Arnold: But the document! Where's the document?
- The evidence could incriminate someone who Bob likes and doesn't want to see punished.
- The evidence, if made public, will ruin the life of someone who's otherwise involved in the crime, like a victim or a witness.
- Bob is being blackmailed by the Big Bad or an associate.
- Bob himself would be incriminated by the evidence.
- The evidence contains information which would exonerate another villain who is on trial for another crime.
- The evidence, if involving a dead person, might cast a bad light on their memory — and Bob was a good friend/relative/lover of the dead person.
- The evidence is entirely worthless — it's too late to act.
- Bob wants to punish the bad guy himself.
- While the evidence could get the bad guy put away or otherwise punished, it would cause scandals and create chaos for a lot of people, some who may be entirely innocent.
- The evidence would reveal an ugly truth about a past event that the public perceives as a good thing, and Bob wants the event to stay a good thing.
- The criminal committed the crime for a good reason, and in retrospect Bob agrees that the act was justified.
- The crime involved the murder of someone who was a truly terrible person, and Bob doesn't want the evidence revealed, since it would result in someone going to prison for something he doesn't think of as a crime.
- Bob is currently on the run or at least not on good terms with the local authorities, so he can't give the evidence to them without being captured/killed/arrested.
- Bob is actually the villain.
- Bob believes that the criminal is genuinely repentant and need not be punished further.
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Anime and Manga
- In Tenchi Muyo!, Mihoshi's superior destroys Mihoshi's incredibly detailed report on dealing with Kagato because of the information there, most importantly that not only is the long lost Prince Yosho on Earth, he has a grandson named Tenchi and that a number of other powerful people are on Earth connected in some way to Yosho with a lot of overlap. He lets the royal family of Jurai know, but there's no way he's letting the rest of the universe know the information.
- The Sin City story The Big Fat Kill revolves around the importance of getting rid of the body of "Iron Jack" Rafferty, a "hero cop" that the prostitutes of Old Town kill after he gets violent with one of their number. If it is ever discovered that they killed him, the truce between Old Town and the police will end and a violent war will erupt, so they try to dispose of him and his friends by sinking the body into the local tar pits. The situation is complicated by Mob Boss Wallenquist, who is trying to get possession of Jack's body in order to make sure that the war does erupt, since if Old Town is weakened by the police he will be able to move in afterwards and take control of the women therein. Ultimately, most of Jack disappears into the pits, and the rest of him is destroyed when his corpse's head is stuffed with explosives, along with Manute and his men who wanted revenge on Old Town after Ava's death at their hands.
- In Dirty Sympathy Apollo disposes his gun and the bullets from LeTouse's murder into the sewer to hide that Machi killed him because Apollo used the death to frame Daryan.
- Graduate Meeting Of Mutual Killing: Mishio Matsukaze had managed to write in a notebook everything he had found about the Mastermind behind the game, in case he died. However, what he didn't expect was that the person who killed him would find the notebook by chance AND would be aligned with the Mastermind. The notebook was destroyed due to its incriminating nature towards the Mastermind.
At the end of The Uncanny, Frank tosses Wilbur's manuscript into the fire, after receiving an unnerving stare from his cat. The manuscript goes up in flames, destroying all evidence of the conspiracy Wilbur had uncovered.
- In the Whateley Universe, Kodiak destroys tapes of the Don (and probably more of the Alphas) abusing and raping Skybolt and Cavalier, who were Mind Raped into being obedient slaves because he knows that should the tapes get out, sooner or later the entire school would see them — and any chance of Skybolt and Cavalier having a normal life once they get released from the psych ward would be ruined.
- There's an accidental case in Dead Man's Chest by Kerry Greenwood. At a wake held for a dead woman, Phryne steals a pillowcase dropped by a maid that she finds to be suspicious — it has teeth imprints and a stiff patch, indicating that the old woman was murdered by being smothered with the pillow. At the end of the novel, Phryne's maid Dot washes the pillowcase and returns it, not realising that it was important.
- In one of the Lord Peter Wimsey stories, he discovers the identity of the murderer, who was a Sympathetic Murderer, and tells his friend, a policeman, a hypothetical story of who he thinks is the murderer and how it happened (he's actually telling him the real story) but since another has confessed and later killed himself, the policeman tells him to let it drop. Wimsey later reflects that he could, if he wanted, prove the case, though he doesn't want to.
- In Players of Gor, Tarl Cabot learns of a plot by Cos, Tyros, Brundisium and certain factions in Ar to attack Ar. He gets the evidence, then learns that it's actually happening right now. The evidence is now worthless so he burns it. Plus he plans to exact his own revenge.
- The Horatio Hornblower short story Hornblower and the Widow McCool. The British occupying forces and Irish rebels have recently achieved a fragile peace in Ireland. Hornblower discovers letters to rebels not known to the authorities. If he turns the letters over to the authorities, they'll go after the rebels and cause another outbreak of violence. He decides to throw the letters overboard instead.
- In the Discworld novel Men at Arms, Captain Carrot destroys the evidence that he's the rightful king of Ankh-Morpork, because he doesn't think it needs a king anymore.
Live Action TV
- In Veronica Mars, Logan comes into possession of the sex tapes of his girlfriend and his father, and he destroys them so they wouldn't be seen in court and ruin Lilly's memory.
- In one episode of NCIS, Gibbs switches tissue samples so that it will appear that a body they're trying to identify was that of a dead Marine- the Marine (who is dead) had had a kidney transplant from a friend, who was still alive. Because you can't be a Marine if at some point in your life you donated an organ, the Marine, if this became known, would have to quit- which he really didn't want to do.
- Another NCIS example. In the end of one episode Gibbs realizes that a bad guy was killed with the prayer beads of a man the bad guy himself murdered, a marine and the son of a local Imam. Gibbs knows that this means the marine's father killed the bad guy to avenge his son's death, and the Imam should be arrested for murder himself. But when Ziva mentions that the prayer beads belong to the original victim Gibbs denies it, and she lets it pass.
- In a season of The Dukes of Hazzard, the phrase "The boys got off, because there wasn't any evidence" is about guaranteed to occur in at least a third of the episodes. Frequently the lack of evidence is a result of it being sunk in a pond, set on fire, blown up or in some other fashion destroyed. Sometimes the destruction is even intentional.
- At the end of at least one episode of Jonathan Creek, (" The Scented Room" is the one I'm thinking of, although it may also have happened in " Devil's Chimney") the title character lets the culprit go, on the grounds that they're not really that bad.
- Dexter has been known to mess with or destroy evidence to ensure that particularly bad criminals go free... so that he can hunt them down and kill them himself instead of letting them have a government-sponsored vacation at prison.
- In the season one finale of In Plain Sight, Mary hides cocaine from the police and Marshall Service to protect her little sister. The final shot of the episode is of the back of a line-painting machine on a football field, implying that this is how she got rid of the evidence.
- Actually she fully believed that the drugs were in those cases. It was her boyfriend (who was a baseball player) that got rid of it that way.
- CSI NY: "The Fall." Don Flack's mentor, Moran, finds out that his son was involved in the robbery of a bodega. He subsequently disposes of the incriminating pop can he finds to keep the boy out of jail. This results in Broken Pedestal and Mac and Flack having to arrest him.
- Dragnet had it once or twice. One episode involved a bookmaker destroying his paper trail, which was written on flash paper, a quick burning type of paper. Friday luckily stopped him before it all went up in flames.
- All My Children: After getting raped by Michael Cambias, Bianca is severely traumatized and burns all the physical evidence. Unfortunately, when he is later taken to court for it, Bianca's destruction of the evidence only ensures that Michael gets Off on a Technicality long enough for Bianca herself to confront him and shoot him dead in self-defense.
- In the infamous episode "In The Pale Moonlight" of Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Captain Sisko basically confesses to his personal log that he was an accessory to a murderous conspiracy to drag the Romulan Empire into the war against the Dominion that the Federation and Klingon Empire weren't doing too well in. The most self-damning thing to him is that he thinks he can live with it. He then tells the computer to delete the entire log entry.
- In the Enemy at the Door episode "Judgement of Solomon", two sixteen-year-old boys are caught with a camera in a restricted zone, and developing the film shows that they've been taking photos of German military installations. Not wishing to apply the mandatory death sentence for espionage to a pair of children, Major Richter orders the officer investigating the matter to destroy the prints and negatives and proceed as if the boys had been found trespassing with no evidence of their intentions.
- One episode of Mission: Impossible had the team trying to rescue the captured leader of a resistance movement against an East Bloc nation, along with a microfilm containing a list of key figures supporting the resistance. The final shot of the episode is Jim Phelps burning the microfilm.
- There's a The Far Side cartoon with a rat in a prison cell telling his cellmate "I would have gotten away scot free if I'd gotten rid of the evidence... But shoot, I'm a packrat".
- Love's Labour's Lost: The King and three lords in his attendance take an oath not to woo any women for 3 years; then some women show up. The King and two of his lords are caught writing love notes by the fourth who berates them; then the love note that he wrote is brought forth by some rustics, so he tears it up before anyone else can read it. (In a production I was recently involved with he even tried to Eat the Evidence.)
- Heavy Rain: Scott Shelby burns the evidence he finds relating to the Origami Killer...because he is the Origami Killer.
- ''Persona 4: Adachi, who is both the murderer and a detective working on the case, admits to destroying certain bits of evidence.
- And in the Enhanced Remake the player character can choose not to pursue Adachi, given his Social Link has been maxed out. If the player confronts him after it's too late, he can choose to destroy the remaining evidence and form an alliance with Adachi. Doing so will get you the Accomplice ending, which is right up there with killing Namatame when it comes to Downer Endings.
- In Final Fantasy X, Tromell destroys the sphere revealing that Seymour killed his father because "The Guado deal with Guado affairs".
- Done multiple times in the Ace Attorney series, usually by the defendants. Often they're trying to protect someone they care about from incrimination, even at the cost of their own freedom:
- Late in Case 1-4, Manfred von Karma destroys most of the critical evidence you have, but fails to get the bullet from the DL-6 Incident, which leads to his undoing. He even says that his accomplice, Yanni Yogi, should have burned the letter he received.
- In case 1-5, Lana Skye deliberately distorted evidence relating to the SL-9 incident partially in order to get Joe Darke convicted, but mainly to prevent her sister from being charged with murder. Later, Phoenix doesn't want to present a certain piece of evidence for the same reason - it implicates someone he doesn't want to see get in trouble. He does present it later when it becomes the key piece of evidence to implicate the guilty party, who is the only one who could have known about its significance and removed it.
- Phoenix Wright himself does this in 3-1 by eating Dahlia's locket.
- Special mention to Detective Badd in Ace Attorney Investigations who destroyed evidence relating to the Yatagarasu. As head of the investigation he was in a perfect position to make sure no traces were ever found at the crime scene. Why? He was a member of the Yatagarasu.
- In Stand Still, Stay Silent, Emil accidentally breaks a wing mirror off the tank right before his uncle and employer comes to give it a look. His reaction is to throw the thing as hard as he can and claim it was already broken. Fortunately, the only witnesses are his new commanding officer who immediately plays along with the story and a colleague who doesn't share a language with anyone else present. Unfortunately, the mirror's landing place starts a chain of events that eventually gives the main cast a stowaway.
- In war or during public turmoil, it is standard procedure for militaries and governments to burn their own sensitive documents just before they can fall into enemy hands. Real Life examples include Iran's US embassy workers shredding intelligence material immediately before they were overrun by the angry mob in 1980, or the Wehrmacht burning orders and records whenever they were forced to retreat in the later stages of WW2.
- There's one dashcam footage where police arrest a man for possession of drugs. They place the man and the small baggie of drugs near each other on the trunk and, with no one looking, the man reaches over, grabs it with his teeth and swallows it. It takes police a few moments to realize what the guy had done...
- In some circumstances it is possible to forensically examine burnt paper and read what was written on it. If all you've got is ash, it is presumably still utterly impossible. Similar techniques are being used in anciewnt archaelogy to "read" fire-damaged papyrus scrolls recovered from Pompeii's post-volcanic ruins.