cards on the Table, Ariadne Oliver is asked if she's ever reused a plot, and Poirot instantly mentions "The Lotus Murder" and "The Clue of the Candle-Wax" - which from the descriptions are her versions of Murder on the Links and "The Adventure of the Submarine Plans".
- Gordon Korman made his name with This Can't Be Happening at Macdonald Hall! featuring Crazy Awesome Bruno Walton and his Only Sane Man roommate, Boots O'Neill. In addition to writing several sequels to the book, he also wrote several other "Crazy Awesome Guy and his Only Sane Man best friend get up to Crazy Enough to Work schemes" books before eventually branching out. Such as:
- I Want to Go Home = summer camp version.
- Who Is Bugs Potter? and its sequel = this time they're musicians.
- Our Man Weston = with twins.
- Don't Care High = A Bruno and Boots-esque team at the world's most apathetic high school.
- A Semester in the Life of a Garbage Bag = this time, the Bruno Expy has the world's worst luck and is trying to finagle a trip to the world's luckiest island.
- Of course, some of his books he wrote in junior/senior high, which is a bit of an excuse.
- Almost all of the fantasy novels by L.E. Modesitt Jr., and even some of his science fiction novels, feel like the same story with a different coat of paint. Luckily for him, it's still a pretty good story (and it's really nice paint).
- Julian F. Thompson's big hit was The Grounding of Group Six, about five teenagers whose Rich Bitch parents paid a school to have them killed off. The guy hired to do the killing does a Heel–Face Turn when he realizes that the kids aren't the monsters he was told they were. Then they all run off and hide in the woods, form True Companions, and Pair the Spares. He also wrote several other books on the "five or six kids get dumped by parents, run off together to the woods, form True Companions and Pair the Spares" theme, such as:
- Gypsyworld = takes place in another world, and some of the kids were gotten rid of by their parents and some were just stolen, but the gypsies won't tell them which was which. Otherwise, same as Group 6 but with an eco-theme.
- A Band of Angels = kids on the run again from the government.
- Most of David Gemmels books feature an old hero who becomes a mentor to a young hero, a fiery damsel who is rarely in distress, a magical order, and a hopeless battle.
- Most of David Eddings' work is like this, following a very clear High Fantasy outline with lots of Expys, Lampshade Hanging, and snark (though he did tend to play around a bit with what personalities occupied what roles- in The Belgariad, for example, The Hero is a farmboy Chosen One and the Big Bad is a God of Evil in the traditional Satanic vein; in The Elenium, the roles are held by a Knight in Sour Armor and an Eldritch Abomination, respectively). There's a Lampshade Hanging in The Mallorean (the sequel to The Belgariad), where the characters realise they're following the same prophecy again.
- Jack McDevitt: Some Adventurer Archaeologists find a clue leading them to a lost location full of ancient knowledge. There's probably a government or corporation messing things up, whether unintentionally or malignantly. Someone WILL sacrifice him or herself, either for their comrades or to protect the knowledge (sometimes this is by way of Redemption Equals Death — see the next item). There will be a Face–Heel Turn or a Heel–Face Turn. One or two couples will develop — generally someone in one such will die, leaving their partner devastated. When they find the cache, some huge catastrophe will destroy all of what they find except when they can carry while running away, or they'll be an epoch too late. Either way, their discovery changes everything.
- Goosebumps. It's a given that the main character will be 12 years old, that they will be unpopular, and that they are doing at least one of the following things: moving to a new house, going to camp, visiting relatives, or working on a school project. They will encounter strange and spooky things but will make it out fine, until the last second where the surprise Twist Ending kicks in and they turn out to be dogs or something.
- Ken Follett is prone to this.
- The Pillars of the Earth and World Without End both take place in the same fictional priory in medieval England, in the 12th and 14th centuries respectively. They are both about a genius architect whose building project and love life are constantly threatened by conservative townsfolk, the church, politics, and petty rivalries. In both, the female lead and the architect's lover is a strangely liberated woman who is awfully assertive and independent for the middle ages. Both feature as an antagonist an evil rapist knight. Both turn on a closely guarded secret about the royal family (the sinking of the "White Ship" and death of Henry the Young King in the first, the murder of Edward II in the second). Both have the female lead traveling to the site of a great battle (Lincoln in the first, Crecy in the 2nd) to ask a boon of the king; both have the evil knight fighting in that battle.
- And his novels The Eye of the Needle and The Key to Rebecca both feature elite German spies who have information that could turn the war in the favour of the Axis. Both are are handy with hidden blades.
- Jodi Picoult's books all have the same (general) formula after she wrote My Sister's Keeper, which was (and still is) her most successful book: People (usually centering on the woman) living a normal life (in some New England town), something big happens/happened to them (i.e. husband is cheating, child is arrested) and there ends up being a court case either involving family members (i.e a family member committed a crime) or involving family members suing each other. Usually the court case involves children or teens. Expect one child to be severely ill and wiser than their years. The parents will/already did forget about the other child, if there is one. It is often a Tear Jerker, but is successful because of that (the judge/jury feels sorry for the defendant). Usually there is a Shocking Swerve near the end, and somebody dies. Examples include: Vanishing Acts, House Rules, Handle with Care, and more.
- Sarah Dessen's books almost always follow this formula: The girl has an annoying, messed up family situation (usually moves a lot), girl doesn't know how to deal with it, girl meets boy, boy fixes everything in girl's hypothetical world, and then there's always that moment when Girl and Boy are going to have a falling out, but they'll be back together by the end. Only some of her earliest novels (That Summer, Someone Like You, Dreamland) don't follow this formula. Another novel, The Moon and More, does change up this formula some (in that the main character doesn't end up with either of her love interests), and promptly got flack from fans for mixing things up too much.
- Karel Čapek did this with his play R.U.R. and the novel War with the Newts. The major difference was that in the one case, the Robot Rebellion involved actual robots (well, sort of...) and in the other case, involved a strange race of sentient newts that were enslaved/treated like robots. Because of the different media, though, both works stand pretty well on their own (though R.U.R. is far more famous, if only because it originated the term "robot").
- Vivian Vande Velde's Dragon Bait and Companions of the Night tell virtually the same story: a teenage female protagonist with a Missing Mom suffers a false accusation due to coincidental circumstances, and subsequently both her and her father's lives are endangered. Enter a Tall, Dark and Snarky Really 700 Years Old supernatural male lead who offers to guide the heroine in her quest for vindication. Despite the man's general dangerousness and untrustworthiness, the heroine accepts because she has no one else to turn to, and she quickly finds herself growing attached to him as he leads her around. This culminates in the capture of both the male lead and the heroine by the main villain. The villain is killed in such a way that the heroine is not (fully) responsible. The heroine then saves the male lead from his one weakness - daylight - and the books end on an ambiguously positive note. The difference? The male lead in Dragon's Bait is a dragon; in Companions of the Night, he's a much more marketable vampire.
- Children's books by Laura Numeroff and Felicia Bond hardly even bother with different names. Start with If You Give a Mouse a Cookie, then try If You Give a Bear A Brownie. If you liked that, you're sure to like If You Give A Cat A Cupcake!
- Cassandra Clare. So far, both of her series have been about an ordinary teenage girl who learns she has magical powers her conveniently absent parents hid from her. Unable to go home, she finds herself living at the local Extranormal Institute and gets into a love triangle between a Deadpan Snarker and a Nice Guy. The villain, who has mysterious ties to her parentage, aims to Take Over the World with the help of her evil older brother. And most of the characters in The Mortal Instruments are expies from The Draco Trilogy, her Harry Potter fanfiction.
- P. G. Wodehouse admitted to this trope several times, at one point complaining that a reviewer had "called attention to the thing I try to hush up – viz., that I have only got one plot and produce it once a year with variations."
- Mercedes Lackey has several series that are just the same story happening two or three times in a row. For instance, the Mage Storms trilogy.
- Quite a number of Raymond Feist's books follow the plotline of (1) one or two misfit boys get in trouble, (2) they randomly come across the ongoing battle against that evil wizard who keeps reincarnating throughout the series, (3) they get recruited by the shadow council, a group of powerful magicians, (4) they end up in a magical resort where Everybody Has Lots of Sex, (4) the powerful magicians oppose the evil wizard, (5) the misfit boy(s), despite being way out of their league, happen to influence a key event causing victory, and (6) evil wizard escapes again.
- Dean Koontz novels, especially the ones from the 80's and 90's, will have a highly competent, good hero who is slightly depressed and withdrawn because of bad experiences in his past, who in the course of the plot will meet a woman who is either very confident and outgoing or extremely shy and sheltered but who also has enormous inner strength, they're always both very Christian and end up in a relationship. The villain is usually a pure evil monster with a scientific explanation, or a human man who believes himself to be a new god or somehow superior to the rest of the world. Then there's a choice of cute kid, noble (or actually magical) handicapped person, or cute, noble, highly intelligent dog (always a lab or golden retriever), or some combination of the above.
- Most of Brian Jacques' Redwall plots are very similar. Redwall's in trouble. A hero carries Martin's legendary sword and kicks ass. Family-Unfriendly Violence occurs. Someone important (or not important, but very kind or innocent) dies. More Family-Unfriendly Violence. The Big Bad gets a daily dosage of Laser-Guided Karma and dies. Redwall is saved. The end. All interspersed with lots of Food Porn.
- The 1940 Horatio Hornblower short story "Hornblower and the Hand of Destiny" reads like a prototype for Forester's later novel Lieutenant Hornblower. Junior lieutenant Hornblower is faced with a tyrannical captain, a mutiny, a victorious action on a Spanish target which distracts from the mutinous atmosphere, and the captain being permanently incapacitated by one of his victims. In the short story, Captain Courtney is shot by abused seaman Fletcher; Hornblower is the only one to see and doesn't intervene, nor does he ever tell. He ends as the first lieutenant of the ship. The book expands on the abuses a captain could inflict unchecked and makes Captain Sawyer's incapacitating fall a mystery: pushed by abused Midshipman Wellard, Hornblower himself, or a real accident. Hornblower claims it's the last which he did not personally witness. The action is against a Spanish fort and the captain dies in a prisoner uprising. Hornblower ends the book with a promotion to commandernote .
- This is the problem that Nicholas Sparks' detractors find with his books: somewhere in North Carolina, a good girl (always a Christian and almost always a Daddy's Girl) finds love with a bad boy who is usually non-religious, one may have another suitor who's a Jerk Ass, the love of the girl magically transforms the boy and they leave the other boy/girlfriend for the true love, there's some for of conflict (Dad disapproves, one's from the wrong side of the tracks, etc.), the girl (or someone else crucial to their lives) dies (mainly because True Art Is Angsty) and the boy is grieving, but somehow feels closer to God, because losing the love of your life is supposed to bring you closer to religion after years of not following anything?
- Van Kooten En De Bie: Their TV show had several different names over the years, but was always known as "Van Kooten en De Bie" and essentially the same format: the duo discussed what was in the news that week and then showed sketches or pre-recorded interviews with their characters in between.
- Doctor Who: 1970s-era script editor Terrance Dicks once complained about writer Terry Nation that, while he told an excellent story, it was always the same story (his Jon Pertwee-era contributions, "Planet of the Daleks" and "Death to the Daleks", were blatant rehashes of the first Dalek story, except on a different planet, with different characters, and with a different Doctor). This led to what many fans consider his masterpiece: "Genesis of the Daleks".
- The critically/fan-acclaimed albums for Metallica tend to be down to an 8-9 song formula. Ride the Lightning, Master of Puppets, ...And Justice For All, and Death Magnetic all follow a similar structure to the music, with varying music lengths based on how advanced CD/LP technology is at the time. Each opens with a song that sounds like most of the rest of the album that also has an unusual intro (acoustic, fade-in, heartbeat) before the album's title track if it has one. Track four is generally lighter or slower ("One"note and "The Day That Never Comes"note have identical song structures) and the penultimate track (or last, in the case of Lightning) is an instrumental before a fast-paced song that's not as long as the ones preceding it.
- King Crimson tends to cycle with two-three albums sounding similar to each other, followed by a New Sound Album. Examples being the similarities for Lark's Tongue in Aspic, Red, and Starless and Bible Black.
- The Kabuki plays of Chikamatsu Monzaemon, a man regularly referred to as the 'Japanese Shakespeare'. Courier for Hades, Love Suicides at Amijima, and Love at Sea all follow the same plot: a man (usually poor or made poor at the beginning of the story) is in love with a courtesan, but doesn't have enough money to pay her ransom. The protagonist has a rival, who wants the courtesan for himself, and so the protagonist steals money to pay the ransom. None of the characters in any of these plays live happily ever after. Oh Monzaemon, you really know how to work a crowd.
- Super Mario Bros.. Almost all of his 2D games have the same plot: the princess has been kidnapped. Cross a bunch of levels to reach Bowser's castle and save her. Sometimes, this is introduced as a plot twist (in Super Mario Bros. 3, you're saving Baleful Polymorphed kings and the princess is safe at home until the final world).
- The Mega Man series includes the most infamous Mission Pack Sequels in Video Game history, especially considering how the second half of the original NES games (Mega Man 1 - 6) used the exact same plot. While simple and generic, the first three games had a not-horrible progression of intensity: Wily betrays Light, Wily's Revenge, Wily's False Reform. Games 4-6 (and, while we're here, Mega Man & Bass, Mega Man 9, and Mega Man 10) all involve the apparent Big Bad making way for Wily to steal the endgame. 9 at least is honest enough to admit it's Wily behind the scenes upfront.
- Sonic Adventure tells the story of Dr. Eggman discovering a Sealed Evil in a Can, trying to use it to build his evil empire, and finding out at the end that Evil Is Not a Toy. Switch the title and you have the plot of the next half a dozen games in the series across consoles and handhelds.
- Metal Gear 2, Metal Gear Solid, Metal Gear Solid 2, and (to a slightly lesser extent) Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops and Metal Gear: Ghost Babel have extremely, extremely similar plots, events and setpieces, with only the names/justification changed (although the similarity between MGS1 and MGS2 is lampshaded/deconstructed by the story). Metal Gear, Metal Gear Solid 3 and Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker have suspiciously similar plots to each other as well, although it's not as clear as with the first four. Metal Gear Solid 4 had its own plot, and, coincidentally or otherwise, it's more often than the others considered by fans to be really incoherent and bad.
- Metal Gear Ac!d and its sequel have very similar stories, events and setpieces to each other, too. (Snake infiltrates a laboratory performing experiments on children due to the urging of a general keeping information from him, gets a blond female Ms. Fanservice assistant, develops a rivalry with an enemy Brute who is actually a pretty nice guy, is stalked somewhat homoerotically by the lead scientist in the base, is constantly plagued by the suspicion that his memories may be lies and he may just be the Tomato in the Mirror, and ends up in the thrall of the manipulations of an extremely powerful little girl with the spirit of a dead person living on inside them.) The similarity between them is lampshaded in the story with a couple of obvious Nostalgia Levels, but not justified at all. They also both do callbacks to Metal Gear Solid with levels where you have to go out of your way to get sniper rifles.
- In every main series Pokémon game there's this kid who just got his/her first Pokémon. He/She goes traveling around the world and eventually becomes Pokémon Champion. He/She somehow manages to get in issues with Team Rocket/Magma/Aqua/Galactic/Plasma/whatever and foil Giovanni/Archer/Maxie/Archie/Cyrus/N/Ghetsis/whoever's evil plans.
- Most Fire Emblem games follow the same basic plot: The Hero (who's almost always a Prince) watches his country get invaded and taken over by The Empire, and leads his Ragtag Bunch of Misfits in many battles against them, eventually invading the enemy's capital and defeating their Tin Tyrant ruler, only to find out that there was a Man Behind the Man manipulating things behind the scenes (who's almost always an Evil Sorceror) who's out to summon a Sealed Evil in a Can. The Hero leads his army in several battles against the true Big Bad's forces and eventually fights/defeats the sealed evil, often with the aid of a legendary weapon of some kind. What keeps the series interesting is that, while it has a mostly static set of character roles in its plots, the actual personalities of the characters who fill them are very different between games. (for example, in one game the Tin Tyrant is a Misanthrope Supreme and a Tragic Villain, while in another he's a Blood Knight Social Darwinist who wants to instill a new world order)
- As the Zero Punctuation quote up on top suggests, the BioShock and System Shock games shows elements of this. BioShock is quite close to System Shock 2 in particular: Atlas is Polito, seemingly benevolent Voice with an Internet Connection helping you against the apparent enemy (The Many or Ryan). But then there is a midgame reveal and (Polito or Atlas) is shown to have been using you and to be the Big Bad (Fontaine or SHODAN) after all. In the beginning, you get yourself out of a plane about to sink or a section about to decompress, visit a truly remarkable place (an underwater Objectivist utopia or humanity's first FTL ship), and spend most of your time there fighting people who have turned into zombies (Splicers or Hybrids). You make use of both weapons and magic (Plasmids or Psionics) while working your way first to one central enemy, Ryan or The Many and then to another Fontaine or SHODAN. On the way to the second enemy, you come across a helpful scientist or her logs (Delacroix or Tenenbaum) in a place that's otherwise devoid of non-hostiles.
- Resident Evil 5 is essentially Resident Evil 4 in Africa! Both games have glaringly similar plots, with the only difference being the setting and characters. In RE 4, Leon is ambushed at the start of the game and has to hold out until the church bell rings. In RE 5, Chris is ambushed at the start of the game and has to hold out until the chopper arrives. The helicopter pilot ends up dying in both instances. The same enemies appear under different names. Leon is reunited with Ada, who is working for the enemy. Chris is reunited with Jill, who is working for the enemy, and the basic premise involves one man trying to spread the virus to the whole world by targeting impoverished, rural villages as guinea pigs for his experiment.