E. Honda's Sumo Squat is also known as the "Ass Slam".
Mexican gamers gamers calls E.Honda as "Porky" or "Super Porky" (after a famous Mexican wrestler) since Honda is fat and his ramming head-butt attack (the famous "Dosukoi") sounds like he's saying "oink oink" instead in Spanish.
Guile, "The Family Man".
"The First Lady of Gaming" for Chun-Li, which became canon as of Street Fighter IV. Also "Thunder Thighs" and Chunbuns.
More like Fan Abbreviation, but many fans just call Zangief as plain ol' Gief. Also "Blue/Green hand" for his Banishing Flat.
Balrog, Vega and M. Bison are called "Boxer", "Claw" and "Dictator" in international tournament play to avoid confusion caused by the name switchups from the Japanese to the English versions. In Japan, they were known as M. Bison, Balrog and Vega. When Capcom was localizing II for America, there was worry that Mike Tyson might sue them because of Balrog's resemblance to Tyson; thus, the name switch. Also, Vega wasn't a very menacing name, so it went to "Claw" (Vega/Balrog).
Balrog has Rog and Barlog.
Vega has "Matador", "Bull-Fighter", "Cage Fighter", and "Assassin".
The full title of Street Fighter II′: Champion Edition in Japan is Street Fighter II Dash: Champion Edition. However, the word "Dash" is not spelled out, but represented on the game's logo by a prime mark (an apostrophe-like symbol used in mathematics to indicate derivatives). The prime symbol still appears on the overseas version's title screen, but Capcom USA didn't understand its significance and simply referred to the game as Street Fighter II: Champion Edition on promotional materials.
Likewise, Street Fighter II′: Hyper Fighting is known as Street Fighter II Dash Turbo: Hyper Fighting in Japan (the word "Turbo" did not appear in the overseas releases). The SNES version is simply known as Street Fighter II Turbo: Hyper Fighting in all regions.
The first of the two Mega Drive/Genesis ports is known as Street Fighter II Dash Plus: Champion Edition in Japan and Street Fighter II′: Special Champion Edition everywhere else.
Super Street Fighter II Turbo is known as Super Street Fighter II X: Grand Master Challenge in Japan.
Port Overdosed: Ported to every platform in existence at the time, and continually re-released since then. Even the ZX-freaking-Spectrum got a version.
Two of the four new characters in Super Street Fighter II were going to be head swaps of each other: namely Fei-Long and an unnamed rival. James Goddard, a Capcom USA employee who previously worked on Hyper Fighting and Saturday Night Slam Masters, was against the idea of having another pair of head swaps, since he believed that having a completely unique character instead of another head swap would add more variety to the game. The character he came up with to replace Fei-Long's rival was none other than Dee-Jay, who was originally modeled after Billy Blanks.
Cammy's original name might have been 'Sarah', as there's unused character text in the code of The New Challengers with that name.
Turbo had several different subtitles before it's final name. Some early promos had it listed as Super Street Fighter II: The Ultimate Championship. It may have also been planned as Super Street Fighter II Z.