"Now about Lankhmar. She's been invaded, her walls breached everywhere and desperate fighting is going on in the streets, by a fierce host which out-numbers Lankhamar's inhabitants by fifty to one — and equipped with all modern weapons. Yet you can save the city." "How?" demanded Fafhrd. Ningauble shrugged. "You're a hero. You should know."
One of the most seminal pieces of Sword and Sorcery was Fritz Leiber's Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser series of short stories and novellas. Set in the world of Nehwon (except for one story set on Earth), often in the city of Lankhmar, it starred Fafhrd, a seven-foot tall barbarian from the North, and the Mouser, a trickster thief and former wizard's apprentice, who find and befriend each other one day. A deconstruction of the Conan the Barbarian stories that Leiber had grown tired of, Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser showed two heroes closer to actual human beings. To quote The Other Wiki: "They spend a lot of time drinking, feasting, wenching, brawling, stealing, and gambling, and are seldom fussy about to whom they hire their swords. But they are humane and - most of all - relish true adventure." A massive source for inspiration for much of modern roleplaying, specifically D&D, either directly or indirectly, and pretty much any swashbuckling - as opposed to Thud and Blunder - fantasy story written after about 1970 or so probably owes a debt to these stories.There are seven books containing all the stories: Swords and Deviltry, Swords Against Death, Swords in the Mist, Swords Against Wizardry, The Swords of Lankhmar, Swords and Ice Magic, and The Knight and Knave of Swords. There is also the authorized novel sequelSwords Against the Shadowland by Robin Wayne Bailey.
Barbarian Hero: Fafhrd. Subverted/Deconstructed/Unbuilt in that he's based on actual historical barbarians - he wears armor, seldom ever uses two-handed weapons, is a skilled horse archer, is a well-trained seafarer, and generally tries to avoid fighting more than one enemy at a time.
Barbarian Longhair: Fafhrd, the tall northern barbarian, is described as having long, flowing red hair. The Mouser, who hails from the civilized south, often comments on Fafhrd's unkempt appearance.
Brains and Bondage: The Mouser has some pretty heavy tendencies to sexual sadism, with increasing explicitness over Lieber's lifetime.
Brains and Brawn: Massively averted. Fafhrd is single-minded, but sometimes has as many utility skills as the Gray Mouser. The Mouser, while conspicuously intelligent, is inclined to let his ego lead him into foolhardy actions. To make it more plain, it's usually the Mouser who does the most damage and fights the toughest fights.
Broke Episode. All the time. The two never manage to hold on to any of the riches they come across in their adventures.
Cartwright CurseGirl of the Week: They almost always have love interests, they never seem to last from one story to the next. Eventually averted in the final tales of the series when both the heroes got two new steady girlfriends.
Earth Drift: The first Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser stories Leiber wrote (as opposed to the first published) took place on Earth, before the world of Lankhmar was written into the series, with the result that when collected, some lines had to be added explaining why they were on Earth.
Heroic RROD: In one of the stories the villain fights the lightning-quick Mouser to a standstill — for a while. When defeated the tremendous overstrain caused the villain's corpse to go into immediate rigor mortis. Or at least, the heroes think it's rigor mortis... The truth is much more bizarre.
Heterosexual Life-Partners: Lampshaded, as they actually ponder the fact that they've never had any desire to fool around with each other.
Humanoid Abomination: Depending on the story, Ningauble and Sheelba sometimes have this vibe. And sometimes, they seem simply like two quirky wizards, who just happen to look weird.
I Call It "Vera": Fafhrd has a broadsword named Graywand and a poinard named Heartseeker. The Mouser has a rapier named Scalpel and a dirk named Cat's Claw. Leiber plays with this one, though, by having the pair lose their weapons all the time. They just use those names for whatever blades they happen to be carrying at the moment.
The Cat's Claw gets referenced by a number of early Square RPGs (Final Fantasy, SaGa), appearing as a store-bought dagger/sword that's usually one of the better daggers in the games. Later games seemed to have forgotten the original reference and made the Cat Claw/Cat Claws into an actual paw-shaped glove weapon with claws.
Magic Knight: Not really that much of a knight, but Mouser was a failed sorcerer's apprentice who turned mercenary. He is primarily a swordsman but he casts a spell once in a while.
Mars Needs Women: Gender-inversed. In one of the novels, a mountain-dwelling race of invisible people is on the brink of extinction, as almost all their males have become sterile. They decide to send a call for human heroes in order to breed with them: by their calculations, the invisibility will breed true. The catch is, their king doesn't intend to let said heroes to have sex with the invisible girls: he prefers more, shall we say, cutting methods of extracting genetic material.
Medium Awareness: In the origin story Ill Met in Lankhmar, the Mouser's response when Fafhrd introduces himself is to ask how "Fafhrd" is pronounced. Fafhrd also made sure to carefully spell it out to him, because else he couldn't have known how it was spelled, since they were, you know, speaking.
Mr. Exposition: Parodied with Ningauble of the Seven Eyes — in one scene, as he tries to exposit, the Mouser keeps interrupting him again and again just for fun.
Our Ghouls Are Creepier: Ghouls are a humanoid race that have transparent skin, muscles, and organs, giving them the appearance of animated skeletons . . . oh, and they just so happen to be cannibals too.
Play-Along Prisoner: In The Knight and Knave of Swords, the Gray Mouser captures a girl and ties her up. She submits to this at the time, but later she grows spines out of her body and uses them to cut through the bindings.
Plunder: A typical adventure hook, most notably in Swords Against Wizardry.
Shapeshifter Baggage: In The Swords of Lankhmar, a shrinking potion does, in fact, displace mass, as the now rat-sized Mouser has to swim his way out of a good-sized puddle of meat, cloth fibers, and metal fragments (flesh, clothes, armor, and weapons). Later, he grows back to his full size away from that puddle, and the mass is taken from nearby objects (and people!), stripping some enemy Mooks of armor and weapons— and giving a nearby Fat Girl a magical liposuction. Great news for her, Squick for the Mouser?