"It's blood!" said the carpenter.This is when a spillage of some innocent red substance is mistaken for blood. This substance is, more often than not, ketchup, and Hilarity Ensues most of the time. This is, however, occasionally used seriously when someone is trying to fake an injury. Someone may or may not dip their finger in it and taste it, much to everyone else's horror, and pronounce it as being 'tasty.' It's also worth noting that ketchup looks absolutely nothing like blood, apart from its colour. Smelling like spaghetti sauce rather than an abattoir is also a bit of a clue. Compare with Symbolic Blood. Prop blood is Kensington Gore. Not to be confused with the Chunky Salsa Rule, nor with a Fallout trait/perk. See Did Not Do the Bloody Research for confusion about the rude word "bloody."
"It's blood, isn't it?" said a musician.
"Blood!!" screamed Christine. "Blood!!"
It was Agnes's terrible fate to keep her head in a crisis. She sniffed her finger again.
"It's turpentine," said Agnes. "Er. Sorry. Is that wrong?"
"It's blood, isn't it?" said a musician.
"Blood!!" screamed Christine. "Blood!!"
It was Agnes's terrible fate to keep her head in a crisis. She sniffed her finger again.
"It's turpentine," said Agnes. "Er. Sorry. Is that wrong?"
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Anime & Manga
- In Detective Conan, ketchup is used as fake blood to bluff someone watching via surveillance cameras. There is also a scene where Haibura mistakes spilled tomato juice for blood, resulting in her thinking that Professor Agasa was killed.
- In Eyeshield 21, when Hiruma returns to the field after getting his broken arm taped up, his face looks like an undead ("I'm returned from the Hell!"). He had some fun with ketchup.
- Full Metal Panic? Fumoffu does this with red paint in the Haunted Hospital episode. Since Chidori had just fallen through the floor and bumped her head, and the paint was splashed under her head, it was rather disturbing. Actually it was probably one of the more serious notes in that whole comedy series.
- Played with in Karin. The protagonists clean up a pool of blood and replace it with red paint, leading a vampire hunter to believe he's fallen for this trope.
- In an episode of the Kirby anime (titled either "A Midsummer Night's Scream - Part 2" or "Scare Tactics Part 2", depending on the version), several characters get trapped in an old, creepy house that wasn't there before. One of the rooms contains an odd-looking skeleton and what turns out to be a large amount of red paint. Later on, some of this paint gets dumped on King Dedede and Escargon as a prank. Even later, Dedede uses the paint to make it look like he's gotten into some serious trouble, as part of a trap (which he himself did not come up with, and objected to at first).
- One of Usopp's moves in One Piece is the "Ketchup Star" which he uses (on himself) to make the enemy think he's been fatally injured.
- In a flashback episode of Shakugan no Shana, Shana sets a trap for the animated training skeleton Shiro that involves a giant, hidden hole in the ground full of ketchup. Shiro sees red and... doesn't take things so well...
- In Trigun, bottles of tomato juice were used to fake injuries on several occasions, usually to play dead, but sometimes even to attract women.
- Inverted in Umineko: When They Cry when Rosa mistakes a drop of her own blood for a rose petal, to show that her death was unusually quick and painless.
- In the Big Finish Doctor Who audio The Chimes of Midnight, it opens up with Charley and the Doctor in the dark, when there's a crash and sudden wet feeling. It turns out to be raspberry jam, but it's a unique example because this is a) on the radio so we can't see it, and in the dark so the characters couldn't see that it was red either.
- Used for an in-universe Retcon when Spider-Man was killed by a bomb and fought Thanos. Returned to Earth, he found that what had been blood was now the contents of a smashed jar of tomato sauce.
- Another Spider-Man example: In Adam Troy-Castro's Sinister Six Trilogy, Spider-Man manages to fake his death using a plate of lasagna and a shard of the window he was blasted in through. Electro is thoroughly fooled, though that isn't saying much. A bystander also reports on the phone to being a witness to the death of Spider-Man; Either he was hiding under a counter during the set-up or was faking it for Spidey's benefit.
- Parodied in a The Far Side cartoon, with anthropomorphic bottles of ketchup (yes) are watching a horror movie. When an on-screen bottle of ketchup gets murdered, a bottle in the audience turns to his young son and says "Don't worry, son. They're just actors, and that's not real ketchup."
- The "ketchup resembles blood in no way beyond color" bit was lampshaded in a certain FoxTrot strip where Jason accuses Paige of punching him so hard that he's coughing up blood, and "proves" it by presenting his Red Right Hand.
Andy: Jason, that's ketchup.
Jason: It could just be that my blood is naturally thick and zesty.
Andy: Just how many colas did you and Marcus drink today?
- In the Gravity Falls fanfic Angle of Impact, Stan steps outside to where Dipper and Mabel are playing paintball, gets hit by a stray red paintball, and thinks he's been shot. It later turns out that this is not the first time this has happened, and Soos threw out all the red paintballs specifically to defy this trope; hence why the only red ones available were ones that Mabel made herself.
Films — Animation
- In Looney Tunes: Back in Action, the characters do an homage to the shower scene from Psycho. Turns out it's done with a carrot instead of a knife, and Bugs Bunny is squirting chocolate sauce down the drain.
- Parental Bonus, the blood going down the drain in the original movie WAS chocolate sauce.
- This occurs in Despicable Me, when one of the orphans gets trapped in an iron maiden, and a red liquid is seen flowing out the bottom. Turns out one of the spikes punctured her juice box.
- A deleted intro in The Incredibles has the Parr family attending a neighborhood picnic. While Bob Parr chops up some steaks, a person screams that Bob has chopped off his fingers. However, it only looks like he chopped off his fingers and he's actually fine. To fake the injury and not reveal his super-powers, Bob squirts some ketchup on his fingers and screams in pain.
Films — Live Action
- In Hot Fuzz, a bullet shatters a jar of pasta sauce, showering it on one of the Andies' face. The other Andy shouts in despair, thinking the aforementioned Andy has been hit and is bleeding.
"It's alright, Andy! It's just bolognese!"
- Also, Danny Butterman is adept at using a packet of ketchup as fake blood, so he can make it seem like he's stabbed out his own eye with a fork or even fake Nicholas Angel's death.
- In Sam Raimi's The Quick and the Dead, Sharon Stone's character fakes her own death with red ink. When she comes back to kill the Big Bad, we see the little blind kid smiling and pouring red ink on the ground.
- In Memphis Belle, the bomber takes a near-hit from a flak shell, resulting in several crewman being covered in red liquid. They immediately begin checking each other to see who was hit, until they realize that the shrapnel hit a flask of tomato soup.
- Used to great dramatic effect in the "Beat" Takeshi vehicle Hana-Bi (Fireworks).
- Spoofed in Thanksgiving, a fictitious movie trailer appearing in Grindhouse. Two detectives are kneeling over what is obviously a decapitated human body. One of them dips his finger into the pool of blood around the neck, tastes it, and grimly concludes, "It's blood."
- Inverted in Tropic Thunder. Tugg Speedman picks up the severed head of Damien Cockburn, believing his very real death to have been staged, and the head to be a prop made out of latex and corn syrup (which he attempts to prove with a taste test).
- Also inverted in Ginger Snaps, when Ginger tells her dad that the large pool of blood on the kitchen floor is in fact syrup. To make it more convincing, she tastes it and offers him some.
- In Operation Petticoat a Japanese plane strafes the Sea Tiger. The Prophet has gone on deck to retrieve his guitar (which is destroyed in the strafing run). He sees red goo on him and yells, "I'm hit." Then he puts his finger in his mouth and realizes it's cranberry sauce.
- Inverted in Bloody Birthday during a scene where one of the evil children Debbie murders her older sister she and her friends hide the body, her mother comes in and asks what the red stain is and she lies saying it's her sister's nail polish.
- Played with a little in Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind. Jim Carrey uses a ketchup packet to "slit" his throat; the motion is so sudden and Carrey's face so grotesque (and the movie itself so weird) that the audience often jumps, thinking he's committed some act of real violence against himself. Kate Winslet walks in, however, and is not fooled (or even amused) for even a moment.
- Done with a combination of ketchup and actual blood in Cornered!
- Happens with a red slushee on a windshield in Pineapple Express. Looks convincing enough that it had to be turned black in the trailers due to the MPAA's no-blood policy for greenband trailers.
- Happens in Carry On Behind when an explosion upsets a caravan, causing a bottle of tomato sauce to fall out of a cupboard and splatter its contents over Professor Crump (Kenneth Williams). He thinks he's been wounded and faints. Hilarity Ensues.
- Used by The Three Stooges in the short "An Ache in Every Stake" when an angry chef throws a knife at Curly and pins his bowler hat to the cupboard, at which point a ketchup bottle on the shelf promptly leaks on him.
- Hudson Hawk. "You can't beat Heinz 57!"
- In Loaded Weapon 1 after General Motors (William Shatner) gets shot Colt and Luger follow what appears to be a trail of his blood, it turns out to be a spilled bottle of ketchup that was being pushed on a cart.
- In the third installment of The Mighty Ducks trilogy, Hans uses ketchup to act like he's just cut himself on his skate sharpener. Charlie isn't fooled for a moment, possibly because Hans has pulled this stunt before.
- An accidental version in Midnight (1939). Eve thinks Tibor is bleeding from his head wound inflicted by the Frying Pan of Doom but as somebody points out, the blood was just gravy from the kidneys.
- In the Discworld novel Maskerade, as shown by the page quote.
- The first bomb of The Westing Game goes off in a kitchen, and a woman runs out covered in red liquid. A few people freak out, but they realize that it's only tomato sauce. The bomb was small, and only caused a shelf of cans to explode.
- In Jo Walton's novel Farthing, a murdered man is found stabbed with a pool of red liquid on his chest, but the police quickly determine that the victim was gassed to death and the liquid is actually lipstick.
- In Robert A. Heinlein's To Sail Beyond the Sunset, Maureen Johnson wakes up in a bed with a dead man with no memory of how she got there. After two doctors arrive, one of them puts his finger into the "blood" and licks it. She's a bit upset until the two doctors start discussing what brand of ketchup it must be.
- Inverted in Dexter is Delicious: There's an obvious wall full of red stuff quite similar to blood, and Deborah wants it to be paint or animal blood in order for the feds not to take her case; for all her trouble, it seems to be human blood (although not her victim's blood type). She still argues that, if it's so much human blood, she has a murder on her hands, and so it's her case.
- In War Game by Anthony Price, a Civil War re-enactment is interrupted when somebody finds a genuine corpse lying in a pool of red. It turns out his neck was broken; the red is from a dye pack he was wearing for his big death scene in the re-enactment, which broke while his killer was hiding the body.
- Stephanie Harrington falls victim to this trope while taking a Forensic Investigation class in Treecat Wars. As it turns out, the point of the lesson was the importance of not jumping to conclusions. It's implied that, fake blood aside, there was an Orgy of Evidence to suggest it would be blood.
- Happens with red paint in a Sven Hassel novel, which has been left on board a captured Soviet tank. As the protagonists are Trapped Behind Enemy Lines, they're not reassured. "No-one's this red, not even in Russia!"
- The message from the Heir of Slytherin in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets is implied to be written in rooster's blood, but it's much later revealed to be just red paint. In the movies, though, Hermione outright says it's blood.
Live Action TV
- An episode of Arrested Development had Gob, at the behest of his father, planning to use dyed corn syrup as fake blood to fake a narcoleptic stripper's death. Things didn't go so well when Buster drank all of the fake blood, mistaking it for juice.
- In The Big Bang Theory episode "The Good Guy Fluctuation," Sheldon is working late at the university when the hallway walls appear to start bleeding. He quickly realizes that his friends are playing a Halloween prank on him.
Sheldon: Oh, the walls are dripping blood, which looks nothing like a phenolphthalein indicator exposed to a sodium carbonate solution!
- Used at least once CSI when a suspicious red stain on a suspect's clothes turns out to be red sauce. Which, in itself, turns out to be an important clue.
- Inverted on Community: Jeff notices a red patch on his shirt while playing paintball, and thinks he was shot, only to realize to his relief that "it was just blood".
- Corner Gas has Emma call up Brent and speak in a hushed whisper, standing over a large red puddle. Turns out she spilt a can of tomato juice and didn't want Oscar to find out.
- Played with in the pilot of Desperate Housewives: After Mary Alice Young shoots herself, we cut to a scene where her neighbour Martha Huber seems to be examining her blood with her fingertip. It is then revealed that Martha just spilled juice when she was startled by the gunshot sound.
- In the opening credits of Dexter, ketchup squirting across Dexter's breakfast plate is for a split second meant to make the viewer believe it's blood, at least for the first time watching, thanks to the show's gory subject matter.
- The eponymous character Dr. Martin Ellingham of Doc Martin is Afraid of Blood, so naturally the villagers arrange an "accident". He almost faints before he notices it's actually ketchup.
- In the pilot of Eureka, while looking for a "lost" kid, Carter and Allison are searching the crime scene and find a hand print. Carter tastes it and declares "Chocolate". He then identifies what brand, and finds the missing kid.
- In the Frasier episode "Daphne Does Dinner", after Niles unwittingly insults Frasier's Special Sauce recipe, Frasier throws the whole pan in his face, causing him to stumble backwards through the kitchen doors into the living room, where a couple dozen guests are being entertained, looking as though someone took a meat cleaver to his jugular:
Guests: Aaaaaahhhh!!Daphne: No no no! It's alright! Look! *licks sauce off Niles' ear* Mmmmm! Tasty!Guests: Eeeeewwwwwwwwww!!!
- Ghost Whisperer:
- In one episode Jim is taking a shower and the water suddenly turns red. It looks like one of the paranormal manifestations typical to this show. Then Jim apologizes to Melinda for knocking rust into the pipes during a plumbing repair.
- In "Bad Blood", a teenage girl gets hysterical when blood seemingly starts dripping down on her through the ceiling. It turns out that a ghost upstairs upset a can of red paint to scare her.
- In the Law & Order episode "Extended Family," the detectives think they've found a shirt stained with dried blood in a suspect's apartment. It turns out he has a job making fine chocolate and they've merely found his unwashed work shirt.
- Used in the second season premier of Leverage to fake death by gunshot. You'd think mobsters would be able to recognize the real thing...
- Also seen in an episode of Lois and Clark, where Clark uses ketchup as a trick to prove he isn't Superman.
- In an episode , Desmond wakes up in a flashback covered in red paint after being in an implosion.
- Played for Drama in a different episode when Hurley is accused of murder due to police seeing burger ketchup on him.
- MacGyver: In "For Love or Money", Mac uses the condiments from a picnic basket (carefully mixing them to give the consistency of blood) to fake a bloody head wound so he can gain access to a hospital.
- In an episode of Malcolm in the Middle, Ida pushes Dewey out of the way of a moving vehicle. Just as it's about to hit her, we abruptly cut to an image of red chili splattering a plate.
- In the pilot episode of The Mysteries Of Laura, the title character (a police detective) is shown in a room where something red has been splashed all over the walls. She says that this is "a depraved and unspeakable act" and that the perpetrator will be "inside for a long time." It turns out that her two young sons were throwing paint around at preschool, covering both the walls and themselves.
- An episode has a man believing he is haunted. There's a message written for him on the wall written in "blood". Shawn notices it's not blood (IIRC, he identifies it as ketchup) and to prove it he eats some. Gus' response? "Enjoy AIDS..."
- Another example is from "Tuesday the 17th", when Gus reaches into a dryer and pulls out bloody clothes. He then wipes it on his pants, which turns out to be a big clue for Shawn that it's just red food dye, since he knows Gus faints at the sight of real blood.
- Played with in the first episode of Roswell, where one of the main characters gets shot, another heals her... and then he breaks a bottle of ketchup and pours it over her to hide the real blood.
- Played straight, then subverted in the Star Trek: Voyager episode "Projections". The Emergency Medical Hologram is sent to the messhall where Neelix is Produce Pelting a Kazon soldier. After he's immobilized with a Frying Pan of Doom, Neelix is alarmed to see he's bleeding, which of course turns out to be tomato sauce. Neelix then points out that the EMH is bleeding. The Doctor is saying that he's not alarmed by some tomato sauce when he realises it actually is blood, which is impossible as he's only a hologram. Things just keep getting weirder from then on.
- In The X-Files, Mulder did it in the third season episode "Revelations". The look on Scully's face before he explained that it was fake blood was priceless.
- Supernatural. In "Hunteri Heroici", an explosion apparently causes mass death in a nursing home with the standard blood-splatter Gory Discretion Shot. The next scene shows that everyone was just harmlessly splattered by red cake mixture.
- In Doc Martin, it gets out that Martin left his surgery because he developed haemophobia, and he gets a call that Bert Large has cut himself badly on some glass at the bar. When Martin gets there, he starts having his nauseous reaction until he gets closer and realizes it's ketchup. He leaves in a rage. When the local radio asks villagers for their opinion on having a doctor who can't stand blood, Martin calls in and lets them have it for playing an infantile prank that wasted his time and could have interfered with actual emergency cases.
- In Metal Gear Solid, when you're captured and imprisoned by the bad guys, one way to make good your escape is to use a ketchup-bottle to fake your death, causing the idiotic guard to run into your cell to investigate...
- Another Metal Gear Solid example: The last Mystery mission in VR Missions has you going into a locked room where there's an apparently dead soldier on the ground. There's "clues" all over the place to look at but no suspects. The real goal of the mission is to not give up in frustration at being unable to solve the problem, because just before the time limit runs out, the guy gets up and the camera zooms in on a broken ketchup bottle on which he'd fallen asleep.
- Ace Attorney:
- In Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney: Trials & Tribulations, a ketchup stain on a white apron is first mistaken by everyone but the partially color-blind prosecutor for blood.
- In Ace Attorney Investigations: Miles Edgeworth, Rhoda Teneiro mistakes grape juice for blood on a wallet Edgeworth was holding. This led to him being the prime suspect for much of the case.
- Ketchup is indistinguishable (at least technically) from blood in Mitadake High.
- Parodied in Thy Dungeonman 3, where you can find "fake ketchup" that's heavily implied to be blood; if you eat it, you die.
- This is a popular theory behind why Sans is the only monster who seemingly bleeds when you kill him in Undertale, despite it being established that monsters are made of magic and turn to dust when they die, given that we've seen him drinking a whole bottle of the stuff earlier.
- Happens in a guest artist story on Sluggy Freelance, where Zoe thinks Riff and Torg are dead, but really they went a little crazy eating tacos and got hot sauce all over themselves.
- In Were Geek, Joel does this when he finds 'blood' on the ground. Apparently it's peppermint.
- A Dragon Tails strip had Bluey trying to re-purpose a machine that's just a series of giant blades into an automatic hat remover. He demonstrates it on a watermelon. The final panel has Bluey covered in red, commenting "Oh come on, you know this isn't as bad as it looks."
- Once in The Whiteboard, after a flood of replicated beer throws everyone out of Howie's bar, Jinx is shown under a car with red stains all over, Sandy freaks out, and in the next strip he sits up perfectly fine, and Howie identifies the stains as his hot-wing sauce.
- An Exploited Trope once in the Eagle Ordinary. Commissar Holt is undergoing an interrogation, with plenty of red stuff smeared over an apron he's wearing. He leaves for a short conversation with someone else, telling his subject he'll be back after dealing with the subject's comrades. It's actually strawberry jam (he takes a bit off his apron to put on a cracker), and he returns to his subject after dipping his torture tools in more jam.
- Subverted in Thy Dungeonman 3. The "ketchup" in the sandwich shop is, in fact, fake fake blood. You die unpleasantly when attempting to consume it.
- Crapshots does this with what turns out to be jelly (of an unspecified but red flavour) in episode 16.
- Inverted or... something in one Halloween episode of Weebl & Bob, where a talking jam is horrified because the substance is jam rather than blood.
- Bugs Bunny loves this. He's done it to Elmer Fudd loads of times, and has done it Yosemite Sam at least once.
- In one Tom and Jerry short that was particularly graphic even for that cartoon, Jerry makes Tom think he's been stabbed by dripping ketchup onto both a steak knife and Tom's chest.
- Another short uses red ink.
- Classic Disney Shorts:
- Happy Tree Friends: "Flippin' Burgers". The immediate results are messy, and most definitely not just ketchup.
- Parodied on Rocket Power, in the episode where the gang thinks Tito has been murdered:
Twister: Oh, man! There's blood all over that broken ketchup bottle!
- Also in the episode where the gang camps out in the woods and Lars and his friends try to scare them by dressing up like zombies, complete with smeared red jello for fake blood. At one point, while running from the "zombies", the Squid accidentally steps in the bucket of jello they used to make their costumes and screams "IT'S A BUCKET OF BLOOD!"
- Parodied on South Park, where "vampires" (kids which are pretending to be vampires because of Twilight) use "Clamato" (clam-flavored tomato juice) for their initiation ceremony. Butters believes it is blood and that he has really become a vampire. Believing he is unable to eat real food, he "suddenly" becomes insatiably hungry...
- An episode of The Magic School Bus has Ms. Frizzle, in a vampire phase, present the kids' parents with glasses of "blood". Keesha pointed out that it was obviously really tomato juice, but no-one listened to her.
- Phineas and Ferb, of all shows, pulled this one off in "Hip Hip Parade".
- A few Warner Brothers cartoons, such as The Heckling Hare and The Wise Quacking Duck, all demonstrate this trope.
- Happens in episode 13 of Wakfu, which parodies several horror tropes. Sadlygrove is found amongst several red stains all over the walls and floor, and the heroes think he's wounded or dead... except that he comments later, "It's a bad idea to eat red berries while seasick."
- Subverted in Episode 11 of Scooby-Doo! Mystery Incorporated. Fred returns from visiting a Blood Bank with a huge red stain on his mouth and shirt. Shaggy and Scooby nervously ask him if it's blood, and he replies no, it's juice. The subversion comes in when he goes on to mention they have bags of the stuff hanging all over the place.
- In the first ever episode of the original series "What a Night For a Knight" the gang think the knight murdered the scientist because they see what appears to be blood on the carpet. It turns out to be red ink.
- In an episode of The Simpsons Marge tries to get Homer out of bed. In the process, she folds the mattress in half with Homer still in it. A red liquid leaks from the mattress and Marge screams. It turns out it was a juice box Homer had.
- After Marge sells a house to the Flanders family, she steps inside to find the entire family lying on the floor, covered in what is assumed to be blood. It turns out that they were just taking a nap after spending all day painting one of the rooms red.
- In the TexAvery cartoon "The Cat Who Hated People", one of the cat's flashbacks features the cat being adopted by a family with a huge bulldog. Once the owner leaves, the bulldog beats the living hell of the cat until the owner hears the noise, the and dog dumps some ketchup on himself and an axe to make it look like the cat killed him.
- In the My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic episode "Owl's Well That Ends Well", Spike tore apart a toy mouse, covered it in ketchup and spread fathers around the room. This was done because he was jealous of the titular owl and wanted it to be punished for bringing a dead animal into Twilight's library. Twilight herself wasn't fooled, having walked in while he was still throwing feathers around.
- Finn and Jake also try to invoke this (again, with ketchup) in the Adventure Time episode "Conquest of Cuteness" when the Cute King won't leave them alone until he thinks he's killed them.
Finn: Oh no! My bloooooooood~!
- Codename: Kids Next Door: "Op. S.A.F.E.T.Y." ends when a safety robot thinks it had accidentally hurt Numbuh 4's little brother Joey, causing it to short circuit, self-destruct, and the ship they were on to crash. Turns out Joey faked the injury with ketchup. After discovering this, Numbuh believes one of his own injuries is just ketchup. Numbuh 2 says that really is blood, and 4 passes out at the realization.
- In We Bare Bears, when Ice Bear gets red fruit punch on his face and paws while drinking some of said punch from a bowl, he then scares some children from appearing all bloody.
- In the first episode of Gravity Falls, Mabel's rather suspicious new boyfriend "Norman" has a small smear of something red on his face, which Dipper guesses to be blood but "Norman" insists is actually jam. Although it's never clarified on the show itself, the "Between the Pines" special specifies that it was indeed jam.
- This actually happened to Australian Idol winner Casey Donnovan. She, her brother and stepsister were involved in a car crash on the way home from the local takeaway.
- Also to Yoshiki Hayashi. He was doing a photoshoot that involved lots and lots of fake prop blood (as a vampire taking a Blood Bath among other things), and when he stepped outside to walk to his trailer, he had no idea that a minor car accident had happened nearby. An LAPD officer investigating the accident saw him and freaked out assuming him to have been in the car accident, questioning him if he was really all right and if he needed an ambulance.
- Part of the evidence in the 1982 Australian trial of Lindy and Michael Chamberlain for the murder of their baby Azaria was that blood had been found in her car. It was later determined to be a sound-deadening compound from a manufacturing overspray. These and other prosecution errors lead to their conviction being (eventually) overturned.