Literature: Masters of Rome

A series of historical fiction novels by author Colleen McCullough:

  • The First Man in Rome (1990)
  • The Grass Crown (1991)
  • Fortune's Favourites (1993)
  • Caesar's Women (1997)
  • Caesar (1998)
  • The October Horse (2002)
  • Antony and Cleopatra (2007)

Set in Ancient Rome (between 110 BC and 27 BC) this epic seven book series covers the fall of the Roman Republic and ends with the rise of Octavian (later known as Caesar Augustus). Noted for their intricate research of Roman life and McCullough's use of Deliberate Values Dissonance with even clearly sympathetic characters. Also sex, quite a lot of it.

While there are hundreds if not thousands of named characters in these books, broadly speaking several major if unrelated story arcs stand out. The first two books are dominated by the friendship and later rivalry between the brilliant general Gaius Marius and the icy but cunning aristocrat Lucius Cornelius Sulla while most of the later works focus on the careers and lives of Pompey the Great, Crassus, Cicero, Cato, Octavian and Mark Antony and above all Gaius Julius Caesar whose pivotal life makes him the central character of the whole story.

Provides examples of:

  • All Men Are Perverts/All Women Are Prudes: Fascinatingly inverted with Brutus and his mother Servilia; one of the (many) reasons Servilia has difficulty comprehending her son is that she has a very strong sex drive while Brutus is naturally prudish and much more sentimental than lustful.
  • Army of Thieves and Whores: Marius' legion.
  • Arranged Marriage: Just about every marriage in the story. Some turn out fairly well, others disastrously; but the only two fathers that allow their children to marry for love are regarded as crazy by everyone else.
  • Author Appeal: McCullough evidently has a thing for fair-skinned blonde and red-haired men: Sulla and Caesar are constantly described as being extremely good looking, as to a slightly lesser extent are Pompey, Octavian and even Cato.
  • Badass Bookworm: Bookworm might be pushing it, but Cato is a character who is almost never seen outside a political or social context so it is easy to forget he is an incredibly strong and tough ex-soldier. On one occasion he effortlessly separates two armed veterans who have come to blows, on another he knocks a far taller, heavily built man unconscious with a single punch breaking his jaw in the process.
    • Caesar is a good example, too. People tend to get so focused on his military career they forget he was a brilliant lawyer first.
    • Octavian (Augustus) is consistently underestimated by his opponents because he is a bookish youth and not a manly man. Anyone with a knowledge of the period knows how well that worked out for them.
  • Blondes Are Evil: Gaius Verres.
  • Brainless Beauty: Pompeia Sulla, whose own mother describes her as 'absolutely ravishing' but 'abysmally stupid'.
  • Break the Cutie: While not technically a cutie, Sulla was always noted as being extremely handsome... until he gained and lost two hundred pounds, lost all of his teeth, his hair fell out and his face almost got sunburned off. All in about three months. (It's implied that he was suffering from diabetes.)
    • In the previous book, his son died, his country was torn apart in a civil war he fought to avoid, he had his triumph and his counsulship ruined by his old friend Marius, and he was ultimately forced to march on his homeland (an act which, being both conservative and a patriot, he utterly detested). His life was deemed so hard that Aurelia, the woman who never wept, ended up weeping for him.
  • Broken Bird: Cato. And a very masculine one, at that.
  • Bus Crash: The end of Mithridates VI of Pontus is a little disappointing considering his importance and big role in The Grass Crown; not so much his actual death, which is a matter of historical record, but the way we hear about it in a letter.
  • Dead Guy on Display: The enemies of Marius and Cinna have their heads hung on the walls of the Forum Romanum when a deranged Marius returns to Rome after his forced exile. Much later (40+ years and four novels later) the enemies of Octavian and Antony suffer the same fate.
  • Death by Materialism: Caepio Junior.
  • Deliberate Values Dissonance: Selling your daughter for political pull and cash, murder, crucifixion, slavery, murder, adultery, murder, arson for profit and of course murder.
  • Depraved Bisexual: Sulla will have sex with anything.
  • Doorstopper: Seven books, of which the shortest is 576 pages, and three are over 1000 pages long. A good example of their length is that it takes 270 pages before Marius and Sulla are even introduced to each other, even though their interaction is the main story in the first book.
  • Enemy Civil War: From the viewpoint of outsiders, the multiple Roman civil wars look like this, and they try and take advantage accordingly. It doesn't work.
  • Eunuchs Are Evil: The Alexandrian palace cabal.
  • Even the Guys Want Him: Both Sulla and Caesar are so beautiful as youths that more than a few male characters openly lust after them.
  • Evil Albino: Sulla has very, very pale skin and very pale eyes.
  • Evil Matriarch: If you thought Servilia was warped on Rome wait 'til you see the Masters of Rome version.
  • Evil Redhead: Sulla. Cato is also a redhead, but while he has an antagonistic role, you can't really call him evil.
  • Face-Heel Turn: Marius after his stroke, Pompey after Julia dies.
  • Fiery Redhead: Caesar's Gallic mistress Rhiannon. Subverted by Caesar's actual wife, Pompeia Sulla, who is a redhead in hair colour but a Dumb Blonde in personality.
  • Gaius Julius Caesar: The man himself. Born at the end of The First Man in Rome he appears in every book, barring Antony and Cleopatra, set after his death.
  • The Greatest History Never Told: Partially averted. The series covers the familiar era of Caesar and Octavian, but the first three books cover things like the Cimbri invasion and Italian War that are very rarely depicted anywhere else.
  • Heroes Want Redheads: Caesar's Gallic mistress is a redhead, and her magnificent hair is the thing he finds most attractive. On the other hand, his own wife, Pompeia Sulla, is also a stunning redhead, and he is completely cold towards her because she's an shallow idiot.
  • Hero Antagonist: It's difficult to call Vercingetorix or Quintus Poppaedius Silo anything else, since they are fighting for their peoples respective freedoms against Roman domination.
  • Historical-Domain Character: Nearly all the main and most of the minor characters are real people.
  • Historical Fiction
  • The Horde: The Cimbri and Teutones.
  • Impoverished Patrician: Literally the case with Sulla, and to a lesser extent, with Caesar.
  • Knight Templar: Cato about conserving the old Roman ways and his hatred of Caesar. There's a good chance that the civil war wouldn't have happened had he not been around. Also Octavian, whose determination to see Brutus and Cassius pay pushes Rome into another civil war.
  • Loads and Loads of Characters
  • Magical Realism: Martha's prophecies and a few other, minor aspects.
  • Malicious Slander: The young (and beautiful) Caesar successfully negotiated an alliance with the old, Camp Gay, and lecherous King Nicomedes of Bithynia. In the novel, the two are presented as forming a real and non-sexual Odd Friendship (and while Nicomedes finds Caesar attractive, he doesn't try anything). But from then on (in the novels and in Real Life), Caesar's enemies accused him of having prostituted himself to Nicomedes to secure the alliance.note  For Caesar's revenge, scroll down a little to A Man Is Not a Virgin...
  • A Man Is Not a Virgin: A deliberate example, Caesar seduces the wives, sisters and in some cases mothers of his opponents—this is on his mother's advice, to humiliate the men who accuse him of being a homosexual.
    • But he doesn't touch virgin daughters, again on his mother's advice. If he defiled an enemy's innocent daughter, under any circumstances, the enemy would gain sympathy and the city would be outraged. But seducing an enemy's wife makes the enemy a laughingstock.
  • Odd Friendship: The young Pompey and Cicero. Marius and Sulla too, in a way (until it ends in tears). And the young Caesar and King Nicomedes.
  • One Steve Limit: Averted due to historical necessity; there are are at least three important characters named Gaius Julius Caesar, for instance. In the books they are generally distinguished by nickname based on age, in this case 'Caesar Grandfather', 'Caesar' and 'Young Caesar.' In most cases these all belong to the same family (Caesar Grandfather is, well, Young Caesar's grandfather). Sometimes it is more complicated; the consul Gauis Octavius (an important supporting character in The Grass Crown) is only distantly related to Octavian.
  • Out of Focus: Mithridates, a major POV character in The Grass Crown, is frequently mentioned in the next two books but doesn't appear 'onscreen' again.
  • Prophecies Are Always Right: The prophecies concerning the greatness of Marius and later Sulla prove to be true; both become the leading soldier/statesman of their day.
  • Purple Eyes: Aurelia's remarkable eyes are quite a plot point.
  • Revenge Before Reason: Octavian. After the assassins of Caesar have already been defeated and killed, he's sufficiently murderous to have Cato's (totally harmless) best friend killed for the 'crime' of being friends with Caesar's old enemy.
  • The Roman Republic: Deals with the finals days of the Republic, as it begins to buckle under the weight of corruption, personal ambition and opulent wealth. The series ends with Octavian in control of the Roman world, establishing the Roman Empire in all but name.
  • Self-Made Man: Marius, and in a very different manner, Cicero.
  • Two Lines, No Waiting: Due to Loads and Loads of Characters and Loads And Loads Of Pages all the books have multiple interweaving storylines.
  • Villain Protagonist: Sulla. He's willing to do whatever it takes to get what he wants, and his proscription in Rome was despicable as well.
  • Villain with Good Publicity: Octavian is beloved by legionaries because of his charm and resemblance to Caesar and also enchants Cicero amongst others; he is also hideously cold-blooded about killing or ruining anyone who gets in his way, or tarnishes the legacy of his beloved adopted father.
    • "Beloved" because Octavian was using his adopted father's good publicity to promote his own political career in the eyes of the Romans. Anything that would slander Caesar would slander Octavian, as the latter tried to rub himself with as much Caesarian clout he could think of, including deifying Caesar and having people call him Divi Filius: Son of God.
  • Wild Card: The oily, yet strangely likable Lucius Marcius Philippus, Rome's most honestly corrupt politician - that is to say anyone can buy him but he stays bought.
    • His father/grandfather, also Lucius Marcius Philippus is bribed by Marius in the first book, and offers his service for life. He later becomes a political enemy of Marius, which costs him the consulship when Rutilius Rufus points out he should be bound by his bribe a decade previously. Though this might be the same Philippus mentioned above. Most families have only one character kept through the generations.
  • With Great Power Comes Great Insanity: Several. Marius after his stroke seizes Rome and kills most of his friends and enemies. Subverted with Sulla who had perfectly rational reasons for seizing power and killing a whole lot of people.

Alternative Title(s):

Masters Of Rome