"The Earth is faced with a powerful threat from an extra-terrestrial source. We've moved into an age where science fiction has become fact. We need to defend ourselves."
— Commander Ed Straker, "Identified"
"Our planet is dying. Our natural resources are exhausted. We must come to Earth. We must come to Earth to survive!"UFO
— Alien-possessed human, "E.S.P"
is a British
television series created by Gerry and Sylvia Anderson (with Reg Hill) in 1969-71, and Gerry Anderson's first live-action series.
In the futuristic world of 1980
Earth is under attack by UFO's
from a Dying Race
(no name for the aliens is ever given
) seeking to harvest people for their organs
. A top-secret multinational organisation
(Supreme Headquarters Alien Defence Organisation, pronounced "Shadow
"), led by the dedicated Commander Straker, is set up with impressive (though not limitless) resources, including the high-tech hardware expected from the creators of Thunderbirds
. Its goal is to suppress public knowledge of the aliens
while at the same time finding ways to combat them.
The series is remembered for its colourful decor, glamorous girls in Stripperiffic
outfits, and dark (for its time) concept. Few of the episodes had 'happy' endings; at most SHADO would prevent some outrageous act of sabotage or destruction, innocent people were often sacrificed
, and attempts to discover more about the aliens frequently came to naught
. The stories included such adult themes as drug use, adultery, inter-racial relationships, and the breakdown of Straker's marriage under the strain of his job.
Unfortunately this attempt to make a Darker and Edgier
version of Captain Scarlet and the Mysterons
backfired, as most TV broadcasters were expecting the Andersons' usual children's fare
. This and erratic broadcasting schedules
(no two regional stations ever simulcast the show, and American broadcasters reacted with a collective "WTF?") prevented UFO
from gaining an audience — without US support, a second season (set on a more advanced Moonbase in the 1990's) was scrapped, and the pre-production design and model work (not to mention some basic concepts) reused for the slightly more successful Space: 1999
The series still managed to have a significant, if limited, impact on pop-culture though. Both the video-game developer MicroProse
and the anime studio Gainax
have pointed towards the show as a main inspiration for their respective franchises; X-COM
and Neon Genesis Evangelion
After languishing in Development Hell
for years, a feature film based on the series was supposedly moving ahead
for release in 2012. Perhaps unsurprisingly, nothing seemed to come of it.
No relation to Project UFO
. nor to Michael Shencker's rock band UFO
UFO provides examples of the following tropes:
- Absentee Actor: Although the show has Loads and Loads of Characters, only Ed Straker appears in all 26 episodes.
- Action-Hogging Opening: A fast-cut montage, over an uncharacteristically (as compared to the martial/orchestral Theme Tune of Thunderbirds) Swinging Sixties theme music, shows us all the relevant people, places, and hardware featured on the show.
- Alien Abduction: The main reason for the UFOs to visit the earth seems to be to abduct people, either to harvest their organs or to take over their entire bodies.
- Aliens Speaking English: Inverted in that the aliens are never heard to speak.
- All Men Are Perverts: In one episode the aliens are using a weapon that freezes time. Straker enters the film studio used to disguise SHADO headquarters and sees an actor permanently "glancing" down the cleavage of the well-endowed actress opposite him. Apparently even Straker is not immune — in "Close Up" he uses a sophisticated macroscope to look up the skirt of a posing Lieutenant Gay Ellis. Supposedly it's part of a demonstration on how it's impossible to judge magnification without reference points, but even after he gets the point Straker zooms in for a second look... you're not fooling anyone, you sly dog!
- Anyone Can Die: And boy, do they ever! The first episode opens with the aliens massacring a bunch of teens who got unlucky enough to find a landing site and take some pictures, S.H.A.D.O. Red Shirt agents drop like flies, and then there's episodes like "Confetti Check, A-OK"...
- Applied Phlebotinum: Usually drugs such as GL-7 and X-50. Also the neutronic detection equipment.
- Artistic License – Physics:
- In the episode "Computer Affairs" man is shot from a submerged submarine into the air. If the submarine's interior had been at normal atmospheric pressure it would have been very difficult to open a hatch against the water pressure, and when the hatch opened the compartment inside would be very forcefully flooded. On the other hand, if the internal air pressure had been increased to match the water pressure (as is done in similar situations in Real Life) the man would have had to be treated for the bends afterwards.
- The speed, acceleration and maneuvreability of the UFOs defy all known laws of physics. This is just taken for granted and not even handwaved away.
- Auto Kitchen: In the first episode "Identified", the break room in Moonbase has what appears to be an automat-style setup on one wall, with six different sets of slots divided by nationality.
- Awesome Personnel Carrier: The fully-tracked Mobiles of SHADO have a radar dish on top and carry a squad of assault rifle-toting redshirts for taking on the anonymous alien invaders, yet are small enough to be deployed via aircraft.
- Bait-and-Switch Gunshot: "ESP". While John Croxley is holding Ed Straker and Alec Freeman at gunpoint two shots ring out and Croxley crumples to the ground, dead. Paul Foster appears behind Croxley holding a gun - he heard Croxley threatening them and shot him to save their lives.
- Big Brother Is Employing You:
- If two SHADO employees are having an affair, computer-psych tests are run to see if it will affect their performance.
- Straker wants to tell his wife the truth about his job, but it would put her life at risk from SHADO's own Security department.
- Body Snatcher: After discovering a completely human 'alien', it's theorised that the aliens are Energy Beings who just use the bodies as hosts.
- Brainwashed: A favourite tactic of the aliens, especially Manchurian Agent ("The Psychobombs", "Kill Straker!", "E.S.P", "The Cat With Ten Lives", "Destruction", "Mindbender" and "The Man Who Came Back"). "Timelash" is a notable exception, in that a voluntary traitor is used.
- Breaking the Fourth Wall: In "Mindbender" alien crystals make Commander Straker hallucinate that he's an actor in a sci-fi television series. As he remembers being Straker, but can clearly see the cameras and backstage crew around him, he naturally starts to go insane.
- Bridge Bunnies
- Played Straight in SHADO headquarters. With very few exceptions the female personnel are young and shapely, wear skin-tight clothes and don't actually seem to do very much.
- Subverted on Moonbase during normal operations: despite their Stripperific clothing, the female personnel run the base and command the male pilots.
- ...until a male main character turns up and takes over, and the trope is played straight again. This is partly justified because those men are higher in rank, but raises the questions why they have to micro-manage the women instead of letting them continue to do their jobs.
- The Casanova: Alec Freeman is introduced flirting with Straker's Sexy Secretary and then the Bridge Bunnies. This verges on Kavorka Man as he's the oldest of the main characters.
- Catapult Nightmare: "Exposed". Paul Foster spots a UFO while piloting an experimental plane. Sky One destroys the UFO, but the explosion damages the plane and sends it into a dive. Paul Foster wakes up with a yell and sits up in a hospital bed, apparently after having a nightmare of the flight.
- Celibate Hero: Cmdr. Straker has been divorced for ten years and hasn't been in any serious relationship since then (or at least no such relationship is mentioned). He devotes all his energy to his work, and doesn't seem very interested in women.
- Colonel Badass: Straker.
- Comm Links: "Computer Affair". When a team of SHADO troops is sent in on foot to attack a UFO, the leader communicates with his superiors with a "wrist radio" version, complete with extendable antenna.
- Compilation Movie: Several episodes were edited together in the late 1970's to make ''Invasion: UFO".
- Computer Equals Tapedrive (along with Beeping Computers, Billions of Buttons, and Our Graphics Will Suck in the Future): A montage of flashing lights, spinning tape drives, large font letters on coloured monitors, swaying female buttocks, and rows of large luminous buttons accompany every Red Alert. SID (the computer-controlled radar satellite) is given a more 'advanced' look, being a talking computer and all.
- Concealing Canvas: "Exposed". Paul Foster breaks into the Ventura Aircraft Corporation to find evidence that he saw a UFO. He looks behind several paintings on a wall and eventually pulls one back, revealing a safe hidden behind it.
- Continuous Decompression: "Survival", "Kill Straker!", "The Man Who Came Back."
- Cool Car, Cool Boat, Cool Starship, Elaborate Underground Base: What do you expect from the people who made Thunderbirds?
- Crazy-Prepared: In the episode Court Martial it turns out that the pretty light show which we've seen behind Straker's desk for the previous 11 episodes isn't a decoration. It's an escape route. Better still, someone else figures Straker would arrange this, and helps himself.
- Da Chief: General Henderson of the International Astrophysical Committee, who's always going red in the face and shouting at Commander Straker, usually over SHADO's budget allocation. Ironically Henderson and Straker are quite friendly in the 'contemporary' scenes that take place before SHADO is operational.
- Distant Prologue: Begins one year in the future (ie 1970) with Colonel Straker witnessing a UFO attack. The rest of the series takes place 11 years in the future (1980) when Straker is head of SHADO. As of the finale, it is implied that "now" is 1984note , helped along by the reference to more advanced and sophisticated Moonbase defence systems against massed UFO attacks.
- Doppelgänger: "Reflections in the Water."
- Downer Ending: "The Square Triangle," "Survival," "Flight Path," "The Cat With Ten Lives" and especially "A Question Of Priorities."
- Drinking On Duty: Straker has an automatic booze dispenser in his office, though he never partakes of it himself (guests and coworkers do use it).
- Emotions vs. Stoicism: Straker's iron self-control and willingness to Shoot the Dog is joked upon (and sometimes criticised) by his officers.
- Enemy Mine: While shooting down an alien craft in one episode, Foster crashes on the Moon. His radio is broken, but he discovers that an alien is also alive (and his communications are also broken), and the two form a truce and co-operate to reach Moonbase. There's a hope that this show of good faith could lead to the alien entering Moonbase alive and opening negotiations with SHADO - but once they reach Moonbase, the guards think the the pilot is being held captive, and they shoot the alien.
- Energy Weapon: The UFOs have them, but their ground troops use chrome assault rifles firing ordinary bullets.
- Eureka Moment: "The Dalotek Affair". As part of one of their plots the aliens drop a meteor on the Moon. Late in the episode Commander Straker remembers a single word from a 10 year old TV broadcast ("fireball") and realizes that his subconscious mind is trying to tell him about the meteor's significance.
- Everybody Smokes: Even on the Moonbase, medical areas, and computer rooms! Averted in "Sub Smash" where a nurse tells Commander Straker he can't smoke inside a hospital room.
- Faceless Goons: The aliens are normally shown wearing spacesuits with helmets with opaque visors. In this case it's to enhance their mysterious and threatening nature, so the audience won't identify with them. Though episodes where we're supposed to feel sympathy for a space-suited invader feature a lot more close-ups.
- Fanservice: There is no nudity, except for a few Lingerie Scenes, but lots of other kinds of Fanservice.
- Our first view of the 1980's is a mini-skirted dolly bird sashaying away from the camera, which is positioned at hemline level.
- Male actors wear jockstraps due to their slick trousers and form-fitting catsuits.
- The female moonbase and headquarters personnel wear skin-tight uniforms with bullet bras underneath.
- Then there's the fishnet shirts of the male and female Skydiver crew that show off the men's nipples (the women's shirts have skin-coloured lining in front).
- There's this famous clothes-changing scene which seems like a lot of trouble to go through for a ten minute coffee break.
- Fighter Launching Sequence: Every time the Moonbase intercepters, SHADO mobiles or Sky One deploy.
- Flatline: In the episodes "Identified" and "Computer Affair" the death of a captured alien is graphically depicted by their pulses flattening out on a heart monitor machine.
- Flashback Effects:
- "Court Martial". The teaser shows Colonel Foster being sentenced to death. The first act starts with a shimmering effect on the screen like falling water, then continues with the beginning of the events that led to the sentencing.
- "Do you remember the Dalotek Affair, six months ago?" The Dalotek Affair...the Dalotek Affair...
- Front Organisation: SHADO headquarters is hidden under a film studio, where all the odd goings-on can be passed off as something to do with a movie. Fair enough, but how does Straker have the time to run a film studio and be the leader of an international alien-fighting organisation? Wouldn't hiring a front man as studio boss make more sense?
Of course the real reason for disguising the base as a film studio was that the series was shot at a film studio! (Actually two in succession, because the first studio closed down during production.)
- Future Music: "Ordeal" wrongly predicts that you can go to a party in the future dressed like Goldmember and not get laughed at; however it is correct in assuming that the Beatles song "Get Back" will still be popular.
- Government Conspiracy: SHADO conceals evidence that UFOs exist to prevent worldwide panic. Their methods include intimidation (ranging from beatings to pressure on the employers of the witness), conscription into SHADO, amnesia pills, and even murder.
- Hand Signals: Used in "Computer Affair", "Survival" and "Court Martial".
- He Knows Too Much: Test pilot Paul Foster is given a choice between joining SHADO or dying when he witnesses a UFO attack and starts asking questions. Later when Foster becomes unreliable due to alien brainwashing it's expected by all concerned (including Foster) that Straker will kill him as it's impossible to simply fire the man. Instead Straker forces the issue with an intense Kill Me Now or Forever Stay Your Hand moment in a Shooting Gallery.
- He's Dead, Jim: Played straight in the episode "Sub Smash". After a Skydiver officer is injured during an attack he goes berserk and falls to the deck. Commander Straker (possibly) checks his pulse, puts his ear to the man's chest and says "He's out of it", meaning that he's dead.
- Human Aliens: Justified in that the aliens are using human bodies. Even the legendary Little Green Men look is Handwaved as being from the fluid used to cushion their bodies for faster-than-light travel.
- I Did What I Had to Do: Very much. There's lots of Black and Grey Morality, and plenty of What the Hell, Hero? moments.
- Idiot Ball: "The Dalotek Affair". Both Colonel Foster and the crew of a Moonship pick it up, causing the death of two SHADO Moonship pilots.
- "I Know You're in There Somewhere" Fight: "The Man Who Came Back". Commander Straker tries this when his friend Collins turns out to be a Manchurian Agent sent by the aliens, but to no avail.
- Infant Immortality: Averted Trope on "Confetti Check, A-OK". With Straker's own kid, even!
- Infinite Supplies: Averted. Several episodes show Straker arguing with his superiors over his budget allocation. (Players of X-COM might have a idea of how he feels.)
- In Space Everyone Can See Your Face: Applies to the humans, though the aliens are usually obscured by their liquid-filled helmets.
- It's Quiet... Too Quiet: "The Sound of Silence". Twice while near a lake a woman mentions that there's no sound from local animals. This is because there's a UFO hiding in the lake and a bodysnatching alien wandering around nearby.
- It Was All Just A Dream: "Ordeal", "Mindbender"
- It Works Better with Bullets: "Survival". While on the surface of the Moon, Paul Foster is captured by an alien. He manages to grab his gun back from the alien, only for the alien to open his hand to display the weapon's ammo clip.
- Kill Me Now or Forever Stay Your Hand: "Kill Straker!". Colonel Foster has been given a subliminal command to kill his superior Commander Straker. Straker needs to be absolutely sure the command has been erased, so he orders the guards to lock them in the Shooting Gallery, then proceeds to take pot shots at Foster in order to provoke him, screaming "Kill! Kill!" when Foster finally picks up a gun to defend himself.
- Limited Wardrobe: A real-world example. They only had two alien uniforms, so there are never more than two aliens on screen at once. Also, there's a rather memorable red dress that shows up on several different female characters throughout the series.
- Lingerie Scene:
- Made of Explodium: The UFOs disintegrate if they spend too much time in Earth's atmosphere. They can also be destroyed by conventional weapons.
- Male Gaze
- In the first episode alone, there are three shots of female SHADO personnel in miniskirts or catsuits sauntering towards or away from the camera.
- In the intro sequence, a curvy, catsuited woman is shown walking away from the viewer, the camera firmly focused on her behind.
- Manchurian Agent
- In "Kill Straker!" The aliens give Paul Foster a subliminal command to kill Commander Straker.
- In "The Man Who Came Back", Commander Straker's friend Collins turns out to have been brainwashed by the aliens into an assassin. His orders: kill Straker.
- The Men in Black: Though dressed a lot more stylishly. Well...colourfully anyway.
- Military Mashup Machine: Skydiver, an atomic submarine with hydrofoil capability and a jet fighter attached to its nose. The name makes a lot of sense when you see the opening titles: "SKYDIVER" is written on the side of the hull. When the jet, "Sky One", separates from the sub, the word splits in two: the jet now says "SKY" and the sub "DIVER".
- Morally Ambiguous Doctorate: Dr. Doug Jackson, who speaks with a noticeable Eastern European accent and always has a vaguely sinister air about him. It's possible he is a spy for Straker's superiors. As the doctor says on his first appearance, things are not always what they seem.
- Ms. Fanservice: Lieutenant Gay Ellis, described in the DVD Commentary as having "the figure of a goddess", and usually wears skintight clothes.
- Necessarily Evil: The aliens are motivated by desperation rather than malice.
- Never Recycle Your Schemes: Each episode has a different alien plot to destroy SHADO headquarters, kill Ed Straker, release nerve gas or whatever. Each time a plot fails the aliens never try it again even if it has a good chance of working.
- No New Fashions in the Future: In the 1980's wigs have replaced bad hairstyles, suits and ties have given way to turtlenecks and Nehru jackets, while catsuits and calf-boots are standard military uniform. Some of the civilian fashions aren't too different from the current fashion around 1970, while others are more on the bizarre side.
- No Biochemical Barriers: The aliens can adapt human organs to replace their own, yet die if exposed to our atmosphere for too long.
- No Pronunciation Guide: An idiosyncrasy of the series is that the term "UFO" is pronounced as a word ("you-foh"), as suggested by the real-world originator of the term Edward J. Ruppelt, and not as the more common "you-eff-oh". This is particularly true of the lead character, Ed Straker. Technically speaking the series title should properly be pronounced "you-foh" as well. However, the "you-foh" pronunciation was not consistently applied and some supporting characters use the now more common form.
- Nuke 'em: Each Moonbase Interceptor is armed with a single large nuclear missile on its nose, though the Sky One fighter (that operates in Earth's atmosphere) uses multiple rocket launchers with conventional warheads.
- Old-School Dogfight:
- The imagined space combat draws very much from Battle of Britain tropes. Moonbase is the beleaguered sector airfield, and SID (Space Intruder Detector) the early-warning radar. Calmly-speaking young women (the WAAF's) vector in Interceptors (Spitfires) against the anonymous alien invaders (German bombers). But given that the Moon takes 27.322 days to orbit the Earth, one wonders why the aliens don't just attack when Moonbase is on the opposite side of their target.
- Averted in that special-effects limitations prevented much in the way of actual dog-fighting - the combat between interceptors and UFOs consist mostly of missiles and energy weapons being fired at fairly long range.
- Omnidisciplinary Scientist: Dr. Jackson appears to know most branches of medicine, ranging from ordinary GP diagnostics all the way to advanced psychiatry. In addition to wearing those hats, he also at one point serves as a rather competent prosecutor in a court martial!
- Out of Order: Every TV broadcaster showed the 26 episodes in different order, due to the then highly-localized nature of the ITV "network" in Britain (this was completely normal at the time, and explains the absence of multi-episode plotlines) - in fact, three ITV regions once premiered different episodes of the show at the exact same time!
- Person of Mass Destruction: "The Psychobombs"
- Psychic Powers: ESP is a mental condition treated by mainstream psychologists.
- Rapid Aging: "Identified". After a UFO is shot down one of the aliens aboard it is captured. After he's exposed to the Earth's atmosphere he starts aging rapidly and quickly dies.
- Red Alert: SID (Space Intruder Detector), SHADO Control and Moonbase all call them whenever a UFO is detected, so it happens on an average of once per episode.
- Reentry Scare: "Kill Straker!" While a SHADO Moon ship is forced to re-enter the Earth's atmosphere at a steeper than normal angle a SHADO technician says "I have re-entry cessation on radio contact". The ship isn't found until 16 hours later, and Commander Straker comments on how worried he was.
- Rewind, Replay, Repeat: "The Dalotek Affair". Straker catches a subliminal clue about UFO attacks from a documentary film, and insists on watching the clip over and over until he figures out what triggered the association.
- Secret War: The ongoing alien invasion attempts and body-snatching must be kept secret to avoid widespread panic, which is why SHADO necessarily must operate without revealing itself to the general public.
- Self-Destructing Security: Straker is carrying a briefcase chained to his wrist with taped evidence of a Flying Saucer. When a British minister wants to look at the contents, Straker flicks a catch hidden under a nameplate, exposing the words DESTRUCT NEGATIVE, before opening the briefcase.
- Sci Fi Writers Have No Sense Of Distance
- "The Dalotek Affair" and "Ordeal". In both episodes Commander Straker says that aliens from another solar system came from a billion miles away, which would mean that they came from inside the solar system. The nearest star system to Earth is Proxima Centauri, approximately 4.24 light years or about 25 trillion miles away. Even if he had been using "billion" in the British sense, which is an American trillion, it still would have been wrong because a trillion miles is still much less than the necessary distance.
- The way the moon-based spaceships are able to intercept UFOs coming from a totally different direction shows some lack of understanding of the distances involved.
- Shoot the Dog: "A Question of Priorities", "The Responsibility Seat", "Ordeal"
- Sigil Spam: SHADO puts its name and logo on all of its vehicles, even though SHADO's existence itself is secret.
- Smoking Is Cool: Straker and Freeman.
- Solemn Ending Theme: It has a fast upbeat opening theme, but closes with an ominous atmospheric piece.
- Space Clothes:
- The uniforms of the moonbase personnel, of course.
- Though not technically in space, the uniforms worn on Skydiver and in the SHADO HQ certainly qualify.
- Some of the civilian fashions also have a spacy, futuristic look, while other fashions are pretty mundane by early 70's standards.
- There's even Space Underwear: a scene with a female moonbase crewmember changing clothes shows that she wears silver undies.
- Space Is an Ocean, Space Is Noisy, Space Is Slow Motion, Standardized Space Views
- Stealth in Space: Averted. Nothing escapes the eagle eye of SID; in fact most alien plots are about trying to get past the SHADO defence system.
- Stock Footage: The underwing rocket packs on the Sky One fighter resemble those used by RAF ground attack fighters, saving money on shots of them firing.
- Sweater Girl: The female personnel at SHADO headquarters affect this look: their uniforms don't include actual sweaters, but the top half of their jumpsuits is long-sleeved with a high neckline and shows no skin, but is skin-tight and worn over a bra that emphasizes their breasts.
- Tap on the Head: "Ordeal". An alien punches Colonel Foster in the chin and he goes out like a light. It turned out to be Justified because it occurred during an It Was All A Dream sequence.
- Time Stands Still: "Timelash"
- To the Batpole!: Pilots use chutes to quickly get to their interceptors on Moonbase and the SkyDiver submarine. SHADO's headquarters (hidden under a film studio) is accessed by Straker's office which serves as an elevator. As Gerry Anderson pointed out in a DVD Commentary, it's just as well no-one peeked into the boss' window and wondered why his office was sinking into the ground.
- Truth Serums: "Computer Affair". The "GL-7 serum", one of the "new anodynes", is used on a captured alien at Straker's orders to lower his resistance so he'll talk. Unfortunately it kills him instead, due to either his different biology or him somehow committing suicide to prevent himself from talking.
- Vanity Is Feminine: Those shiny metal belt pouches the Bridge Bunnies wear? That's not some high-tech Everything Sensor or computer repair tools; it contains a mirror and makeup kit.
- Vapor Wear: The fishnet tops worn by the Skydiver crew. The women's uniforms has nude fabric lining covering their breasts. The men have no such luxury.
- Video Phone: Multiple examples during Earth-Moon communications in "The Dalotek Affair" and one in "The Responsibility Seat".
- You Gotta Have Purple Hair: One of the rare Western examples, and from before anime became popular to boot.
- We Used to Be Friends: Straker thinks that Henderson should be in charge of SHADO; ten years later, they're constantly at each others throats.
- When the Clock Strikes Twelve: "ESP". John Croxley's wife was killed by a UFO crashing into his house and he blames SHADO for her death. He lures Ed Straker and Alec Freeman to the ruins of his house with the intent of killing them at midnight.
- Why Did It Have to Be Snakes? / Compressed Vice: Straker suffers from claustrophobia, which causes problems when he's trapped on a damaged submarine (though though you'd think it'd cause problems in the confines of a spacecraft too).
- Most of the "futuristic" fashions in the series seem very 1969-ish today. Even though most of the series was actually filmed in The Seventies, the design was probably done in the previous decade.
- The turbine-powered, streamlined cars are obviously inspired by the concept cars of the 1960's.
- The gender roles, with women mostly in subordinate jobs or as housewives, and lots of Bridge Bunnies around. Averted for the moonbase which has a female commander.
- While not exactly outdated, the predictions of an extensive space/lunar industry and widespread use of supersonic transport already by 1980 feels like Apollo-era optimism today.
- Averted in some cases: the series foresees the pervasive use (though not the nature) of computers in everyday life, spacecraft piggy-back launched from aircraft, voice print identification, car and cordless telephones, and that space debris will become a serious concern. Also, advanced or impossible (for the 1960s) tissue identification methods (e.g. DNA analysis) are nonetheless implied to be used routinely by the show's era.