The Military Salute is a long-standing tradition of military forces around the world, and it is obviously the most visible and known gesture of military protocol to the average civilian. There is an urban myth that it evolved out of a custom in which mediaeval knights opened their visors with their weapon-hand to be recognised and to show that they were not armed; in fact it evolved from the former custom of men removing their hats as a sign of respect. This is the reason that in some military outfits (such as the US Marines Corps) it is incorrect to salute when you are not wearing a "cover". (In other outfits customs are different, and salutes are given when bare-headed; meanwhile, in many armies, including the Russian one, it is expressly forbidden to salute without a hat on) The salute evolved because of the introduction of headwear that could no longer be taken off easily with just one hand, especially bearskin caps and mitre-shaped grenadier caps. In the 18th century, when the military salute was first introduced, there were situation when it was still possible to give it with the left hand, e. g. on parade when the saluting officer was holding a spontoon in his right hand. Different armies in the world have different small details that distinguish their salutes (as can be seen in the picture above), but most of them still follow a certain pattern: the arm is lifted up perpendicular to the side of the body and bent at the elbow, forming an angle around 30 degrees, the hand is open straight with fingers joined, and the fingers touch the temple (or the lip of the visor when with headgear). The salute is dropped by lowering the hand back to the side of the body. In the English speaking world, which here means the US and the commonwealth there are two types of salutes. The first, with palm facing outwards, is the "British military salute." This is used by the armies and air forces of most Commonwealth countries. Its origins are with the British Army. The other which is palm downwards, originating with the Royal Navy, is the British "Naval" salute (this was originally introduced because sailors' and officers' hands were often stained with tar through life aboard ship, and showing a dirty palm was considered to reduce the dignity of the gesture). This is used by the Naval forces of the Commonwealth and the US Armed Forces. This is often in popular parlance seen as an American salute, even in the commonwealth. There has been examples of nitpickers and scolds attacking works (or real life) where British or Australians are depicted as saluting palm downwards as an example of Eagleland Osmosis. Additionally, there are several oddball types of salutes that are given in various situations, mainly where there is something impractical about rendering a normal salute with your hand. These include:
- Saluting with a rifle. Usually done by holding the weapon vertically in front of you, muzzle up, with the underside of the weapon presented towards the person being saluted.
- Saluting with a sword is generally accomplished by bringing the sword's hilt up to the chin with the point facing up, out at a 45 degree angle towards the person being saluted.
- Saluting with your left hand can be acceptable when there is something understandable preventing you from using your right. Having an object in your hand is usually not considered a good reason - having an injury to your right arm or missing the hand or arm entirely is. Doing it for any other reason is generally considered a grievous insult and is highly offensive, akin to Flipping the Bird. If deliberate, it is done to mock the salutee, especially by mutineers.
- The Head of State. Often the Commander-In-Chief of the armed forces, the Head Of State is the highest-ranked representative of the country, and is always to be saluted, regardless whether or not he/she is the real boss or a mere figurehead. This also applies to foreign heads of state on state and/or official visits.
- Other High Ranking Civilian Officials: Different countries have different customs, but generally speaking, a Head of Government, a Minister of Defense or a Governor, are often the among the limited number of high ranking officials who gets this kind of rare VIP treatment. Depending on the context, other officials sometimes get a salute, as a mere courtesy.
- Officers of foreign powers: A soldier is a soldier, whether you serve the same country or not.
- National symbols: The flag should be saluted when one passes it by while walking, and one should stand in attention and salute when it is raised or lowered, or when the national anthem is played.
- Reporting: When a soldier is summoned by an officer, the soldier greets the officer with a salute and an acknowledgment of being summoned. "Sir, Private Smith reports as ordered."
- Change of command: When a soldier or officer is in command of an outfit and another soldier or officer (be it equal or greater rank) arrives to relieve him of command, the commanding officer salutes the newcomer to acknowledge the change.
- Teeth-Clenched Salute: This is when a soldier salutes an officer he SERIOUSLY has beef with, often with a grimace or Death Glare. This is an excellent example of Truth in Television: one of the first things taught to a soldier regarding saluting is that you salute the RANK of the officer, not the officer himself. Not saluting, even when you have every reason in the world to not enjoy it, is considered an offense against the protocol and chain of command of the army itself, beyond any disrespect that might be intended against the salutee.
- Teary-Eyed Salute: Both used as a symbol of unbridled joy or deepest grief, saluting with tears in your eyes is a powerful symbol. A soldier saluting with tears in his eyes is NEVER put down for it, it is a completely understandable gesture. Obviously, the tears shed are either Manly Tears or Tears of Joy.
- Ironic Salute: A corrupt superior officer is brought down by a soldier, and the soldier mockingly salutes him. A sort of Take That!.
- Improper/Exaggerated Salute: The salute is rendered poorly or in an exaggerated manner. This might be a symbol of not knowing how to properly render it (excusable with a civilian, most definitely NOT excusable with a soldier), or it might symbolize the saluter either is very ignorant or very disrespectful and nonchalant. Sometimes, a character does an exaggerated salute to symbolize joy or triumph, but this is a blatant example of not doing their homework. If the character was supposed to do the salute right but didn't because the writers goofed or winged it, then it's Artistic License – Military (and seriously guys, is it so hard to find a soldier and ask him? You probably have National Guard people working for you, ask around!).
- Goofy Salute: The salute is just plain WRONG. It looks completely ridiculous and badly executed. This is obviously most common in humorous media.
- Strange Salute: A non-traditional salute that distinguishes an organization or culture as different from the norm.
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Anime and Manga
- In the AKIRA manga, after Akira reawakens and destroys Tokyo a second time, Colonel Shikishima is one of the survivors and wanders around aimlessly. One of his former soldiers recognizes him and salutes him with tears in his eyes.
- Inspector Zenigata salutes Count Cagliostro when he reports in The Castle of Cagliostro. Cagliostro doesn't even acknowledge it, being the asshole he is.
- Marines in One Piece frequently salute their superior palm-inward. When asked about it in his SBS Q&A section, Eiichiro Oda explained that this was at one time actual naval practice to prevent showing tar-stained hands to their superiors.
- In Mobile Suit Gundam SEED, in order to steal ZAFT's new prototype Freedom Gundam, Lacus Clyne dressed Kira up in the ZAFT pilot uniform and taught him their salute so that he could get past security.
- This is common procedure in the Time-Space Administration Bureau in the Lyrical Nanoha series. It's done for effect in one scene in Episode 13 of Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha StrikerS, when Nanoha and Fate tell Hayate that they're helping her with her division because that's what friends do, then salute her and tell her that they trust her as their superior officer.
- Strike Witches actually pay close attention to details on salutes. Major Miles, who is British, actually salutes in British style of palm facing forward. On the other hand, Fuso (Japan) Navy personnel salute with their elbow tucked in and palm facing slightly inwards. Also, hat/no-hat rules apply depending on rules of their serving forces.
- Oddly enough Seto Kaiba of all people gives one when he and Mokuba are flying off to America near the end of the Battle City arc.
- In Girls und Panzer, Yukari frequently does this as a greeting. Of course, her ways of interacting with people are strange, to put it mildly, especially considering that she uses the extremely formal and old-fashioned honorific "-dono" on her friends.
- In Hellsing all the protagonists salute American-style, despite the story taking place in England. The Wild Geese could be justified by the fact that they're mercenaries, who could have learned to salute some place where they do it that way. Seras and Integra (As shown in the 2nd OVA credits) have no such excuse. The antagonists shown saluting are all Germans who salute Nazi-style.
- Fubuki demonstrates the British Naval salute in Kantai Collection, as well several other ship girls, but they salute with their elbow tucked in.
- An interesting variation shows up in Racer And The Geek. Interesting because noone involved is in the military.
- The New Meat doing this in the field in Shell Shock results in a brutal ass chewing by Sergeant Rock for two reasons. Number one: he's not an officer! Number two: They're in the middle of a guerrilla war."
- Life After Hayate tends to note when characters do, or more importantly do not, follow proper protocol for the Time Space Administrative Bureau. Officers of equal rank are not required to salute; flag-rank officers do not salute other officers of flag rank; cover is not a requirement to salute. It is also noted that most of the Navy's admirals no longer expect a salute from the head of Naval Counterintelligence and will wave him down from it if he tries, though he is only a captain: this is a tact acknowledgement he should also be an admiral but his promotion has become politically charged.
- It comes up a few times in Necessary To Win.
- In Miho's Interlude, Saori asks if tankers at Miho's old school, Black Forest, are required to salute their superiors, but Miho says that it isn't entirely necessary and that she believes most of them aren't doing it correctly. Yukari once gives Ami Chouno, their instructor, a salute, prompting Ami to point out that it's not entirely correct, but not a bad effort for a civilian.
- Following Oarai's match with Saunders, Ami gives one to Harue as a show of respect after hearing of Harue dedicating herself to inspiring others, and Harue responds to that gesture in kind.
- The Wrong Reflection:
- Starfleet doesn't salute, but in chapter two Captain Kanril Eleya, who is a former Bajoran Militia NCO, uses the Militia's palm-out salute when she greets Kira Nerys. Kira is long since retired from the Militia at this point but Eleya mentions that it's become traditional for any Militiaman to salute anyone who fought in the Bajoran Resistance.
- Later in the chapter General Brokosh, a Lethean mercenary serving in the Klingon Defense Force, tosses off a sloppy salute to Starfleet Admiral Amnell Kree after she tells him more specifically what she wants done with his trademark "strike package". Cue Death Glare from Kree.
- "The Road Not Taken", an AU Fic of Kanril Eleya's storyline by the same author, has her still in the Militia in 2409. After Brigadier General Ro Laren makes a sarcastic remark regarding the Prophets (she's an atheist), Eleya demonstrates the Teeth-Clenched Salute form: her First-Person Smartass Internal Monologue specifically calls out that she's saluting Ro's rank.
Films — Animated
- In Monsters vs. Aliens, General Monger salutes the monsters just before sending them off to save Susan, to show that he is no longer their warden and now sees them as equals. B.O.B., being The Ditz, misinterprets it.
B.O.B.: Well, that's rude! What did we do?
Dr. Cockroach: No, B.O.B. That's a sign of great respect.
Films — Live-Action
- Part of the protocol for saluting in the Royal Navy is explained by Jack Hawkins' character in The Cruel Sea: "Don't salute indoors: I'm not wearing a hat and can't return it. Correct protocol is to take your hat off when you come inside."
- The Rock features this several times, but it becomes symbolic. First, it is tragic (saluting a burial detail), then it is a sign of respect and purpose, then it is noticeably less and less present, until it is gone completely, signifying the breakdown of order and revealing the true nature of most of the terrorists.
- In a deleted scene from the film We Were Soldiers, a young officer chews out an NCO for disobeying his order to stand in formation with his military honors visible. The NCO goes to get his honors and comes back buck naked and with TWO Medals of Honor around his neck. The officer salutes the NCO, ashamed of both chewing out a soldier who had earned the highest military honor the nation bestows twice and the fact that he HAD to salute even when being completely insulted by the naked soldier.
- The Master and Commander film has a plot point where a character failing to salute is flogged.
- In The Last Castle, the protagonists have been dishonorably discharged from the armed forces and are serving jail time in a military prison. As such they are explicitly forbidden from saluting each other, regardless of their former ranks. To get around this, they run their fingers through their hair and claim they are just brushing their hair. Combined with common slang that they use for specific ranks, allowing them to address each other by their previous titles, they retain a sence of personal dignity and a semblance of order.
- Scent of a Woman features a mix of "grudging salute" and "civilian doesn't know how to salute". Charlie is being annoyed at Colonel Slade (Al Pacino) and answers to his demands with a poor-man's, somewhat disgusted, attempt of the military gesture while the Colonel is looking the other way. Of course since the Colonel is a blind veteran, he catches Charlie on the act instantly and explains him the basics of a salute.
- Saving Private Ryan "Did I live a good life?"
- In Return of the Jedi, Luke Skywalker tosses off a salute◊ as a signal to Artoo, who has smuggled his lightsaber aboard Jabba's sail barge.
- In American Ninja, Michael Dudikoff's character, the American ninja Joe Armstrong, in one scene gets a butt-chewing from his boss, an Army colonel. After being dismissed, he salutes in a limp-wristed way, with his hand curved instead of straight, almost dismissively. Any officer worth his salt would send him to the brig for disrespecting an officer.
- Military salute was one of the many things that Dr. Logan taught to semi-revived zombie Bub in Day of the Dead (1985). It later comes back as Chekhov's Skill as Bub uses it to mock Cpt. Rhodes as he is ripped apart by zombies.
- Played with in A Few Good Men: Upon meeting Lt. Kaffee, his assigned JAG officer, Lance Corporal Dawson is not impressed and instead of saluting defiantly places his hands in his pockets. By the end of the movie, Kaffee has earned Dawson's respect, and he salutes him without prompting.
Dawson: Ten-hut! There's an officer on the deck.
- In both examples, he should not be saluting. He is indoors without a cover (e.g. a hat). In the second case, he is a prisoner who has just been charged with "conduct unbecoming" and sentenced to a dishonorable discharge, who are specifically forbidden from saluting.
- In the Discworld book Men at Arms, Detritus initially had trouble with saluting and would frequently knock himself out by hitting himself in the head.
- George MacDonald Fraser's expy in the McAuslan stories, Lieutenant Dand MacNeill of the Gordon Highlanders circa 1947, suffers a wardrobe malfunction whilst changing the guard in front of a mass of VIPs. His solution:
"I was alone, with the worst to come. I had to turn again, march to the edge of the crowd in front of the General Officer — with royalty beside him — salute, and march off again. But I couldn't salute! My saluting hand was holding up my nether garments, and if I removed it I should go down in history as the Man Whose Kilt Fell Off In Front Of Royalty At Edinburgh Castle.
It wouldn't do. Similarly, I could not march off without acknowledging royalty and saluting. What do you do in this case? I shall tell you. You turn smartly about, arm akimbo — it gives a Rupert of Hentzau touch, anyway — march up to the saluting base, salute left-handed, turn about, and march off through the Castle gateway, dead casual, like Caesar at Pharsalia."
- In The Short-Timers (a Vietnam War novel by Gustav Hasford) the protagonist, Genre Savvy private Joker, sometimes salutes in a combat zone with some ulterior motives.
"Corporal, don't you know how to execute a hand salute?" "Yes, sir." I salute. I hold the salute until the poge colonel snaps his hand to his starched barracks cover and I hold the salute for an extra couple of second before cutting it away sharply. Now the poge colonel has been identified as an officer to any enemy snipers in the area." [...]
"As is my custom, I salute Animal Mother so that any snipers in the area will assume that he is an officer and shoot him instead of me."
- Adolf Hitler: My Part in His Downfall:
We had ‘Saluting Traps’. A crowd of us round a corner smoking would get the tip ‘Officer Coming’. We would set off at ten-second intervals and watch as the officer saluted his way to paralysis of the arm.
- Spike Milligan writes that the battery commander (a Major) tells a soldier that he is saluting the uniform not the man. So, each morning, the soldier brings the Major his breakfast, and then turns and salutes the Major's uniform hanging on a hook.
- Also from the same book:
- One Ciaphas Cain has him saluted by Kasteen and Broklaw (The Valhallan 597th's Colonel and Major respectively). He mentions in his narration that being The Political Officer (and outside the chain of command), they don't have to salute him at all; it's just that he's unusually well liked for a Commissar.
- David Drake's RCN novels frequently mention on the occasion that Daniel Leary needs to salute that he's terrible at it. Not intentionally (most of the time), it just looks sloppy.
- Hawkeye, Trapper John, and BJ tend to mockingly salute Frank Burns. Played For Laughs most of the time.
- One of the only non-mocking salutes Hawkeye ever gave was to Radar when he was shipping out - Hawk was busy in the OR but gave Radar a salute in lieu of the going away party that the casualties canceled.
- In the finale, BJ and Hawkeye give Col. Potter formal full salute with full attention as their final gesture to him before they depart their separate ways.
- Both The Phil Silvers Show and its movie version, Sgt Bilko, had the eponymous character using the salute in comedic ways.
- Benny Hill was famous for his silly mocking British salute◊.
- In one The Benny Hill Show sketch, he was a WWI army guy who got captured by the Germans. He starts to do the regular (for him) British salute, then realizes who he's dealing with and gives a German salute — which seems to have been hand on top of the head. The German officer salutes back and stabs himself on his spiked helmet.
- The Dick Van Dyke Show: During a Flash Back, when Rob was in the army, he was summoned to his commanding officer's office and saluted. The officer scratched his head and Rob thought it was the officer responding to his salute so he dropped his, which ticked off the CO, who hadn't saluted back. Then at the end of the meeting Rob saluted and the CO just said "dismissed" without looking up, so Rob had to leave still saluting. We then saw him out the office window, still saluting.
- Red Dwarf: A.J. Rimmer and his ridiculously overextended salutes. The fact he's apparently completely serious just makes the whole thing funnier.
- The protagonists of Thunder in Paradise are shown in a flashback sharing a goofy salute with their commanding officer.
- Doctor Who:
- Used often in between the Doctor and Jack, although at the time neither were part of military organisations. (The Doctor is/was a UNIT employee but hates their constant saluting, and Jack has served in both World War 1 and 2. More than once.) Usually, it shows the respect between the two characters. The final salute given between them shows Jack's thanks, and Ten's final goodbye.
- In The Day of the Moon, Rory poses as an American military officer and salutes NASA security. He gives the British salute by mistake, which goes neatly with his inability to fake an American accent.
- The Brigadier and his UNIT troops were portrayed quite realistically on a military level: Sergeant (later RSM) Benton would always salute the Brigadier when reporting something to him. The Brigadier also renders a hand salute to the Doctors when it seems they're about to sacrifice themselves to stop Omega.
- In a later episode, the now-deceased Brigadier's daughter tells the Doctor that her father had always wanted to be saluted by him, and the Doctor replied that he'd never asked. At the end of the episode, the Doctor realizes that one of the Cybermen being created from human corpses had been made from the Brigadier, and he gives him that salute just before the reprogrammed Cybermen go off to save the world.
- JAG: In "War Stories", Admiral Chegwidden bawls out a sailor who failed to salute him while passing. The "sailor" snaps at him sarcastically, because it turns out he was an actor in a movie being shot next to JAG HQ.
- Band of Brothers: When one of the characters declines to salute a superior officer with whom he has personal issues, he is gently reminded "We salute the rank, not the man."
- To elaborate, the salutee was Major Dick Winters, and the saluter was Captain Herbert Sobel, Winters' former CO. Also a case of Truth in Television, as Winters actually had this exchange with Sobel in real life.
- In Empire: Total War, western commanding officers would give you a Roman salute when you select them on the campaign map.
- Mass Effect features this at several points; given that The Alliance shares several similarities with the USMC and US Navy, the salute is American style. However, multiple times, they are shown saluting with their left hand, which is improper for pretty much every single military on Earth, which means it should be improper for a military force derived from those Earth militaries.
- Team Fortress 2: The Soldier, who was never in any branch of the military and thus has no basic training to fail, "salutes" by making an L with his left hand.
- This is also an insulting gesture in several countries, implying that the salutee is a Loser.
- Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater and 4 has the Teary-Eyed Salute version in front of The Boss's grave.
- When you liberate a POW in the Metal Slug games, he'll give you a military salute before running off the screen.
- In the ending of Resident Evil 0, Rebecca and Billy, having come to respect and trust one another, exchange a salute after Rebecca helps fake Billy's death.
- Ending of Battallion Wars 2 shows us different salutes of the armies in the game. Solar Empire is left hand raised to chest, palm open and pointing up, followed by a short bow. Western Frontier and Anglo Isles share same salute, similar to real life Britain. Difference is how it is carrier out. Western Frontier soldiers bring their hand to forehead, before straightening their hand to roman salute. Anglo Isles is the same, but in reverse (Hand straight to roman salute, then to head). Finally, Tundran Territories has right hand in fist, arm straight forward before bringing it to chest, hold vertically. It should be noted that apart from Solar Empire, all CO do this salute with their right hand, while soldiers(who carry their weapons in right hand) do them with left hand.
- In The Movies, actors playing the parts of soldiers will give a British Naval/US Salute, even when being put in British Army uniforms. Justified because it's a game about Hollywood film-making.
- In The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask after you defeat Captain Keeta, the giant skeletal officer of Ikana, he asks to be dismissed from duty. Link does so by giving a single salute, after which Keeta dissolves into the earth. Interestingly enough, Link was given a saluting animation for each of his different forms, even though this is the only place in the game it's used. Overall, it's a very touching moment.
- Final Fantasy XIV has different salute animations that you can perform depending on which Grand Company you are allied with. You can also learn the salute used by The Empire when you're Dressing as the Enemy for one quest that requires you to look and act like one of their soldiers to sneak by.
- Much like in Final Fantasy XIV above, World of Warcraft has race/gender-specific salute animations when a player inputs the /salute command. There's the usual military "hand to the brow" and the "fist across the chest" style (more recently seen in Attack On Titan) salutes among others. As one example, the female Blood Elves go for the former, but do so in an almost intentionally mocking fashion. They even lean forward a little juuust to make sure the object of their salute saw it. At least they're using the right hand...
- Terminal Lance #88: "Shiny Things" has a Marine grunt accidentally salute a Navy petty officer, then start complaining about how confusing the Navy rank insignia is. In The Rant the author, a retired USMC lance corporal, explains that any Marine who's never done this is either lying or a boot.
Max Uriarte: Hell, I’ve accidentally saluted other enlisted Marines with worn out rank. Even further, Marines have accidentally saluted me! It happens.
- A subversion: The Nazi salute (arm stretched forward, palm facing down) is so distinctive and reviled, any use of it in fiction, instead of focusing on the protocol of the saluter, will instead be used to signal the character's morally dubious alignment.
- This gesture was commonly (though mistakenly) believed to be an ancient Roman salute, which was why the Italian Fascists adopted it (and the Nazis took it from them). Expect to see it in films set in Ancient Grome, especially if they were made before World War II. In fact, that gesture was originally the one used by American civilians giving the Pledge of Allegiance, until the Nazis put it dead out of fashion, at which place it was replaced by the modern right-hand-over-heart gesture.
- The Nazi salute (also called Deutscher Gruß "German salute", because it was reminiscent of an actual gesture of greeting used in Germany in the middle ages) was however not a military salute but originally a party salute and later one expected of civilians and Nazi party members on certain occasions. (For instance, everybody had to give a Nazi salute at the memorial to the Nazis killed in the beerhall putsch of 1923 at the Feldherrnhalle in Munich, which led a lot of people to take a detour to avoid passing that way). It only became mandatory to the German armed forces after the failed attempt on Hitler's life in July 1944.
- An interesting aside: in the revival of formal ritual magick at the turn of the 20th century, with its rigid heirarchies and emphasis on bringing about the advent of the "Super Man" (in the Nietchzean sense), the Zelator, the footsoldier of the Golden Dawn/O.T.O. ritual school, was taught to salute his/her superiors in the Order with... yes, the straight-armed palm-down Roman salute. And rumours persist of Hitler and other Nazi heriarchs being initiates of ritual magickal orders...
- Because US military men were often ignorant of the military protocols in Nazi Germany, American POW camp commandants took it for granted that All Germans Are Nazis and accepted the Nazi salute from the German prisoners in their charge long before July, 1944. This had the unfortunate effect of, along with other causes, reinforcing the influence of the Nazis in the camps.
- Oddly enough, Mexicans uses both Nazi and American salutes, when honoring the Mexican flag in both official ceremonies and schools. The American salute is used when singing the Mexican anthem and the Nazi one for honoring the flag. Unlike with the rest of the world, Mexicans doesn't see any problem using the Nazi salute, since it was used for years before World War II, albeit it doesn't prevent many people to lampshade that fact.note
- This was actually a common flag salute in the US prior to WWII, and the arm-extended "Bellamy salute" was used daily when schoolkids said the Pledge of Allegiance. The practice cut off sharply after the US went to war with Germany.
- When a great national leader dies, expect many teary-eyed salutes to follow. Many pictures of FDR's funeral show US soldiers saluting while weeping.
- At President Kennedy's funeral, little John John does this, and America burst into tears.
- Dick Clark regularly did this as part of his Signing Off Catch Phrase, "For now, Dick Clark... so long." He gave the salute just before saying the "so long" bit.
- Another alternative to the military salute is the raised fist, which for instance was used by Republican units in the Spanish Civil War.
- Not just military, but also in funerals for public safety, such as police, fire, and EMS. During the funeral of an active firefighter, the color guard calls all in uniform to attention, then calls to "Present Arms," and all in uniform salute. The salute is held as the dispatcher makes the firefighter's "last call" over the radio * , and Taps is played. Finally the color guard calls to "Release Arms" and the salute is lowered.