Lina Inverse from Slayers. Bonus points because she has a tendency to make everything go into flames when she's really pissed off.
It doesn't take much to piss her off either. She once let off a fireball in restaraunt because a fight broke out and her food got spilled.She had to be physically stopped from using one of the most powerful spells out there, called the Dragon Slave, on one of her friends because she wouldn't go back to her employer pretending Lina beat her.
Mai Tokiha of Mai-HiME is a subversion: she's a redhead with fire-based powers and presented as an example of this trope in the first episode with her violent outbursts at Yuuichi, but after that, she's shown to be compassionate and caring and remains that way until things go really bad for her and everyone else.
The manga plays it a bit straighter, giving Mai more of a loose temper that her anime counterpart, kept under better control. Both versions were played as "gutsy" and "passionate", which could fall under the redhead stereotype.
Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha has Vita, Teana, Agito, and Nove, who are all redheads with short fuses. For an extra kick, Agito is a literal fire elemental.
Nove's sister, Wendi, also has red hair. Unlike the other examples, she's quite cheerful.
Ahiru from Princess Tutu isn't very strong in terms of combat, but she otherwise fits the description perfectly. (And she does catch the local Jerkass off guard once).
Kallen Stadtfeld from Code Geass. In fact, everything about her is red, from her rebel headband to her mecha - even the outfits she wears are associated with the color red.
Mai Shiranui is one of these in the second Fatal Fury OVA and The Movie. She is passionate, outgoing, and outspoken, and has fire based attacks to top it off — although her physical strength is sadly underplayed. However, in most of the games, she is usually represented with brown or black (with purple highlights) hair, but her cheerful, combative personality is the same and she gets to keep her Action Girl credentials.
Misty in her early appearances in the Pokémon anime. Ironically, she specializes in Water-type Pokémon.
Flannery, on the other hand, does use Fire-types. Both typecasting and hotheadedness worked to her detriment in the manga back at Mt. Chimney, but she puts up a fight while stalling Kyogre later on.
I'm not afraid of you! Just come and face me... Sapphire!
Jessie, the most Badass member of the Team Rocket trio.
Naruto's mother, Kushina, was one of these, though she mellowed (slightly) with age. She was nicknamed "the Bloody Habanero/the Red Hot-blooded Habanero" because her face resembled a tomato...and because she beat the pulp out of every person that called her "Tomatohead". And sometimes, her hair is floating and has the form of fire.
Tayuya of the Sound Five. It's hard for her to go a scene without insulting someone.
We also have Eustass "Captain" Kidd, a sociopath who would also qualify for Evil Redhead.
Angel Omachi from Galaxy Cyclone Bryger.
Kiddy Phenil of Silent Möbius, but only in the TV series. Her hair is green in every other version.
Admiral Bittenfeld from Legend of the Galactic Heroes and Alliance soldier Katerose von Kreutzer. Averted with Admiral Kircheis, a fellow redhead.
Bleach: Renji and Jinta are both as Hot-Blooded as they come and have the scarlet hair to match.
Ranma ˝ sort of has the titular character. As a teenager who was raised his entire life to fight and win in martial arts duels, Ranma Saotome has the general hot-headed, impulsive, passionate personality to fit into this trope. However, in his normal form, he's a black-haired boy. Thanks to Jusenkyo and an Adaptation Dye-Job, he can gain the right sex and hair color and loses none of the attitude that lets him qualify.
Nami from Full Metal Panic!, who encompasses most of the cliches that go with it. Hot tempered, passionate about what she does, outgoing, and fiery...the only thing is that, she's not nearly as violent as TsundereKaname and, more often than not, actually tries to be gentle and nice around Sousuke, the guy she likes.
That might have something to do with the fact that, in the original novels, she doesn't have red hair — her hair is described as "brown and unkempt". The red version was strictly the illustrator's fault. Then again, in the novels, Kaname doesn't have blue hair, either...
The titular character from Cutey Honey. No matter what hair colour she has, she's still very fiery.
Mana the tomboy in Onegai My Melody: a martial arts expert who is not adverse to using her kicks.
Subverted in Solty Rei with Accela, who is very shy and timid (at least, until she goes Laughing Mad in the last few episodes).
Averted with Mikuru from Haruhi Suzumiya, who is probably the meekest, most timid member of the main cast and definitely a contrast to the fiery brunette main character.
Trinity Blood: Astaroth Aslan used to be a redhead when she was young (a traumatic event turned it gray/white, all but a streak). Esther Blanchett also fits, especially in the manga. She has more a grounded personality in the novels.
Kyouko from Puella Magi Madoka Magica. While an Expy of the trope image Asuka in terms of personality and color scheme, her hair is more of a deep maroon than Asuka's more coppery tone.
Nobunaga of Sengoku Otome was told to squeeze a pipe to calm her down whenever she became frustrated. She does this, but it doesn't stop her from threatening ghosts who aren't scared of her stories.