The other stock Egyptian style villain alongside the Mummy.
The appearance of this character is pretty recognisable, chances are, you will see a striped head dress, called a 'Nemes', and perhaps some sort of ancient looking robe with sceptre.
And if the work in question isn't set in Ancient Egypt, they may be found sealed inside some kind of tomb or pyramid and vow to curse any explorer who comes near.
In video games, this character has a 50% chance of being the Boss found in Shifting Sand Land, with the Mummy being the other.
See also Aristocrats Are Evil and Mummy, the latter is arguably a sub trope.
The Trope Maker, Trope Codifier, and Ur Example is probably The Bible, with that nasty pharaoh as one of the villains of the Old Testament, making this Older Than Feudalism.
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Soul Eater: Witch necromancer Samantha tries to summon Wrath of the Pharaoh, a malevolent spirit residing in the Pyramid of Anubis. The sarcophagus of the Pharaoh is perfectly symmetrical, making it impossible for the Super OCD Kid to destroy it. Then the Pharaoh steps out of the sarcophagus to give the final strike, and he is revealed to be horribly asymmetrical. Cue Kid's Berserk Buttonhitting the floor.
Black Adam in the Shazam (Captain Marvel) comics. After learning how to use the word "Shazam!" to gain super powers, he overthrows the pharaoh of Egypt and assumes the throne.
Stargate uses the general imagery, although the bad guy was the god Ra.
The movie Land of the Pharaohs, in which the Pharaoh's determination to have the ultimate tomb becomes oppressive.
In the Secret Series, Lord Pharaoh is a prime example of this: evil, single-minded dedication to living forever and quite possibly taking over the world someday.
Dios the High Priest in Terry Pratchett's Discworld novel Pyramids — effectively the ruler of the kingdom, manipulating a succession of essentially benign but hopelessly confused Pharaohs — for three thousand years. Pratchett offers a subversion of this idea, suggesting that the pharaoh is essentially a powerless figurehead and real power resides elsewhere in an Ancient Egypt-like country.
The Armenian national epic David of Sasun has Melik, the evil Egyptian king. He was probably based on the pharaoh from Exodus, and given the fact that Egypt has never actually conquered Armenia, is also probably a sort of No Celebrities Were HarmedExpy of the Arab caliphs or Turkish sultans.
King Tut, one of the supervillains from the 1960's Batman. He wore clothing appropriate for a pharaoh and liked to use Eygptian-themed dialogue. He was actually Professor William McElroy, an Egyptologist at Yale University. Every time he gets hit on the head he develops a split personality that thinks he's a reincarnation of the original King Tut. Hitting him on the head again restores his original personality.
Stargate SG-1 also uses the general imagery for the Gou'ald, at least the first ones encountered.
Necrons in Warhammer 40K have always had some Egyptian-ish design elements, but after the latest codex they have embraced this trope. The Necron leaders in the new codex are called "Phaerons" and their armour and headgear has some very obvious Egyptian influences. A lot of the Necron lords also have Egyptian-esque names, such as Imhotek (strangely enough, the ones that don't seem to have Polish names. Go figure).
The Tomb Kings of Warhammer are this, as the priests who were supposed to grant them entry to the afterlife instead brought them back as undead corpses. In an interesting variation, they all still think themselves the rightful rulers of Khemri, which doesn't go well with the previous and following rightful rulers of Khemri.
In LEGO Games' Ramses' Pyramid, the Mummy King, who wears the steriotypical headdress, is both this and The Mummy.
Pharaoh Man is one of the Robot Masters fought in Mega Man 4. He's not an actual pharaoh, though he was originally built to explore pyramids. His stage begins as a Shifting Sand Land and progresses into a Temple of Doom.
Tutankoopa in Paper Mario is the boss of Dry Dry Ruins and keeper of one of the kidnapped Star Spirits. He attempts to frighten Mario away from the ruins, even calling himself the "remorseless king of the desert" in his first warning.
Vampires Dawn has Pharaoh Ustrah. While he isn't really important in the first game, he becomes one of the main villains of the second game.
Dark Pharaoh Tekahn in World of Warcraft is the leader of a faction of very sphinx-like creatures who allied themselves with Deathwing, the Big Bad of the "Cataclysm" expansion.
For the most part, averted in, well, Pharaoh. With one or two exceptions, the current ruler of Egypt isn't too bad, but piss him off too much and he considers it a rebellion, and sends his army against you. Once you achieve the title you can't do anything worse than refuse to answer requests, which quickly gets you a game over.
The main villain of the Egypt section of The Secret World is Akenaten, changed from simply establishing a new religion into an Omnicidal Maniac. His reign is described in this style. Players fight a "sealed in a tomb" version at the end of this storyline section.
De Strega: Raone's outfit is meant to invoke the effect, what with the nemes he wears.
Bender from Futurama episode "A Pharaoh To Remember" forges an inscription on a Egypt like planet making him the pharoh. He immediately goes about devising ways to terrorize his slaves and designing his own monument so that he will always be remembered.
"Citizens of me! The cruelty of the old Pharaoh is a thing of the past!"
The first act of the Mr. Bogus episode "Museum Madness" had Bogus come upon a young child-like pharaoh who behaved this way, after he and Ratty accidentally wind up in a secret chamber hidden within the Egyptian exhibit of the museum. Although to be completely fair, the kid pharoah actually possessed an ancient scarab that had been stolen for many centuries, but Bogus was able to reclaim the scarab and return it back to its rightful place after making quick work of the child.
King Bob briefly becomes one of these in one episode of Recess, when he changes his title to Pharaoh Bob and makes the other kids work like slaves to build a mud-brick pyramid in his honor.
As you would expect with a civilization that lasted for over 3000 years and had hundreds of rulers, many of them were not particularly nice guys. For example, Khufu (the pharaoh who ordered the construction of the Great Pyramid of Giza) had a reputation as a cruel tyrant.
Akhenaten, the pharaoh who tried to convert Egypt to monotheism, was so disliked by his own people that immediately after his death the old gods were reinstated and his name was erased from all records and monuments. Even mentioning his name was thought to bring about a curse. In Egyptian Mythology making someone an Un-Person was the worst fate that could befall them. Of course, some mentions of his name survived or else we wouldn't know about him today.